मुम्बई  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(बम्बई se punarnirdeshit)
mumbee vishay soochi

mumbee    itihas (tithikram)    itihas    janajivan    bhoogol    bhojan    arthavyavastha    jalavayu    snrachana    parivahan    snskriti    chitravali    prashasan    paryatan


mumbee
mumbee ka ek drishy
vivaran mumbee maharashtr rajy ki rajadhani hai. mumbee ko bharat ka pravesh dvar bhi kaha jata hai.
rajy maharashtr
zila mumbee
sthapana tisari shatabdi ee. poo men samrat ashok dvara sthapit
bhaugolik sthiti uttar- 18°58′30″, poorv- 72°49′33″
marg sthiti mumbee shahar sadak dvara pune se 150 kimi, nasik se 172 kimi, nagapur se 847 kimi aur dilli se 1,398 kimi ki doori par sthit hai.
prasiddhi getave aauph indiya, hotal taj, eliphenta ki guphaen, chhatrapati shivaji tarminas, juhoo chaupati adi.
kab jaen aktoobar se march
kaise pahunchen jalayan, havaee jahaz, rel, bas adi se pahuncha ja sakata hai.
havaee adda chhatrapati shivaji antarrashtriy vimanakshetr, navi munbee antarrashtriy vimanakshetr, juhoo havaee adda
relave steshan chhatrapati shivaji tarminas, lokamany tilak tarminas relave steshan, munbee sentral, munbee upanagariy relave, dadar steshan, viktoriya relave steshan
bas adda rajy parivahan tarminal
yatayat saikil-riksha, aauto-riksha, taiksi, siti bas aur metro rel
kya dekhen mumbee paryatan
kahan thaharen hotal, dharmashala, atithi grah
kya khayen vada pav, shrikhnd, bhelapoori, pooran poli, poha, saboodana vada, phirani, malapua, kating chay adi
es.ti.di. kod 022
e.ti.em lagabhag sabhi
Map-icon.gif googal manachitr
bhasha marathi, hindi, angrezi aur gujarati
adyatan‎
mumbee shahar, bhootapoorv bnbee, maharashtr rajy ki rajadhani hai. mumbee ko bharat ka pravesh dvar bhi kaha jata hai. yah dakshin-pashchim bharat desh ka vittiy v vanijyik kendr aur arab sagar men sthit pramukh bndaragah hai. mumbee duniya ke vishalatam v sabase ghani abadi vale shaharon men se ek hai. mumbee ek prachin basti ke sthal par basa hua hai aur isaka namakaran bhagavan shnkar ki patni parvati devi ke ek roop, sthaniy devi munba ke nam par kiya gaya hai jinaka mndir us sthal par tha, jahan par ab nagar ka dakshin-poorvi hissa avasthit hai. mumbee lnbe samay se bharat ke sooti vastr udyog ke kendr ke roop men vikhyat raha hai, lekin ab yahan vividh nirman udyog bhi hain aur isake vanijyik v vittiy snsthan sashakt aur sabal hain. is shahar men adhikansh bade, vikasashil audyogik nagaron ki purani samasya vayu v jal pradooshan, jhuggi, basti aur atyadhik bhidabhad maujood hai. dvipiy avasthiti ke karan mumbee ka vistar simit hai.

itihas

machhuaron ki mool janajati, koli yahan ke arambhik gyat nivasi the, halanki vrihad mumbee ke kandivali men pae ge purapashan kal ke patthar ke auzar yahan pashan kal ke dauran manav basti ki or snket karate hain. prachin yoonani khagolashastri v bhoogolavigyani taaulami ke samay men yah kshetr heptenishiya ke roop men jana jata tha aur yah 1000 varsh ee. poo. men faras v misr ke sath samudri vyapar ka pramukh kendr tha. tisari shatabdi ee. poo. men yah ashok ke samrajy ka hissa tha aur chhathi se athavin shatabdi men yahan chalukyon ka shasan raha, jinhonne apani chhap gharapuri (elifenta dvip) par chhodi. malabar paauint par bana vakeshvar mandir sambhavatah konkan tat ke shilahar pramukhon ke shasan (9vin se 13vin shatabdi) ke dauran nirmit kiya gaya tha. dogiri ke yadavon (1187-1318) ke samay men is dvip (jo bambe dvip bana) par mahikavati (mahim) basti ki sthapana huee, jo 1924 men hindustan ke khilaji vnsh ke akramanon ke javab men banaee gee. inhin ke vnshaj vartaman mumbee men pae jate hain aur bahut se sthanon ke nam aj bhi usi yug se hain. 1348 men akramanakari muslim senaon ne is dvip ko jit liya aur yah gujarat rajy ka hissa ban gaya. mahim ko jitane ki purtagali koshish 1507 men asaphal rahi, lekin 1534 men gujarat ke shasak sultan bahadurashah ne yah dvip purtagaliyon ko saunp diya. 1661 men king charls dvitiy v purtagal ke raja ki bahan kaitharin af braigenza ke vivah ke bad yah british niyntran men a gaya. raja ne ise 1668 men eest indiya kampani ko sattantarit kar diya. shuruat men kalakatta (vartaman kolakata) v madras (vartaman chennee) ki tulana men bnbee kampani ki bahut badi sampatti ne hokar keval pashchimi tat par kampani ki pair jamae rakhane men sahayata karata tha.

bizanes kepital aauf indiya

mumbee ko pahale baaumbe ke nam se jana jata tha. mumbee shahar ko bijanes kepital aauph indiya ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. yahan desh ke pramukh vittiy aur snchar kendr hai. bharat ka sabase bada sheyar bazar, jisaka vishv men tisara sthan hai, mumbee men hi sthit hai. mumbee bharat ke pashchimi samudr tat par sthit hai. yah arabiyan samudr ke sat dvipon ka ek hissa hai. isalie ise sat tapuon ka nagar bhi kaha jata hai. mumbee samany roop se sat dvipon jinake nam kolaba, majaganv, old vooman dvip, vadala, mahim, parel aur matoonga-sayan par sthit hai.
hotal taj, mumbee
sanh 1661 men inglaind ke maharaja charlh‍s ne purtagal ki rajakumari kaitarina de brigenja se shadi ki thi. shadi men dahej ke roop men charlh‍s ko bambee shahar mila tha, jo vartaman samay men mumbee ke nam se jana jata hai. lekin sanh 1668 men mumbee eest indiya kampani ke hathon men chala gaya. sanh 1868 men maharani viktoriya ne shahar ke prashasan ko eest indiya kampani se vapas le liya.[1]

bhautik evn manav bhoogol

mumbee shahar prayadvipiy sthal par basa hua hai, jo moolatah pashchim bharat ke konkan tat ke pas sthit sat dvipikaon se milakar bana hai. 17 vin shatabdi se apavah v bhoomi phir se hasil karane ki pariyojanaon aur jalamargon v jal avarodhakon ke nirman ke karan ye dvipikaen milakar ek bade bhoobhag ka nirman karati hain, jise bnbee dvip ke nam se jana jata tha. is dvip ke poorv men mumbee bndaragah ka sthir jalakshetr hai. yah dvip nimn maidan se bana hai, jisaka ek chauthaee hissa samudr tal se bhi nicha hai; is maidan ke poorvi aur pashchimi kinaron men nichali pahadiyon ki do samanantar parvatashreniyan hain. inamen se lnbi parvatashreni dvara sudoor dakshin men nirmit kolaba paauint mumbee bndaragah ko khule samudr se bachata hai. pashchimi parvatashreni malabar hil par samudr tal se 55 mitar ki oonchaee par samapt hoti hai, jo mumbee ki sabase oonche ilakon men se ek hai. in do parvat shreniyon ke bich pashch khadi (baik be) ka chhichhala vistar hai. is khadi ke shirsh aur bndaragah ke bich kuchh oonchi bhoopattikaon par durg sthit hai, moolatah isi ke charon or shahar ka vistar hua. ab yahan mukhyatah sarvajanik evn vanijyik karyalay hain. pashch khadi se uttar ki or bhootal madhyavarti maidan ki disha men dhalan vali hai. bnbee ke sudoor uttar men vishal khare daladal hain.

shahar ki snrachana

rajabaee ghntaghar, mumbee
munbee men purane hisse zyada nirmit hain, lekin adhik samriddh kshetron, jaise malabar hil men kuchh hariyali hai. yahan kee khule maidan v park hain. munbee men lagatar shaharikaran ke itihas ke karan shahar ke kee hisson men jhuggi bastiyan ban geen hain. is shahar men anek karakhanon, badhate yatayat aur nikat sthit telashodhanashalaon ke karan vayu evn jal pradooshan khatare ke star tak badh gaya hai. shahar ke dakshini hisse men vittiy zila (purane fort bnbee ke asapas) sthit hai. sudoor dakshin (kolaba ke asapas) aur pashchim men netaji subhash chndr rod (marin draiv) tatha malabar hil avasi kshetr hain. fort kshetr ke uttar men pramukh vyaparik zila hai, jo dhire-dhire vanijyik avasiy kshetr men shamil ho raha hai. adhikansh purane karakhane isi kshetr men sthit hain. sudoor uttar men avasiy kshetr hain aur unake bad hal hi men vikasit audyogik kshetr aur jhuggi bastiyon ke ilaqe hain.

arthavyavastha

mumbee bharat ki arthik dhuri evn vanijyik v vittiy kendr hai. kuchh mayanon men isaki arthik snrachana bharat men nabhikiy aur puratan kalon ke snyojan ko pradarshit karati hai. is nagar men bharatiy paramanu oorja ayog sthit hai, jisamen paramanu riaiktar aur plootoniyam vilagnak sthit hai. nagar ke kee hisson men ab bhi eendhan aur oorja ke paramparik jaivik sadhanon ka istemal hota hai.

parivahan

mumbee sadak snjal dvara bharat ke any hisson se juda hua hai. yah pashchim tatha madhy relave ka mukhyalay hai aur is nagar se chalane vali relagadiyan bharat ke sabhi hisson tak saman v yatriyon ko le jati hain. chhatrapati shivaji antarrashtriy havaee adda kee videshi havaee sevaon ke agaman ka mahattvapoorn sthal hai. jabaki nikatasth santakrooz havaee adde se ghareloo udanen bhari jati hain. mumbee men bharat ke antarrashtriy havaee yatayat ka 60 pratishat aur ghareloo yatayat ka lagabhag 40 pratishat hissa kendrit hai. yahan ke bndaragah par upalabdh suvidhaon ne mumbee ko desh ka pramukh pashchimi bndaragah bana diya hai. halanki pashchimi tat par mumbee ke uttar men kandala aur dakshin men gova v kochchi jaise kee any pramukh bndaragah ban ge hain, lekin yahan se ab bhi bharat ke samudri vyapar ka 40 pratishat hissa snchalit hota hai. do upanagariy vidyut relapranaliyan mukhy sarvajanik parivahan upalabdh karati hain aur roz mahanagariy kshetr ke lakhon logon ko dhoti hain. mumbee men nagarapalika ke svamitv vali bas seva bhi hai.

prashasanik evn samajik visheshataen

sarakar

maharashtr ki rajadhani ke roop men yah shahar rajy prashasan ka samekit rajanitik khand hai, jisake mukhyalay ko mntralay kaha jata hai. rajy sarakar pulis bal ko niyntrit karati hai aur nagar ke kuchh vibhagon par prashasanik niyntran rakhati hai. dak evn teligraf pranali, rel, bndaragah aur havaee addon jaise snchar sadhanon par kendr sarakar ka niyntran hai.

baaumbe uchch nyayalay

mumbee men bharatiy nausena ki pashchimi kaman ka mukhyalay bhi hai aur yah bharatiy flaigaship ka bes bhi hai. shahar ka prashasan vrihad (gretar) mumbee ke poornatahsvayatt nagar nigam ke antargat hai. isaki vidhayi snstha ka nirvachan har char varsh men vayask matadhikar dvara hota hai aur yah vibhinn sthayi samitiyon ke madhyam se kam karati hai. rajy sarakar ke dvara tin varshon ke lie niyukt mukhy karyakari yahan ka nigam ayukt hota hai. mahapaur ka chunav har varsh nagar nigam dvara kiya jata hai; mahapaur nigam ki baithakon ki adhyakshata karata hai aur shahar men sarvadhik sammanit mana jata hai, lekin vastutah usake pas koee satta nahin hoti. 1885 men kangres ke pratham sthapana adhiveshan mumbee men uttar pradesh se bhag lene vale mukhy pratinidhi gngaprasad varma the.

shiksha

mumbee ki saksharata dar samooche rashtr ki saksharata dar se kafi adhik hain. prathamik shiksha muft v anivary hai aur yah nagar nigam ka dayitv hai. madhyamik shiksha sarakari v niji vidyalayon dvara sarakar ki dekharekh men karaee jati hai. yahan sarvajanik evn niji paliteknik v snsthan hain, jo vidyarthiyon ko yantriki, vidyut tatha rasayanik injiniyari men vibhinn digri v diploma dete hain. kendr sarakar ke dvara snchalit bharatiy praudyogiki snsthan (aee. aee. ti.) bhi yahan par sthit hai. any injiniyaring kaaulejon men:-

marin draeev, mumbee
  • saradar patel kaaulej aauf injiniyaring
  • viramata jijabaee teknolazikal instityoot
  • ke. ji. es. kaaulej aauf injiniyaring
  • em. ech. es. es. kaaulej aauf injiniyaring
  • di. je. es. kaaulej aauf injiniyaring
  • thodomal shahi injiniyaring kaaulej
  • vivekanand instityoot aauf teknolozi shamil hain.

1857 men sthapit bambe vishvavidyalay se sambaddh kala, vigyan, vanijy v shiksha sambandhi mahavidyalay, chikitsa, homiyopaithi, yoonani chikitsa, farmesi v dant chikitsa mahavidyalay, vastushilp, sharirik shiksha evn prabandhan snsthan hain. mumbee men mahilaon ke lie es. en. di. ti. vishvavidyalay bhi hai. 1857 men sthapit mumbee vishvavidyalay se bahut se mahavidyalay aur kee shikshan vibhag jude hue hain. gova men sthit bahut se mahavidyalay is vishvavidyalay se sambaddh hain.

kala aur snskriti

mumbee ka sanskritik jivan isaki jatiy vividhatayukt janasnkhya ko pratibimbit karata hai. shahar men bahut se sngrahalay, pustakalay, sahityik evn kee any sanskritik snsthan, kala, dirghaen v rngashalaen hain. bharat ka koee any shahar apani sanskritik evn manornjan suvidhaon ke mamale men itani uchch shreni ki vividhata aur gunavatta ka shayad hi dava kar sake.
sal bhar yahan pashchimi v bharatiy sngit sammelan evn mahotsav aur bharatiy nrity karyakram ayojit kie jate hain. indo-sarsenik vastushilp ki ek imarat men d prins af vels myooziyam af vestarn indiya hai, jisamen kala, puratattv v prakritik itihas ke tin pramukh vibhag hain. nikat hi jahangir art gailari hai, jo mumbee ki pahali sthayi kala dirgha hai aur sanskritik v shaikshik gatividhiyon ka kendr hai. mumbee bharatiy mudran udyog ka mahattvapoorn kendr hai aur yahan sashakt pres hai. yahan angrezi, marathi, hindi, gujarati, sindhi v urdoo men samachar patr prakashit hote hain. bahut-si masik, pakshik v saptahik patrikaen bhi yahan se prakashit hoti hain. al-indiya rediyo (akashavani) ka kshetriy kendr bhi mumbee men hi hai aur is shahar ke lie dooradarshan sevaen 1972 men shuroo hueen. shahar ke uttar men krishnagiri van ek rashtriy udyan aur chhuttiyan bitane ke lie khoobasoorat sairagah hai, kanheri gufaon ke nikat ek prachin bauddh vishvavidyalay tha, yahan 100 se adhik gufaon men doosari se nauvin shatabdi tak ke vishalakay bauddh moortishilp hain. yahan par kee sarvajanik udyan hain. jisamen jijamata udyan shamil hai, yahan par mumbee ka chidiyaghar sthit hai, yahan par baipatista gardan bhi hai, jo mazaganv men ek jalashay par sthit hai; isake alava malabar hil par sthit firozashah mehata gardan, kamala neharoo park v sloping park hain. samooche bharat men lokapriy kriket ke maich bharatiy kriket klab (breborn stediyam) aur vanakhede stediyam men khele jate hain. daud v saikil chalan pratiyogitaen vallabh bhaee patel stediyam men ayojit ki jati hai. snan v tairaki ke lie juhoo samudr tat ek prasiddh sthan hai.

parv aur tyauhar

munbee ke nivasi bharatiy tyauhar manane ke sath-sath any tyauhar bhi manate hain. dipavali, holi, eed, krisamas, navaratri, dashahara, durga pooja, mahashivaratri, muharram adi pramukh tyauhar hain. inake alava ganesh chaturthi aur janmashtami bhi adhik dhoom-dham ke sath manaye jate hain. ganesh-utsav men shahar men jagah jagah bahut vishal evn bhavy pndal lagaye jate hain, jinamen bhagavan ganapati ki vishal moortiyon ki sthapana ki jati hai. ye moortiyan das din bad annt chaudas ke din samudr men visarjit kar di jati hain. janmashtami ke din sabhi muhallon men samitiyon dvara bahut ooncha makhan ka mataka bandha jata hai. ise muhalle ke bachche aur ladake milakar jugat lagakar makhan ke matake ko phodate hain.

sinema

mumbee bharatiy film udyog ka gadh hai. dada saheb phalke ne yahan mook chalachitr ke dvara is udyog ki sthapana ki thi. isake bad hi yahan marathi chalachitr ka bhi arnbh hua. arnbhik bisavin shatabdi men yahan sabase purani film prasarit huee thi. munbee men badi snkhya men sinema haaul hain, jo hindi, marathi aur angrezi filmen dikhate hain. vishv men sabase bada aeemaiks (IMAX) dom rngamnch bhi munbee ke vadala men sthit hai. munbee antarrashtriy film utsav aur filmapheyar puraskar ki vitaran karyakram sabha munbaee men hi ayojit hoti hain. halanki munbee ke british kal men sthapit adhikansh rngamnch samooh 1950 ke bad bhng ho chuke hain, phir bhi munbee men ek samriddh rngamnch snskriti vikasit huee huee hai. ye hindi, marathi aur angrezi, tinon bhashaon ke alava any kshetriy bhashaon men bhi vikasit hai. yahan sine premiyon ki kami nahin hai. anek niji vyavasayik evn sarakari kala-dirghaen khuli huee hain. inamen jahangir kala dirgha aur rashtriy adhunik kala dirgha pramukh hain. 1833 men bani bnbee eshiyatik sosaiti men shahar ka puratanatam pustakalay sthit hai.

bhojan

mumbee men kolaba bade miyan, musaphir khann gulashan-e-eeran, haji ali joos sentar, shiv sagar joohoo sthit hai. yah sab araban tadaka ke lie prasiddh hai. chaaukalet chay ke lie dadar sthit pashchim steshan ja sakate hain. jabaki pani poori ke lie bandra ke karachi svit jaya ja sakata hai. garm poha aur saboodana vada ke lie mahapalika marg ja sakate hain. horniman sarkal ke najadik apoorva men mngaloriyan siphrood ka maja le sakate hain. bhindi bazar aur noor mohammadi men ramajan ke mahine men yahan sadak kinare lagane vali rehadi se phirani aur malapua ka svad chakh sakate hain. svati snaiks jo taradiyo marg men sthit hai. bharat ke behatarin snaiks milate hain. sindhudvar jo ar.ke. vidya rod, dadar pashchim men sthit hai; machhali ke liye prasiddh hai. isake alava yahan ke chidava aur laddoo ka svad bhi le sakate hai. bahut hi kam dam men dakshin bharatiy shakahari khane ke lie ramanayak uddupi, matoonga kendriy steshan ke samip. agar ap bandra (pashchim) men hai to lakki restaran men ja sakate hain. yah rastaran birayani se lie prasiddh hai. gandhi nagar sthit gomantak haeeve, apana bazar, bandra (poorv) men kokarni ke vibhinn vynjan parose jate hain. isake alava kokarni khane ke lie sayaba, bandra (poorv) men sthit hai. [1]

janasnkhya

mumbee ki janasnkhya 2001 ki janaganana ke anusar 33,26,837 hai aur mumbee upanagariy kshetr ki janasnkhya 85,87,561 hai.



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

flora faunten ka vihngam drishy
flora faunten ka vihngam drishy

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 mumbee (hindi) (e.es.pi) yatra salah daaut kaaum. abhigaman tithi: 25 march, 2011.

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