चंद्रशेखर वेंकट रामन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

si.vi. raman vishay soochi
chndrashekhar venkat raman
C.V Raman.jpg
poora nam chndrashekhar venkat raman
any nam si.vi. raman
janm 7 navambar, 1888
janm bhoomi tiruchirapalli, tamilanadu
mrityu 21 navambar, 1970
mrityu sthan bengळooroo
abhibhavak chndrashekhar ayyar, parvati ammal
pati/patni trilokasundari
karm bhoomi bharat, briten
karm-kshetr vigyan
vishay bhautiki
khoj raman prabhav
shiksha em. e.
vidyalay presidensi kaaulej
puraskar-upadhi 'bharat ratn', 'nobel puraskar', 'lenin puraskar'
nagarikata bharatiy

chndrashekhar venkat raman (angrezi: Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman, janm: 7 navambar, 1888; mrityu: 21 navambar, 1970) pahale vyakti the, jinhonne vaigyanik snsar men bharat ko khyati dilaee. prachin bharat men vigyan ki upalabdhiyan thin, jaise- shoony aur dashamalav pranali ki khoj, prithvi ke apani dhuri par ghoomane ke bare men tatha ayurved ke faramoole ityadi. magar poornaroop se vigyan ke prayogatmak kon men koee vishesh pragati nahin huee thi. raman ne us khoye raste ki khoj ki aur niyamon ka pratipadan kiya jinase svatntr bharat ke vikas aur pragati ka rasta khul gaya. raman ne svadhin bharat men vigyan ke adhyayan aur shodh ko jo protsahan diya usaka anuman kar pana kathin hai.

parichay

chndrashekhar venkat raman ka janm tamilanadu ke tiruchirapalli shahar men 7 navambar 1888 ko hua tha, jo ki kaveri nadi ke kinare sthit hai. inake pita chndrashekhar ayyar ek skool men padhate the. vah bhautiki aur ganit ke vidvanh aur sngit premi the. chndrashekhar venkat raman ki man parvati ammal thin. unake pita vahan kaaulej men adhyapan ka kary karate the aur vetan tha matr das rupaya. unake pita ko padhane ka bahut shauq tha. isalie unhonne apane ghar men hi ek chhoti-si laibreri bana rakha thi. raman ka vigyan aur angrezi sahity ki pustakon se parichay bahut chhoti umr se hi ho gaya tha. sngit ke prati unaka lagav aur prem bhi chhoti ayu se arambh hua aur age chalakar unaki vaigyanik khojon ka vishay bana. vah apane pita ko ghnton vina bajate hue dekhate rahate the. jab unake pita tiruchirapalli se vishakhapattanam men akar bas gaye to unaka skool samudr ke tat par tha. unhen apani kaksha ki khidaki se samudr ki agadh nili jalarashi dikhaee deti thi. is drishy ne is chhote se ladake ki kalpana ko sammohit kar liya. bad men samudr ka yahi nilapan unaki vaigyanik khoj ka vishay bana.

  • chhoti-si ayu se hi vah bhautik vigyan ki or akarshit the.
  • ek bar unhonne vishesh upakaranon ke bina hi ek dayanamon bana dala.
  • ek bar bimar hone par bhi vah tab tak nahin mane the jab tak ki pita ne 'lidan jar' ke kary ka pradarshan karake nahin dikhaya.
  • raman apani kaksha ke bahut hi pratibhashali vidyarthi the.
  • unhen samay-samay par puraskar aur chhatravrittiyan milati rahin.
  • adhyapak bar-bar unaki angrezi bhasha ki samajh, svatntrapriyata aur dridh charitr ki prashnsa karate the.
  • keval gyarah varsh ki umr men vah dasavin ki pariksha men pratham aye.
  • madras ke presidensi kaaulej men pahale din ki kaksha men yooropiyan pradhyapak ne nanhen raman ko dekhakar kaha ki vah galati se unaki kaksha men a gaye hain.

shiksha

raman sngit, snskrit aur vigyan ke vatavaran men bade hue. vah har kaksha men pratham ate the. raman ne 'presidensi kaaulej' men bi. e. men pravesh liya. 1905 men pratham shreni men uttirn hone vale vah akele chhatr the aur unhen us varsh ka 'svarn padak' bhi prapt hua. unhonne 'presidensi kaaulej' se hi em. e. men pravesh liya aur mukhy vishay ke roop men bhautik shastr ko liya. em. e. karate hue raman kaksha men yada-kada hi jate the. profesar ar. el. jaauns janate the ki yah ladaka apani dekhabhal svayn kar sakata hai. isalie vah use svatntratapoorvak padhane dete the. amataur par raman kaaulej ki prayogashala men kuchh prayog aur khojen karate rahate. vah profesar ka 'febari-pirat intaraferomitar'[1] ka istemal karake prakash ki kiranon ko napane ka prayas karate.

samman men jari dak tikat

raman ki man:sthiti ka anuman profesar jaauns bhi nahin samajh pate the ki raman kis chiz ki khoj men hain aur kya khoj huee hai. unhonne raman ko salah di ki apane parinamon ko shodh pepar ki shakl men likhakar landan se prakashit hone vali 'filaausafikal patrika' ko bhej den. sanh 1906 men patrika ke navambar ank men unaka pepar prakashit hua. vigyan ko diya raman ka yah pahala yogadan tha. us samay vah keval 18 varsh ke the.
vigyan ke prati prem, kary ke prati utsah aur nee chizon ko sikhane ka utsah unake svabhav men tha. inaki pratibha se inake adhyapak tak abhibhoot the. shri raman ke bade bhaee 'bharatiy lekha seva' (IAAS) men karyarat the. raman bhi isi vibhag men kam karana chahate the isaliye ve pratiyogi pariksha men sammilit hue. is pariksha se ek din pahale em. e. ka parinam ghoshit hua jisamen unhonne 'madras vishvavidyalay' ke itihas men sarvadhik ank arjit kie aur IAAS ki pariksha men bhi pratham sthan prapt kiya. 6 mee, 1907 ko krishnasvami ayyar ki suputri 'trilokasundari' se raman ka vivah hua.

shodh kary

kuchh dinon ke bad raman ne ek aur shodh pepar likha aur landan men vigyan ki antarrashtriy khyati prapt patrika 'nechar' ko bheja. us samay tak vaigyanik vishayon par svatntratapoorvak khoj karane ka atmavishvas unamen vikasit ho chuka tha. raman ne us samay ke ek sammanit aur prasiddh vaigyanik laaurd rele ko ek patr likha. is patr men unhonne laaurd rele se apani vaigyanik khojon ke bare men kuchh saval poochhe the. laaurd rele ne un savalon ka uttar unhen profesar sambodhit karake diya. vah yah kalpana bhi nahin kar sakate the ki ek bharatiy kishor in sab vaigyanik khojon ka nirdeshan kar raha hai.

Blockquote-open.gif "jab nobel purash‍kar ki ghoshana ki gee thi to main ne ise apani vh‍yaktigat vijay mana, mere lie aur mere sahayogiyon ke lie ek upalabdhi - ek ath‍ynt asadharan khoj ko manh‍yata di gee hai, us lakshh‍y tak pahunchane ke lie jisake lie mainne sat varshon se kam kiya hai. lekin jab mainne dekha ki us khachakhach haaul mainne ird-gird pashchimi cheharon ka samudr dekha aur main, keval ek hi bharatiy, apani pagadi aur banh‍d gale ke kot men tha, to mujhe laga ki main vash‍tav men apane logon aur apane desh ka pratinidhith‍v kar raha hoon. jab king gush‍tav ne mujhe purash‍kar diya to mainne apane apako vash‍tav men vinamr mahasoos kiya, yah bhavapravan pal tha lekin main apane oopar niyntran rakhane men saphal raha. jab main ghoom gaya aur mainne oopar british yooniyan jaik dekha jisake niche main baitha raha tha aur tab mainne mahasoos kiya ki mere garib desh, bharat, ka apana dhvaj bhi nahin hai." - si.vi. raman Blockquote-close.gif

raman ki pratibha advitiy thi. adhyapakon ne raman ke pita ko salah di ki vah raman ko uchch shiksha ke lie inglaind bhenj den. yadi ek british medikal afasar ne badha n dali hoti to raman bhi any pratibhashali vyaktiyon ki tarah desh ke lie kho jate. daauktar ka kahana tha ki svasthy nazuk hai aur vah inglaind ki sakht jalavayu ko sahan nahin kar payenge. raman ke pas ab koee any rasta nahin tha. vah british sarakar dvara ayojit pratiyogi pariksha men baithe. isamen uttirn hone se naukari milati thi. isamen pas hone par vah sarakar ke vittiy vibhag men afasar niyukt ho gaye. raman yah sarakari naukari karane lage. isamen unhen achchha vetan aur rahane ko bngala mila.

vigyan ki unhen dhun thi. unhonne ghar men hi ek chhoti-si prayogashala banaee. jo kuchh bhi unhen dilachasp lagata usake vaigyanik tathyon ki khoj men vah lag jate. raman ki khojon men unaki yuva patni bhi apana sahayog denti aur unhen doosare kamon se door rakhatin. vah yah vishvas karati thin ki vah raman ki seva ke liye hi paida hueen hain. raman ko mahanh banane men unaki patni ka bhi bada hath hai.

sarakari naukari

raman kolakata men sahayak mahalekhapal ke pad par niyukt the, kintu raman ka man bahut hi ashant tha kyonki vah vigyan men anusndhan kary karana chahate the. ek din daftar se ghar lautate samay unhen 'indiyan esosieshan phaaur kaltiveshan aauph sains' ka bord dikha aur agale hi pal vo parishad ke andar ja pahunche. us samay vahan parishad ki baithak chal rahi thi. baithak men ashutosh mukharji jaise vidvanh upasthit the. yah parishad vigyan ki agragami snstha thi. isake snsthapak the daauktar mahendralal sarakar. unhonne sanh 1876 men desh men vaigyanik khojon ke vikas ke lie isaki sthapana ki thi. kee karanon se is imarat ka vastavik upayog keval vaigyanikon ke milane ya vigyan par bhashan adi ke lie hota tha. snstha ki prayogashala aur upakaranon par pade-pade dhool jama ho rahi thi. jab raman ne prayogashala men prayog karane chahe to sari samagri aur upakaran unake supurd kar diye gaye. is tarah parishad men unake vaigyanik prayog shuroo hue aur unhonne vah khoj ki jisase unhen 'nobel puraskar' mila.

raman subah sadhe panch baje parishad ki prayogashala men pahunch jate aur paune das baje akar aauphis ke lie taiyar ho jate. aauphis ke bad sham panch baje phir prayogashala pahunch jate aur rat das baje tak vahan kam karate. yahan tak ki ravivar ko bhi sara din vah prayogashala men apane prayogon men hi vyast rahate. varshon tak unaki yahi dinacharya bani rahi. us samay raman ka anusndhan sngit-vadyon tak hi simit tha. unaki khoj ka vishay tha ki vina, vaauyalin, mridng aur tabale jaise vadyon men se madhur svar kyon nikalata hai. apane anusndhan men raman ne parishad ke ek sadharan sadasy ashutosh de ki bhi sahayata li. unhonne de ko vaigyanik anusndhan ke tarikon men itana parngat kar diya tha ki de apani khojon ka parinam svayn likhane lage jo bad men prasiddh vigyan patrikaon men prakashit hue. raman ka un vyaktiyon men vishvas tha jo sikhana chahate the bajay un ke jo keval prashikshit ya shikshit the. vastav men jaldi hi unhonne yuva vaigyanikon ka ek aisa dal taiyar kar liya jo unake prayogon men sahayata karata tha. vah parishad ke haaul men vigyan ko lokapriy banane ke lie bhashan bhi dene lage, jisase yuva logon ko vigyan men hue naye vikason se parichit kara saken. vah desh men vigyan ke pravakta ban gaye. raman ki vigyan men lagan aur kary ko dekhakar kalakatta vishvavidyalay ke upakulapati ashutosh mukharji jo 'bagal ke bagh' kahalate the, bahut prabhavit hue. unhonne british sarakar se anurodh kiya ki raman ko do varshon ke lie unake kam se chhutti de di jae jisase vah poori tanmayata aur dhyan se apana vaigyanik kary kar saken. lekin sarakar ne is prastav ko asvikar kar diya. isi dauran parishad men bhautik shastr men 'tarakanath palit cheyar' ki sthapana huee. cheyar ek khyati prapt vaigyanik ko milane vali thi, magar mukharji utsuk the ki cheyar raman ko mile. cheyar ke lie lagaee gee sharton men raman ek shart poori nahin karate the ki unhonne videsh men kam nahin kiya tha. mukharji ne raman ko bahar jane ke lie kaha magar unhonne saf inkar kar diya. unhonne mukharji se vinati ki ki yadi unaki seva ki avashyakata hai to is shart ko hata diya jaye. antatah mukharji sahab ne aisa hi kiya. raman ne sarakari naukari chhod di aur sanh 1917 men esosieshan ke antargat bhautik shastr men palit cheyar svikar kar li. isaka parinam- dhan aur shakti ki kami, lekin raman vigyan ke lie sab kuchh balidan karane ko taiyar the. mukharji sahab ne raman ke balidan ki prashnsa karate hue kaha,-

"is udaharan se mera utsah badhata hai aur asha dridh hoti hai ki 'gyan ke mandir' jise banane ki hamari abhilasha hai, men saty ki khoj karane valon ki kami nahin hogi." isake pashchath raman apana poora samay vigyan ko dene lage.

kuchh dinon ke pashchath raman ka tabadala barma (ab myanmar) ke rngoon (ab yangoon) shahar men ho gaya. rngoon men shri raman man nahin lagata tha kyonki ‌vahan prayog aur anusndhan karane ki suvidha nahin thi. isi samay raman ke pita ki mrityu ho gee. raman chhah mahinon ki chhutti lekar madras a ge. chhuttiyan poori hueen to raman ka tabadala nagapur ho gaya.

kolakata ke lie sthanantaran

san 1911 ee. men shri raman ko 'ekauntent jaranal' ke pad par niyukt karake punah kalakatta bhej diya gaya. isase raman bade prasann the kyonki unhen parishad ki prayogashala men punah anusndhan karane ka avasar mil gaya tha. agale sat varshon tak raman is prayogashala men shodhakary karate rahe. sar tarak nath palit, daau. rasabihari ghosh aur sar ashutosh mukharji ke prayatnon se kolakata men ek sains kaaulej khola gaya. raman ki vigyan ke prati samarpan ki bhavana is bat se lagata hai ki unhonne apani sarakari naukari chhodakar kam vetan vale pradhyapak pad par ana pasnd kiya. sanh 1917 men raman kalakatta vishvavidyalay men bhautik vigyan ke pradhyapak niyukt hue. bharatiy snskriti se raman ka hamesha hi lagav raha. unhonne apani bharatiy pahachan ko hamesha banae rakha. ve desh men vaigyanik drishti aur chintan ke vikas ke prati samarpit the.

vishvavidyalayon ka sammelan

san 1917 men lndan men british rashtramandal ke vishvavidyalayon ka sammelan tha. raman ne us sammelan men kalakatta vishvavidyalay ka pratinidhitv kiya. yah raman ki pahali videsh yatra thi.

videsh men shri raman

venkataraman briten ke pratishthit kaimbrij yoonivarsiti ki 'em. ar. si. leboretriz aauf myalookular bayoloji' ke strakacharal stadiz vibhag ke pramukh vaigyanik the. san 1921 men aauksaphord, inglaind men ho rahi yoonivarsatij kangres ke lie raman ko nimantran mila. unake jivan men isase ek naya mod aya. samanyatah samudri yatra ukata dene vali hoti hai kyonki niche samudr aur oopar akash ke sivay kuchh dikhaee nahin deta hai. lekin raman ke lie akash aur sagar vaigyanik dilachaspi ki chizen thin. bhoomadhy sagar ke nilepan ne raman ko bahut akarshit kiya. vah sochane lage ki sagar aur akash ka rng aisa nila kyon hai. nilepan ka kya karan hai.

raman shodh snsthan, bngalaur
Raman Research Institute, Bangalore

raman janate the laaurd rele ne akash ke nilepan ka karan hava men paye jane vale naitrojan aur aauksijan ke anuon dvara soory ke prakash ki kiranon ka chhitarana mana hai. laaurd rele ne yah kaha tha ki sagar ka nilapan matr akash ka pratibimb hai. lekin bhoomadhy sagar ke nilepan ko dekhakar unhen laaurd rele ke spashtikaran se sntosh nahin hua. jahaz ke dek par khade-khade hi unhonne is nilepan ke karan ki khoj ka nishchay kiya. vah lapak kar niche gaye aur ek upakaran lekar dek par aye, jisase vah yah parikshan kar saken ki samudr ka nilapan pratibimb prakash hai ya kuchh aur. unhonne paya ki samudr ka nilapan usake bhitar se hi tha. prasann hokar unhonne is vishay par kalakatte ki prayogashala men khoj karane ka nishchay kiya.

jab bhi raman koee prakritik ghatana dekhate to vah sada saval karate—aisa kyon hai. yahi ek sachcha vaigyanik hone ki visheshata aur praman hai. landan men sthan aur chizon ko dekhate hue raman ne visparing gailari men chhote-chhote prayog kiye.

kalakatta lautane par unhonne samudri pani ke anuon dvara prakash chhitarane ke karan ka aur phir tarah-tarah ke lens, drav aur gaison ka adhyayan kiya. prayogon ke dauran unhen pata chala ki samudr ke nilepan ka karan soory ki roshani padane par samudri pani ke anuon dvara nile prakash ka chhitarana hai. soory ke prakash ke baki rng mil jate hain.

is khoj ke karan sare vishv men unaki prashnsa huee. unhonne vaigyanikon ka ek dal taiyar kiya, jo aisi chizon ka adhyayan karata tha. 'aauptikas' nam ke vigyan ke kshetr men apane yogadan ke liye sanh 1924 men raman ko landan ki 'raauyal sosaiti' ka sadasy bana liya gaya. yah kisi bhi vaigyanik ke liye bahut samman ki bat thi. raman ke samman men diye gaye bhoj men ashutosh mukharji ne unase poochha,-
ab age kya?
turant uttar aya- ab nobel puraskar.

us bhoj men upasthit logon ko us samay yah shekhachilli ki shekhi hi lagi hogi kyonki us samay british shasit bharat men vigyan arambhik avastha men hi tha. us samay koee kalpana bhi nahin kar sakata tha ki vigyan men ek bharatiy itani jaldi nobel puraskar jitega. lekin raman ne yah bat poori gambhirata se kahi thi. mahattvakanksha, sahas aur parishram unaka adarsh the. vah nobel puraskar jitane ke mahattvakankshi the aur isaliye apane shodh men tan-man-dhan lagane ko taiyar the. durbhagy se raman ke nobel puraskar jitane se pahale hi mukharji sahab chal base the.

ek bar jab raman apane chhatron ke sath drav ke anuon dvara prakash ko chhitarane ka adhyayan kar rahe the ki unhen 'raman iphekt' ka snket mila. soory ke prakash ki ek kiran ko ek chhote se chhed se nikala gaya aur phir benjin jaise drav men se guzarane diya gaya. doosare chhor se dayarekt vizan spektroskop dvara chhitare prakash—spektram ko dekha gaya. soory ka prakash ek chhote se chhed men se a raha tha jo chhitari huee kiran rekha ya rekhaon ki tarah dikhaee de raha tha. in rekhaon ke atirikt raman aur unake chhatron ne spektram men kuchh asadharan rekhaen bhi dekhin. unaka vichar tha ki ye rekhaen drav ki ashuddhata ke karan thin. isalie unhonne drav ko shuddh kiya aur phir se dekha, magar rekhaen phir bhi bani rahin. unhonne yah prayog any dravon ke sath bhi kiya to bhi rekhaen dikhaee deti rahin.

in rekhaon ka anveshan kuchh varshon tak chalata raha, isase kuchh vishesh parinam nahin nikala. raman sochate rahe ki ye rekhaen kya hain. ek bar unhonne socha ki in rekhaon ka karan prakash ki kaniy prakriti hai. ye adhunik bhautiki ke arambhik din the. tab yah ek naya siddhant tha ki prakash ek lahar ki tarah bhi aur kan ki tarah bhi vyavahar karata hai.

raman dak tikat
Raman Stamp

raman prabhav

bhautiki ka nobel puraskar sanh 1927 men, amerika men, shikago vishvavidyalay ke e. ech. kaaumpatan ko 'kaaumpatan iphekt' ki khoj ke liye mila. kaaumpatan iphekt men jab eks-re ko kisi samagri se guzara gaya to eks-re men kuchh vishesh rekhaen dekhi geen. (prakash ki tarah ki ek ilektromeganetik rediyeshan ki kism). kaaumpatan iphekt eks-re kaniy prakriti ke karan utpann hota hai. raman ko laga ki unake prayog men bhi kuchh aisa hi ho raha hai.

prakash ki kiran kanon (photons) ki dhara ki tarah vyavahar kar rahi thin. photons rasayan drav ke anuaun par vaise hi aghat karate the jaise ek kriket ka baaul phutabaaul par karata hai. kriket ka baaul phutabaaul se takarata to tezi se hai lekin vah phutabaaul ko thoda-sa hi hila pata hai. usake viparit kriket ka baaul svayn doosari or kam shakti se uchhal jata hai aur apani kuchh oorja phutabal ke pas chhod jata hai. kuchh asadharan rekhaen deti hain kyonki photons isi tarah kuchh apani oorja chhod dete hain aur chhitare prakash ke spektram men kee binduon par dikhaee dete hain. any photons apane raste se hat jate hain—n oorja lete hain aur n hi chhodate hain aur isalie spektram men apani samany sthiti men dikhaee dete hain.

photons men oorja ki kuchh kami aur isake parinam svaroop spektram men kuchh asadharan rekhaen hona 'raman iphekt' kahalata hai. photons dvara khoee oorja ki matra us drav rasayan ke drav ke anu ke bare men soochana deti hai jo unhen chhitarate hain. bhinn-bhinn prakar ke anu photons ke sath milakar vividh prakar ki parasparik kriya karate hain aur oorja ki matra men bhi alag-alag kami hoti hai. jaise yadi kriket baaul, golph baaul ya phutabaaul ke sath takaraye. asadharan raman rekhaon ke photons men oorja ki kami ko map kar drav, thos aur gais ki antarik anu rachana ka pata lagaya jata hai. is prakar padarth ki antarik snrachana ka pata lagane ke lie raman iphekt ek labhadayak upakaran pramanit ho sakata hai. raman aur unake chhatron ne isi ke dvara kee kism ke aauptikal glas, bhinn-bhinn padarthon ke kristal, moti, ratn, hire aur kvartaj, drav yaugik jaise bainjin, tolin, penaten aur kampresd gaison ka jaise karban dayaksaid, aur naitras aauksaid ityadi men anu vyavastha ka pata lagaya.

raman apani khoj ki ghoshana karane se pahale bilkul nishchit hona chahate the. in asadharan rekhaon ko adhik spasht taur se dekhane ke lie unhonne soory ke prakash ke sthan par marakari vepar laimp ka istemal kiya. vastav men is tarah rekhaen adhik spasht dikhaee dene lagin. ab vah apani nee khoj ke prati poornaroop se nishchint the. yah ghatana 28 faravari sanh 1928 men ghati. agale hi din vaigyanik raman ne isaki ghoshana videshi pres men kar di. pratishthit patrika 'nechar' ne use prakashit kiya. raman ne 16 march ko apani khoj 'nee rediyeshan' ke oopar bngalaur men sthit sauth indiyan sains esosieshan men bhashan diya. iphekt ki pratham pushti jaaun haaupakins yoonivarsati, amerika ke ar. dablayoo. vud ne ki. ab vishv ki sabhi prayogashalaon men 'raman iphekt' par anveshan hone laga. yah ubharati adhunik bhautiki ke liye atirikt sahayata thi.

videsh yatra ke samay unake jivan men ek mahattvapoorn ghatana ghatit huee. saral shabdon men pani ke jahaz se unhonne bhoo-madhy sagar ke gahare nile pani ko dekha. is nile pani ko dekhakar shri raman ke man men vichar aya ki yah nila rng pani ka hai ya nile akash ka sirf paravartan. bad men raman ne is ghatana ko apani khoj dvara samajhaya ki yah nila rng n pani ka hai n hi akash ka. yah nila rng to pani tatha hava ke kanon dvara prakash ke prakirnan se utpann hota hai kyonki prakirnan ki ghatana men soory ke prakash ke sabhi avayavi rng avashoshit kar oorja men parivartit ho jate hain, parntu nile prakash ko vapas paravartit kar diya jata hai. sat sal ki kadi mehanat ke bad raman ne is rahasy ke karanon ko khoja tha. unaki yah khoj 'raman prabhav' ke nam se prasiddh hai.

rashtriy vigyan divas

'raman prabhav' ki khoj 28 faravari 1928 ko huee thi. is mahanh khoj ki yad men 28 faravari ka din ham 'rashtriy vigyan divas' ke roop men manate hain. bharat men 28 faravari ka din 'rashtriy vigyan divas' ke roop men manaya jata hai. is din vaigyanik log bhashanon dvara vigyan aur takaniki ki unnati aur vikas evn usaki upalabdhiyon ke bare men samany logon v bachchon ko batate hain. inhin vishayon par filmen aur ti. vi. phichar dikhaye jate hain. is samay vigyan evn takaniki par pradarshaniyan lagati hain aur samaroh hote hain jinamen vigyan aur takaniki men yogadan ke liye inam aur evard diye jate hain. sanh 1928 men isi din desh men saste upakaranon ka prayog karake vigyan ki ek mukhy khoj ki gee thi. tab poore vishv ko pata chala tha ki british dvara shasit aur pichhada hua bharat bhi adhunik vigyan ke kshetr men apana maulik yogadan de sakata hai. yah khoj keval bharat ke vaigyanik itihas men hi nahin balki vigyan ki pragati ke lie bhi ek mil ka patthar pramanit huee. isi khoj ke lie isake khojakarta ko 'nobal puraskar' mila.

rashtriy vigyan divas us mahanh ghatana ki yad dilata hai. sab bharatiyon ko is par garv hai. ve ise sneh aur prashnsa ki drishti se dekhate hain. is mahattvapoorn khoj ko aj 'raman iphekt' ke nam se jana jata hai. isake khojakarta shri si.vi.raman the. unhonne yah khoj kalakatta ki 'indiyan esosieshan phaaur di kaltiveshan aauph sains' ki prayogashala men ki. inhin ke karan poore vishv men bharat ka vigyan ke kshetr men nam hua. khoj ke 60 varsh ke pashchath 'raman iphekt' snsar ki adhunik prayogashalaon men thos, drav aur gaison ke adhyayan ke lie ek parishkrit upakaran ki tarah upayog kiya ja raha hai.

vyaktitv

shri venkataraman ke vishay men khas bat hai ki ve bahut hi sadharan aur saral tariqe se rahate the. vah prakriti premi bhi the. ve aksar apane ghar se aauphis saikil se aya jaya karate the. ve doston ke bich 'vainki' nam se prasiddh the. unake mata-pita donon vaigyanik rahe hain. ek sakshatkar men venkataraman ke pita shri 'si. vi. ramakrishnan' ne bataya ki 'nobel puraskar samiti' ke sachiv ne lndan men jab venkataraman ko fon kar nobel puraskar dene ki bat kahi to pahale to unhen yakin hi nahin hua. venkat ne unase kaha ki 'kya ap mujhe moorkh bana rahe hain?' kyonki nobel puraskar milane se pahale aksar venkataraman ke mitr fon kar unhen nobel milane ki jhoothi khabar dekar chidhaya karate the.'

svapnadrashta raman

raman ne kee varshon tak ekantavas kiya. lekin vah sada sakriy rahe. unhen bachchon ka sath bahut bhata tha. vah aksar apane instityoot men skool ke bachchon ka amntrit karate aur ghnton unhen instityoot aur vahan ki chizen dikhate rahate. vah badi dilachaspi se unhen apane prayog aur upakaranon ke bare men samajhate. vah svayn skoolon men jakar vigyan par bhashan dete. vah bachchon ko batate ki vigyan hamare charon or hai aur hamen usaka pata lagana hai. vigyan keval prayogashala tak simit nahin hai. vah bachchon ko kahate the ki taron, phoolon aur asapas ghatati ghatanaon ko dekhon aur unake bare men saval poochho. apani buddhi aur vigyan ki sahayata se uttaron ki khoj karo.

aj ke kee khyati prapt vaigyanikon ne raman ki baten aur bhashan sunakar hi vigyan ko apana vishay chuna tha. vah anevali nee subah ke agradoot the. chndrashekhar venkat raman ne apane jivan kal men hi raman iphekt ke lie phir se adhunik prayogashalaon men ruchi utpann hoti dekhi. isaka shrey sanh 1960 men lejar ki khoj ko jata hai—ek snsakt aur shaktishali prakash. pahale raman iphekt ki spasht tasavir ke lie kee din lag jate the. lejar se vahi parinam kuchh hi der men mil jata hai. ab zyada se zyada kshetron men jaise rasayan udyog, pradooshan ki samasya, davaee udyog, prani shastr ke adhyayan men chhoti matra men paye jane vale rasayanon ka pata lagane ke lie raman iphekt istemal ho raha hai. raman iphekt aj un chizon ke bare men soochana de raha hai jisake bare men raman ne isaki khoj ke samay kabhi socha bhi nahin tha.

svatntr snsthan ki sthapana

san 1933 men daau. raman ko bngaluru men sthapit 'indiyan instityoot aauph sainsez' ke snchalan ka bhar saunpa gaya. vahan unhonne 1948 tak kary kiya. bad men daau.raman ne bengaloor men apane lie ek svatntr snsthan ki sthapana ki. isake lie unhonne koee bhi sarakari sahayata nahin li. unhonne baingalor men ek atynt unnat prayogashala aur shodh-snsthan ‘raman risarch instityoot’ ki sthapana ki. raman vaigyanik chetana aur drishti ki sakshat pratimoortti the. unhonne hamesha prakritik ghatanaon ki chhanabin vaigyanik drishti se karane ka sndesh diya. daau.raman apane snsthan men jivan ke antim dinon tak shodhakary karate rahe.

risarch instityoot

san 1948 men raman ka bngalaur men apana instityoot banane ka sapana sakar ho gaya. ise raman risarch instityoot kahate hain. unhonne apani bachat ka dhan ikattha kiya, dan manga, kuchh udyog arambh kie jisase instityoot ko chalane ke lie niyamit roop se dhan milata rahe.

instityoot ki rachana men raman ki suruchi jhalakati hai. snstha ke charon or buganabila, jakarandaj aur gulab ke phoolon ke atirikt yooklipatas se lekar mahogani ke pedon ki bharamar hai. vatavaran ek udyan jaisa hai.

daau. si.vi. raman

yahan par raman apani pasand ke vishayon par shodh aur khojabin karate the. kuchh bhi jo chamakata hai unake anusndhan ka vishay ban jata tha. unhonne 300 hire kharide. hire ko thos ka raja kahate hain. unhonne unaki antarik snrachana aur bhautik gunon ka adhyayan kiya. pakshi ke pnkh, titaliyan, bital aur phoolon ki pattiyon tak ne unhen akarshit kiya. unhonne yah anveshan kiya ki ye sab itane rng-birnge kyon hain. is adhyayan ke parinamon se unhonne vizan aur kalar ka siddhant pratipadan kiya jo unhonne apani pustak 'd phiziyolaauji aph vizan' men likha hai. is vishay ne abhi-abhi vaigyanikon ka dhyan phir apani or akarshit kiya. raman ye janate the ki pashchimi deshon men ho rahe adhyayan se bhinn vishay, adhyayan aur shodh ke liye kaise khojen jayen.

san 1947 men bharat ke svatntr hone ke pashchath raman ko badi nirasha huee kyonki unhen laga ki desh men vigyan ko vikasit karane ke lie koee vishesh prayas nahin kiya ja raha, jisake lie ve itana prayatn kar rahe the. isake viparit vaigyanikon ko badi snkhya men uchch shiksha ke lie videsh bheja jane laga. yadyapi vaigyanik adhyayan ke lie apane desh men kafi avasar aur bahut hi vistrit kshetr tha. yah hamara kartavy tha ki ham vigyan ka mool adhar taiyar karen. isake lie hamen bhitar dekhane ki hi zaroorat thi.

apane yuva vaigyanikon ke samane yah adarsh rakhane ke lie ki videshi digriyon aur sammanon ke pichhe nahin bhagana chahie, raman ne svayn landan ki 'raauyal sosaiti' ki sadasyata se tyagapatr de diya. unhen is bat se bahut ghrina thi ki log rajaniti ke dvara vigyan ka shoshan karen. unhonne mahasoos kiya ki vigyan aur rajaniti ka koee mel nahin hai. vigyan sada rajaniti se mat kha jayega. jab unake samane 'bharat ke uparashtrapati' ke pad ka prastav rakha gaya to unhonne bina ek kshan bhi gnvaye use asvikar kar diya. sanh 1954 men unhen 'bharat ratn' ki upadhi se sammanit kiya gaya. ab tak vah pahale aur akhiri vaigyanik hain jinhen yah upadhi mili hai.

sngit vady yntr aur anusndhan

daau.raman ki sngit men bhi gahari ruchi thi. unhonne sngit ka bhi gahara adhyayan kiya tha. sngit vady yntron ki dhvaniyon ke bare men daau. raman ne anusndhan kiya, jisaka ek lekh jarmani ke ek 'vishvakosh' men bhi prakashit hua tha. ve bahoo bazar sthit prayogashala men kamachalaoo upakaranon ka istemal karake shodh kary karate the. phir unhonne anek vady yntron ka adhyayan kiya aur vaigyanik siddhanton ke adhar par pashchim deshon ki is bhranti ko todane ka prayas kiya ki bharatiy vady yntr videshi vadyon ki tulana men ghatiya hain.

samman evn puraskar

daau.raman ko unake yogadan ke lie bharat ke sarvochch puraskar bharat ratn aur nobel puraskar, lenin puraskar jaise antarrashtriy puraskaron se sammanit kiya gaya.

nobel puraskar

raman iphekt ki lokapriyata aur upayogita ka anuman isi se laga sakate hain ki khoj ke das varsh ke bhitar hi sare vishv men is par qarib 2,000 shodh pepar prakashit hue. isaka adhik upayog thos, drav aur gaison ki antarik anu snrachana ka pata lagane men hua. is samay raman keval 42 varsh ke the aur unhen dheron samman mil chuke the.

raman ko yah poora vishvas tha ki unhen apani khoj ke lie 'nobel puraskar' milega. isalie puraskaron ki ghoshana se chhah mahine pahale hi unhonne staaukahom ke lie tikat ka arakshan karava liya tha. nobel puraskar jitane valon ki ghoshana disambar sanh 1930 men huee.

raman pahale eshiyaee aur ashvet the jinhonne vigyan men nobel puraskar jita tha. yah pratyek bharatiy ke lie garv ki bat thi. isase yah spasht ho gaya ki vigyan ke kshetr men bharatiy kisi yooropiyan se kam nahin hain. yah vah samay tha jab yooropiyan vigyan par apana ekadhikar samajhate the. isase pahale sanh 1913 men ravindranath taigor sahity ke lie nobel puraskar pa chuke the.

chndrashekhar venkat raman
Chandrasekhara Venkata Raman

nobel puraskar ke pashchath raman ko vishv ke any bhagon se kee pratishthit samman prapt hue. desh men vigyan ko isase bahut hi protsahan mila. yah upalabdhi vastav men ek aitihasik ghatana thi. isase bharat ke svatntrata poorv ke dinon men kee yuvak-yuvatiyon ko vigyan ka vishay lene ki prerana mili.

is mahanh khoj 'raman prabhav' ke liye 1930 men shri raman ko 'bhautiki ka nobel puraskar' pradan kiya gaya aur raman bhautik vigyan men nobel puraskar prapt karane vale eshiya ke pahale vyakti bane. raman ki khoj ki vajah se padarthon men anuon aur paramanuon ki antarik snrachana ka adhyayan sahaj ho gaya. puraskar ki ghoshana ke bad venkataraman ne apani pratikriya dete hue kaha ki-
"midiya ka zyada dhyan vaigyanikon ke kam par tab jata hai jab unhen pashchim men bade samman ya puraskar milane lagate hain. ye tariqa galat hai, balki hona ye chahie ki ham apane yahan kam kar rahe vaigyanikon, unake kam ko janen aur usake bare men logon ko bataen. unhonne kaha ki bharat men kee vaigyanik achchhe kam kar rahe hain, midiya ko chahie ki unase mile aur unake kam ko sarahe, sath hi logon tak bhi pahunchae."
"jab nobel purash‍kar ki ghoshana ki gee thi to main ne ise apani vh‍yaktigat vijay mana, mere lie aur mere sahayogiyon ke lie ek upalabdhi - ek ath‍ynt asadharan khoj ko manh‍yata di gee hai, us lakshh‍y tak pahunchane ke lie jisake lie mainne sat varshon se kam kiya hai. lekin jab mainne dekha ki us khachakhach haaul mainne ird-gird pashchimi cheharon ka samudr dekha aur main, keval ek hi bharatiy, apani pagadi aur banh‍d gale ke kot men tha, to mujhe laga ki main vash‍tav men apane logon aur apane desh ka pratinidhith‍v kar raha hoon. jab king gush‍tav ne mujhe purash‍kar diya to mainne apane apako vash‍tav men vinamr mahasoos kiya, yah bhavapravan pal tha lekin main apane oopar niyntran rakhane men saphal raha. jab main ghoom gaya aur mainne oopar british yooniyan jaik dekha jisake niche main baitha raha tha aur tab mainne mahasoos kiya ki mere garib desh, bharat, ka apana dhvaj bhi nahin hai." - si.vi. raman

bharat ratn

daau.raman ka desh-videsh ki prakhyat vaigyanik snsthaon ne samman kiya. tatkalin bharat sarakar ne 'bharat rath‍n' ki sarvochch upadhi dekar sammanit kiya.

lenin puraskar

soviyat roos ne unhen 1958 men 'lenin puraskar' pradan kiya.

lekh, pustak aur shodh prakashan

kram varsh prakashan kram
1 1913
  • Some Acoustical Observations, Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci., 1913
2 1914
  • The Dynamical Theory of the Motion of Bowed Strings, Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci., 1914
  • The Maintenance of Vibrations, Phys. Rev. 1914
  • Dynamical Theory of the Motion of Bowed Strings, Bulletin, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1914
  • On Motion in a Periodic Field of Force, Bull. Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci , 1914
3 1915
  • On the Maintenance of Combinational Vibrations by Two Simple Harmonic forces, Phys. Rev., 1915
  • On Motion in a Periodic Field of Force, Philos. Mag, 1915
4 1916
  • On Discontinuous Wave-Motion - Part 1, Philos. Mag, 1916 (with S Appaswamair)
  • On the 'Wolf-Note' of the Violin and Cello, Nature (London). 1916
  • On the 'Wolf-Note' in the Bowed Stringed Instruments, Philos. Mag., 1916
5 1917
  • The Maintenance of Vibrations in a Periodic Field of Force, Philos. Mag, 1917 (with A. Dey)
  • On Discontinuous Wave-Motion - Part 2, Philos. Mag, 1917 (with A Dey)
  • On Discontinuous Wave-Motion - Part 3, Philos. Mag, 1917 (with A Dey)
  • On the Alterations of Tone Produced by a Violin 'Mute, Nature (London) 1917
6 1918
  • On the 'Wolf-Note' in the Bowed Stringed Instruments, Philos. Mag., 1918
  • On the Wolf-Note in Pizzicato Playing, Nature (London), 1918
  • On the Mechanical Theory of the Vibrations of Bowed Strings and of Musical Instruments of the Violin Family, with Experimental Verification of Results - Part 1, Bulletin, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1918
  • The Theory of the Cyclical Vibrations of a Bowed String, Bulletin, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1918
7 1919
  • An Experimental Method for the Production of Vibrations, Phys. Rev., 1919
  • A New Method for the Absolute Determination of Frequency, Proc. R. Soc. London, 1919
  • On the Partial Tones of Bowed Stringed Instruments, Philos. Mag, 1919
  • The Kinematics of Bowed String, J. Dept of Sci., Univ. Calcutta, 1919
8 1920
  • On the Sound of Splashes, Philos. Mag, 1920
  • On a Mechanical Violin-Player for Acoustical Experiments, Philos. Mag., 1920
  • Experiments with Mechanically-Played Violins, Proc. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1920
  • On Kaufmann's Theory of the Impact of the Pianoforte Hammer, proc. S. Soc. London, 1920 (with B Banerji)
  • Musical Drums with Harmonic Overtones, Nature (London), 1920 (with S. Kumar)
9 1921
  • Whispering Gallery Phenomena at St. Paul's Cathedral, Nature (London) 1921 (with G.A. Sutherland)
  • The Nature of Vowel Sounds, Nature (London) 1921
  • On the Whispering Gallery Phenomenon, Proc. R. Soc. London, 1922 (with G.A. Sutherland)
  • On Some Indian Stringed Instruments, Proc. Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, 1921
10 1922
  • On Whispering Galleries, Indian Assoc. Cultiv. Sci., 1922
  • On the Molecular Scattering of Light in Water and the Colour of the Sea, Proceedings of the Royal Society, 1922
  • The Acoustical Knowledge of the Ancient Hindus, Asutosh Mookerjee Silver Jubilee - Vol 2
11 1926
  • The Subjective Analysis of Musical Tones, Nature (London), 1926
12 1927
  • Musical Instruments and Their Tones
13 1928
  • A new type of Secondary Radiation, Nature, 1928
  • A new radiation, Indian Journal of Physics, 1928
14 1935
  • The Indian Musical Drums, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 1935
  • The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part I, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 1935 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part II, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 1935 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • Nature of Thermal Agitation in Liquids, Nature (London), 1935 (with B.V. Raghavendra Rao)
15 1936
  • The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part III: Doppler Effect and Coherence Phenomena, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 1936 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part IV: Generalised Theory, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 1936 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • The Diffraction of Light by High Frequency Sound Waves: Part V: General Considerations - Oblique Incidence and Amplitude Changes, Proc. Indian Acad. Sci., 1936 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
  • Diffraction of Light by Ultrasonic Waves, Nature (London), 1936 (with N. S. Nagendra Nath)
16 1937
  • Acoustic Spectrum of Liquids, Nature (London), 1937 (with B.V. Raghavendra Rao)
17 1938
  • Light Scattering and Fluid Viscosity, Nature (London), 1938 (with B.V. Raghavendra Rao)
18 1948
  • Aspects of Science, 1948
19 1951
  • The New Physics: Talks on Aspects of Science, 1951
20 1953
  • The structure and optical behaviour of iridescent opal, Proc. Indian. Acad. Sci. A38 1953 (with A. Jayaraman)
21 1959
  • Lectures on Physical Optics, 1959

nidhan

21 navambar sanh 1970 men ek chhoti-si bimari ke bad raman ka 82 varsh ki ayu men svargavas ho gaya.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. Fabry–Pérot interferometer

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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