मोक्षगुंडम विश्वेश्वरैया  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mokshagundam vishveshvaraiya
Mokshagundam-Visvesvarayya.jpg
poora nam daau. mokshagundam vishveshvaraiya
janm 15 sitambar, 1861
janm bhoomi karnatak
mrityu 14 aprail, 1962
nagarikata bharatiy
prasiddhi injiniyar, vaigyanik aur nirmata
pad maisoor ke divan
shiksha injiniyaring
vidyalay poona injiniyaring kaaulej
puraskar-upadhi bharat ratn
any janakari daau. mokshagundam vishveshvaraiya ke janmadin (15 sitambar) ko bharat men 'abhiyanta divas' ke roop men manaya jata hai.
adyatan‎ 13:16, 13 march 2011 (IST)

daau. mokshagundam vishveshvaraiya (angrezi: Dr. Mokshagundam Vishveshwariah, janm- 15 sitambar, 1861, karnatak; mrityu- 14 aprail 1962) ko aj bhi "adhunik bharat ke vishvakarma" ke roop men bade samman ke sath smaran kiya jata hai. apane samay ke bahut bade injiniyar, vaigyanik aur nirmata ke roop men desh ki seva men apana jivan samarpit karane vale daau. mokshagundam vishveshvaraiya ko bharat hi nahin varanh vishv ki mahanh pratibhaon men gina jata hai.

jivan parichay

sar em. vishveshvaraiya ke janmadin ko 'abhiyanta divas' ke roop men manaya jata hai. sar mokshagundam vishveshvaraiya bahut hi saumy vidharadhara vale insan the. mokshagundam vishveshvaraiya ka janm maisoor (jo ki ab karnatak men hai) ke 'muddenahalli' namak sthan par 15 sitambar, 1861 ko hua tha. bahut hi garib parivar men janme vishveshvaraiya ka balyakal bahut hi arthik snkat men vyatit hua. unake pita vaidy the. varshon pahale unake poorvaj andhr pradesh ke 'mokshagundam' se yahan par aye aur maisoor men bas gaye the. do varsh ki ayu men hi unaka parichay ramayan, mahabharat aur pnchatntr ki kahaniyon se ho gaya tha. ye kahaniyan har rat ghar ki vriddh mahilaen unhen sunati thin. kahaniyan shikshaprad v manornjak thi. in kahaniyon se vishveshvaraiya ne eemanadari, daya aur anushasan jaise moolyon ko atmasat kiya.

soojhaboojh

vishveshvaraiya jab keval 14 varsh ke the, tabhi unake pita ki mrityu ho gee. kya vah apani padhaee jari rakhen ? is prashn par tab vichar-vimarsh hua jab unhonne apani man se kaha, 'amma, kya main bngalaur ja sakata hoon? main vahan par mama ramaiya ke yahan rah sakata hoon. vahan main kaaulej men pravesh le loonga.' 'par beta....tumhare mama amir nahin hain. tum un par bojh banana kyon chahate ho?' unaki man ne tark diya. 'amma, main apani zaruraton ke lie svayn hi kamaoonga. main bachchon ka tyushan padha doonga. apani fis dene aur pustaken kharidane ke lie main kafi dhan kama loonga. mere khyal se mere pas kuchh paise bhi bach jayenge. jinhen main mama ko de doonga.' vishveshvaraiya ne samajhaya. unake pas har prashn ka uttar tha. samadhan dhndhane ki kshamata unake poore jivan men lagatar vikasit hoti rahi aur is karan vah ek vyavaharik vyakti ban gaye. yah unake jivan ka sar tha aur unaka sndesh tha- 'pahale jano, phir karo.' 'jao mere putr, bhagavan tumhare sath hai.' unaki man ne kaha. unake mama ne bahut garmajoshi se unaka svagat kiya. vishveshvaraiya ne unhen apani yojana bataee. mama ne pyar se unhen thapathapate hue kaha, 'tum bahut hoshiyar ho. tumhen achchhi se achchhi shiksha milani chahie.'

shiksha

padhane likhane men balyakal se hi tivr buddhi ke svami vishveshvaraiya ne apani prarambhik shiksha ganv ke praimari skool se prapt ki. vishveshvaraiya 'chikballapur' ke midil v haeeskool men padhe. age ki shiksha ke lie unhen baingalor jana pada. arthik snkaton se jujhate hue unhonne apane rishtedaron aur parichiton ke pas rahakar aur apane se chhote bachchon ko tyooshan padha kar kisi tarah bade prayas se apana adhyayan zari rakkha. 19 varsh ki ayu men baingalor ke kaaulej se unhonne bi.e. ki pariksha pratham shreni men uttirn ki. is kaaulej ke prinsipal, jo ek angrez the, vishveshvaraiya ki yogyata aur gunon se bahut prabhavit the. unhin prinsipal saheb ke prayas se unhen poona ke injiniyaring kaaulej men pravesh mil gaya. apani shaikshik yogyata ke bal par unhonne chhatravritti prapt karane ke sath sath poore mumbee vishvavidyalay men sarvochch ank prapt kar injiniyaring ki digri prapt ki. sanh 1875 men vishveshvaraiya ne 'sentral kaaulej' men pravesh liya. unake mama unhen maisoor rajy sarakar ke ek uchch adhikari 'mudiya' ke pas le gaye. mudiya ke do chhote bachche the. bachchon ko padhane ke lie vishveshvaraiya ko rakh liya gaya. unhonne apane snrakshak ka dhanyavad diya. unhonne turant hi kary arambh kar diya. pratidin vah apane mama ke ghar se apane kaaulej aur mudiya ke ghar ane-jane ke lie pandrah kilomitar se zyada chalate. bad men jab unase achchhe svasthy ka rahasy poochha gaya, to unhonne kaha, 'mainne chalakar achchha svasthy paya hai.' apane kam men unhonne apani samast mushkilon ka maraham paya. eemanadari aur nishtha se unhonne apane kary ko abha pradan ki. isase 'sentral kaaulej' ke prinsipal charls ka dhyan unaki or akarshit hua. jab vishveshvaraiya ne jatil ganitiy samasyaon ka saral samadhan kar diya to prinsipal ne unase kaksha ke any chhatron ko yah samadhan sikhane ko kaha. isase vishveshvaraiya ka atmavishvas badha.

vatars ka upahar

apane priy chhatr par kaaulej ke dauran aur kaaulej chhodane par bhi vatars kadi nazar rakhate rahe. vah inglaind laut gaye par apane bhootapoorv chhatr men gahari dilachaspi lete rahe. apani vasiyat men ve upahar ke roop men vishveshvaraiya ke lie apana 'kaphalink' chhod gaye. shrimati vatars iglaind se unhen yah upahar dene ke lie svayn aeen. us samay vishveshvaraiya bambee ke 'lok nirman vibhag' men 'injiniyar' ke pad par karyarat the. digri pariksha men sanh 1880 men vishishtata ke sath saphal hone ke pashchath vishveshvaraiya ne pune ke 'sains kaaulej' men pravesh liya. maisoor rajy sarakar se chhatravritti pane ke karan hi vah aisa kar paye the. sanh 1883 men 'sivil injiniyaring' ke samast chhatron men vah 'pratham' aye. turant hi unhen bambee ke lok nirman vibhag men sahayak injiniyar ki naukari mil gee.

karyakshetr

apani shaikshik yogyata ke bal par unhonne chhatravritti prapt karane ke sath sath poore mumbee vishvavidyalay men sarvochch ank prapt kar injiniyaring ki digri prapt ki. isi saphalata ke adhar par unhen mumbee men asistaint injiniyar ke pad par niyukti mili. us samay british shasan tha. adhikansh uchch padon par angrezon ki hi niyukti hoti thi. aise men uchch pad par niyukt vishveshvaraiya ne apani yogyata aur soojhaboojh dvara bade bade angrez injiniyaron ko apani yogyata aur pratibha ka loha manava diya. apane is pad par rahate hue unhonne sabase pahali saphalata prakritik jal srotron se ghar ghar men pani pahunchane ki vyavastha karana aur gnde pani ki nikasi ke lie nali - nalon ki samuchit vyavastha karake prapt ki. pratham charan men hi unhonne baingalor, poona, maisoor, badauda, karachi, haidarabad, gvaliyar, indaur, kolhapur, soorat, nasik, nagapur, bijapur, dharavad sahit anek nagaron ko pratyek prakar ke jal snkat se mukt kara diya. sanh 1884 men vishveshvaraiya ne apana sarakari jivan shuroo kiya. yah vah samay tha, jab rashtriyata ki bhavana bahut se pratishthit vyaktiyon ka dhyan apani or khinch rahi thi. mahadev govind pande ranade, gopal krishn gokhale aur bal gngadhar tilak rashtriyata ki bhavana ko phailane men agrani the. ve sarakari padon par bharatiyon ko zyada sthan dilane ke lie davab dal rahe the. ve josh se bharatiy svatntrata ki bat karate. vishveshvaraiya apana kary karate rahe. lekin unaki sahanubhooti svatntrata ke kary ke sath thi. unhen laga ki anek kary jo unhen saunpe gaye hain, ve logon ka jivan star sudharane ke lie avashyak hain. unake raste men anek mushkilen aur chunautiyan aeen.

vaigyanik avishkar

vishveshvaraiya ko sanh 1894-95 men sindh (jo ki ab pakistan men hai) ke sakkhnr kshetr men pine ke pani ki vitaran pariyojana ka kary poora karane ka kam saunpa gaya. unhonne is kary ko svikar kar liya. vah nagar men pahunche aur jab unhonne sindhu nadi ka sarvekshan aur parikshan kiya, to unhen gahara aghat laga. pani gndala v mitti se bhara hua tha. jo ki manushyon ke istemal ke lie poornataya bekar tha. pani ko kaise svachchh kiya jae, isake lie unhonne takaniki patron, vyavasayik patrikaon aur rasayan ki kitabon ko padha. is samasya par chintan karate hue unhonne kee raten jagakar bitaeen. phir samadhan nikal aya. unhonne pahale kyon nahin is vikalp ke bare men socha. vah prakriti ki asimit prakriya ko samajh gaye the. vah pani ko chhanane ke lie nadi ki ret ka istemal kar sakate hain. unhonne pariyojana ki rooparekha banaee, dijain ko taiyar kiya aur kitani kimat lagegi, isaka anuman lagaya. apane sath kam karane valon ko unhonne yojana ke labh bataye. unase unake vichar poochhe aur yah pata laga ki ve poornataya sahamat hain. nadi ke tal men ek gahara kuna banaya jae. kune tak pahunchane se pahale pani ret ki anaginat paraton men se gujarega. jaise hi pani is prakriya se risega, vah svachchh ho jayega. ret ki asnkhy paraton se chhan kar nikala hua pani manushy istemal ke yogy hoga. adan (dakshini yaman) jo ki us samay british upanivesh tha, ke liye pani vitaran ke lie bhi unhonne isi siddhant ko lagoo kiya. is prakar jo kimat thi, vah kam ho gee. is navin kary ke lie sarakar ne vishveshvaraiya 'kesar-e-hind' ki upadhi se sammanit kiya.

maulikata aur pravinata

pani ki vyavastha karane men vaigyanik tarikon ka avishkar karake vishveshvaraiya ne apani maulikata aur pravinata ka parichay diya. usamen svachalit jaladvar aur sinchaee ki khand paddhati bhi shamil hai. badh ke pani ko niyntrit karane ke lie unhonne khadagavasala bandh par jaladvaron ka prayog kiya. unhonne us jhil ke pani ke star ko badhaya, jisake karan pune shahar ko pani milata tha. vah apane 'memaauyars aph maee varking laiph' (mere kamaqazi jivan ke snsmaran 1951) men likhate hain ki'atirikt viyar ki choti ke oopar chh: se lekar ath phit ki oonchaee tak har sal jalashay se pani nikal jata tha. jhil ke pani ke star ko sthaee roop se snchit karane ke lie mainne svachalit jaladvar ki paddhati ki rooparekha banaee, mool atirikt viyar se qarib ath phut oonchi. isase bandh ko bina badhaye jalashay men 25 pratishat snchay kshamata badh gee. jaladvar jhil men tab tak pani ko roke rakhata hai, jab tak vah pichhali badh ki oonchaee tak nahin badh jata hai. lekin jab bhi pani star se ooncha uthata hai, jaladvar svat: hi khul jate hain aur atirikt pani ko nikalane dete hain. phir se jhil men pani ka star jab atirikt viyar ke oonpar ath phut girata hai, to jaladvar svat: hi bnd ho jate hain aur pani ka nuqasan hone se rok dete hain.'

naharen aur bandhon ka nirman

vishveshvaraiya ne sinchaee men sahayata karane ke lie naharen aur bandh banaye. unaki paddhati ke dvara sinchaee ke simit pani ke sadhanon ka poorn upayog ho saka. ve pariyojanaen, jinaki unhonne kalpana ki aur nirman karaya, unase garib kisanon ko rahat mili. unase dehat ke kshetron men kafi badi matra men sudhar ka kary sampann hua. arthik utthan ke dvara vishveshvaraiya ne mahasoos kiya ki isase rashtr ko shakti milegi. aur shakti prapt karake apane desh ko british shasan se mukt karane ke lie log behatar sthiti men honge.

injiniyar ka pad

bambee presidensi ki naukari vishveshvaraiya ne chhodi hi thi ki unhen apane rajyon men vikas gatividhiyon ko dekhane ke lie haidarabad ke nizam aur maisoor maharaja ke prastav mile. navambar sanh 1909 men unhonne apane janmasthan maisoor men chif injiniyar banana pasand kiya. tab bhi haidarabad ko bar-bar ane vali badh se bachane ke lie unhonne yojanaen banaee. maisoor rajy men chif injiniyar ki naukari unhen bahut pasand thi. kyonki yahan unhen un pariyojanaon par kam karane ki poorn svatntrata thi, jisase janata ke garib varg ko labh milata tha. unhonne jal vitaran, sadakon, snchar v sinchaee ke lie pariyojanaen banaeen. pratyek yojana ki pragati par kadi nigarani rakhi gee. samay ki pabandi ko poornataya banaye rakhe gaya. kimat par bhi niyamit janch chalati rahi. vishveshvaraiya kary sthal par jate, logon se milate, unaki pratikriya sunate, aur jab log unaka dhanyavad karate to unhen bahut khushi hoti. logon ke cheharon par chhaee khushi hi unaka puraskar tha, jise unhonne sabase zyada snjokar rakha.

injiniyar aur padatyag

abhinav kshamata aur kathin parishram ne milakar unhen jaldi hi tarakkiyon ki or badha diya. antat: vah chif injiniyar ke pad ke nikat tak pahunch gaye. chif injiniyar ka pad britishavasiyon ke lie arakshit tha. yah pakshapat tha. jati v rng ka bhedabhav kiye bina pad sabake lie khula hona chahie. yogy vyakti ko sthan milana chahie. yadyapi, vishveshvaraiya ko abhas ho gaya tha ki shasan is arakshan ko khatm nahin karega. isalie unhonne sanh. 1908 men tyagapatr dene ka faisala kiya. sarakar ne unhen rokane ki koshish ki. par vah apane nishchay par atal rahe. varshon tak vah vibhinn padon par kam karate rahe the. halanki unhen naukari karate hue abhi poore 25 varsh nahin hue the. jisake bad men penshan milati hai. tab bhi sarakar ne unhen penshan dene ka faisala kiya. vishveshvaraiya dvara kiye gaye karyon ki prashnsa men sarakar dvara kiya gaya yah ek pratik tha.

asadharan kary

  • unake injiniyaring ke asadharan karyon men maisoor shahar men kannamabadi ya krishnaraj sagar bandh banana ek mahattvapoorn kary tha. usaki yojana sanh 1909 men banaee gee thi aur sanh 1932 men yah poora hua.
  • bambee presidensi men kee jalashay banane ke bad, sinchaee v vidyut shakti ke lie unhonne kaveri nadi ko kam men lane ke lie yojana banaee. visheshakar kolar svarn khadanon ke lie donon hi mahattvapoorn the.
  • bandh 124 phut ooncha tha, jisamen 48,000 miliyan ghan phut pani ka snchay kiya ja sakata tha. jisaka upayog 150,000 ekad bhoomi ki sinchaee aur 60,000 kilo vats oorja utpann karane ke lie hona tha.
  • tab tak krishnaraj sagar bandh bharat men bana sabase bada jalashay tha. is bahuuddeshiy pariyojana ke karan anek udyog vikasit hue, jisamen bharat ki vishalatam chini mil, maisoor chini mil bhi shamil hai. apani dooradrishti ke karan, vishveshvaraiya ne paristhiti vigyan ke pahaloo par bhi poora dhyan diya.
  • maisoor shahar men ane vala pratyek yatri krishnaraj sagar bandh aur usake pas hi sthit prasiddh vrindavan gardan dekhana ek avashyak kary manata tha. vahan phavvaron ka jal prapat, marmar pakshi aur akarshak phoolon ki bahutayat dekhate hi banati thi. vishveshvaraiya ka ek svapn poora ho gaya tha.
  • vishveshvaraiya ne nishtha ki bhavana se kary kiya. isake atirikt, bharatiy rashtriyata ke vichar par ade rahane ke kisi bhi mauke ko unhonne nahin gnvaya. unhen apane bharatiy hone par garv tha. vah manate the ki agar avasar diya jaye to bharatiy britishavasiyon se kahin par bhi kam nahin hain.

rashtriyata ki bhavana

yah bharatiy rashtriyata ka hi prabhav tha, jisane unhen darabar men ane ka maisoor ke maharaja ka nimntran thukarane ko prerit kiya. sarakari roop se yah mana jata tha ki maharaja ke nimntran ko adesh mana jaye. phir bhi vishveshvaraiya ne amntran ko thukara diya. yah virodh tha, darabar men baithane ki vyavastha men bhedabhav ke viruddh. angrezon ko kursiyon par baithaya jata tha. bharatiyon se asha ki jati thi ki vah zamin par simat kar baithen. vishveshvaraiya se darabar men n ane ka karan poochha gaya. unhonne bhedabhav ka zikr karate hue javab likha. unaka tark maharaja ka sahi nazar aya. unhonne adesh diya ki pratyek nimantrit vayakti ko kursi par baithaya jae. vishveshvaraiya ke lie ye kshan garvapoorn the. apani dridhata ke dvara unhonne rashtriy garv ko badhava diya tha. jab unhen 'gad sev d king' (eeshvar raja ko surakshit rakhe) vala git gane ko kaha gaya, to unhen pata chala bharat ek british upanivesh hai. apane mamalon men bhi bharatiyon ko kuchh kahane ka adhikar nahin tha. bharat ki adhikansh sampatti videshiyon ne hadap li thi. kya unake ghar men kam karane vali naukarani videshi shasan ke karan garib hai? yah prashn vishveshvaraiya ke mastishk men umadata raha. rashtriyata ki chingari jal uthi thi aur unake jivan men yah ant tak jalati rahi.

maisoor ke divan

chif injiniyar banane ke tin sal bad navambar, 1912 men maisoor ke maharaja ne vishveshvaraiya ko vahan ka divan (pradhanamntri) bana diya. akhirakar, ab unhen yojana banane, vikas ka badhane v protsahit karane ka adhikar prapt ho gaya tha. mukhyataya shiksha, udyog, vanijy aur lok nirman men aur logon ko is bat ke lie protsahit karane ke lie ki ve thik dhng se kam karen, khoob kamayen v achchhe dhng se rahen. pad sambhalane se pahale unhonne apane rishtedaron v ghanisht mitron ko ratri bhoj par bulaya. vah bhavy samaroh tha. mezaban ne atithiyon ka svagat kiya, unhen achchhe se khilaya. unaki badhaiyan v shubhakamanaen svikar kin. phir unhonne un sabako pas baithakar kaha ki vah tabhi is naukari ko svikar karenge, agar ve unaki sharton ko man lenge. mehamanon ne ek doosare ki or dekha. ve janate the ki unake mezaban ki tippani men kuchh sar hai. vishveshvaraiya ke shabdon ko samajhane ke lie taiyar hone lage. unhonne kaha ki unamen se koee bhi unase kisi bhi kism ke pakshapat ki apeksha nahin karega. n hi ve koee sarakari snrakshan mangenge. kuchh mehamanon ke munh latak gaye. phir bhi, vishveshvaraiya ne apani bat spasht kar di thi. kisi bhi sndeh ki koee gunjaish nahin thi. divan ke pad rahate hue unhonne unhonne prajatntr ko badhava diya. vaidhanik mnch ke vichar vimarsh ko kshetr adhik vistrit ho gaya. gram samitiyon ko zyada adhikar saunpe gayen isalie unhonne aise mnch banaye jo am janata ke vicharon ka pratinidhitv karate the.

pres ki svatntrata

pres ko poorn svatntrata pradan ki gee. divan patrakaron ka sath tab tak dete jab tak ve bina kisi pakshapat ke ghatanaon ko likhate aur unaki alochana sakaratmak hoti. isase parivartan aya. am nirnayon ki charcha karane men sampadak adhik nirbhik ho gaye. patrakaron ki josh ki bhavana v nishchayapoorn kathani ko vishveshvaraiya poorn chilachaspi se sunate. unhen laga ki pres unaki ashaon ko poora kar raha hai. pres ke prati vishveshvaraiya ka ravaiya atal tha. isalie ve sampadakon ki udarata se sahayata karate the. unhonne unhen bachaya bhi, isaka praman karnatak saptahik ke sampadak di. vi. gundappa ke mamale men milata hai. unhonne sanh 1917 men roos ki kranti ke bare men ek riport bhi sampadakiy men likhi thi ki tanashahi arajakata hai. isase british rejident ko krodh a gaya. usane kaha ki sampadak ne n keval maharaja ka balki british shasan ka bhi apaman kiya hai. unhonne sujhav diya ki vishveshvaraiya ko sampadak ke viruddh thos kadan uthana chahie. divan ne gundappa se poochhatachh ki aur unhen yah pata laga ki sampadakiy tippani rajatntr ke viruddh nahin hai. balki tanashahi ke viruddh hai. vishveshvaraiya ne unaki safaee man li aur age ki karravaee rok di. unhonne british rejident ki is sifarish ko bhi thukara diya ki 'bambee kronikal' jaise akhabaron par rajy men ane par rok laga di jaye, jisake sampadak the, 'bi. ji. hauraniman', jo british hone par bhi bharatiy rashtriy andolan ke nishthavan samarthak the. is tarah se british rejident ke davab ka samana karane men vishveshvaraiya ne adamy sahas dikhaya.

audyogikikaran dvara adhunikikaran

  • vaigyanik dhng se kiye gaye audyogikikaran dvara adhunikikaran hi divan ka mukhy lakshy ban gaya. unhonne takaniki snsthaen kholi, uchch shiksha ke kendron men vriddhi ki.
  • unaka vichar tha ki shiksha ke dvara hi bal vivah, dahej pratha, ashiksha aur jati bhed ki dharanaon jaisi samajik buraiyon se lada ja sakata hai.
  • unake vicharon men 'hamari kamazoriyon ka karan jatipratha hai aur yahi buraee sthaee roop se adhikansh janata ke patan ka karan bhi hai.'
  • shiksha ke dvara, ve apane gyan ko badhakar unhen naukari ke yogy banana chahate the. vah naukari men bharti karane ke lie zaroori shiksha ke nyoonatam star ko kam nahin karana chahate the.

tyagapatr

vishveshvaraiya arakshan ke viruddh the. is mamale men unamen aur maharaja men matabhed ho gaya. vishveshvaraiya ne zor diya ki vah sarakari padon ki gunavatta ko kam nahin karenge. yah alasy v akaryakushalata ko janm deta hai. jab unhonne yah dekha ki maharaja nimn v pichhade varg ke logon ki bhalaee ke lie niyamon men dhil dene ke dridh snkalp hain to unhonne sanh 1919 men tyagapatr de diya. naukari chhodane ke bad vishveshvaraiya sarakari kar ka prayog n karake apani kar men ghar laut aye. yah pramanit karata hai ki vah sarakari suvidhaon ka istemal karane men kitani satarkata baratate the. jab vah vyaktigat kam se jate the, jab sarakari vahan ka istemal kabhi nahin karate the. aur jab vah vyaktigat patr likhate, to apane kagaz v dak samagri ka prayog karate.

upalabdhiyan

chif injiniyar aur divan ke pad par kary karate hue vishveshvaraiya ne maisoor rajy ko jin snsthaon v yojanaon ka upahar diya, ve hain-

  1. maisoor baink (1913),
  2. malanad sudhar yojana (1914),
  3. injiniyaring kaaulej, bngalaur (1916),
  4. maisoor vishvavidyalay aur oorja banane ke lie pavar steshan (1918)

lekhak ke roop men

jab unhonne naukari chhodi tab unaki ayu 58 varsh se adhik thi. koee aur vyakti hota to lambi v sarthak naukari ke bad apane avakash par anand uthata, par vishveshvaraiya ne aisa nahin kiya. unhonne 'bharat ka punarnirman' (1920), 'bharat ke liye niyojit arth vyavastha' (1934) namak pustaken likhin aur bharat ke arthik vikas ka margadarshan kiya.

golamej sammelan ka samarthan

  • vishveshvaraiya sanh 1921 men rashtravadiyon men sammilit ho gaye aur vaisaray se vichar-vimarsh kiya. svaraj ki mang par vichar karane ke lie unhonne 'golamej sammelan' par zor diya.
  • vikas yojanaon men utsahapoorvak bhag lete hue, vah gatividhiyon ke bich rahe.
  • bhadravati ispat yojana ke pichhe inhin ka hath tha.
  • bngalaur men 'hindustan havaee jahaz snyntr' ki sthapana men inhonne dilachaspi dikhaee.
  • unhonne vijag pot-karakhana banane par zor diya aur nirman ke samay kee achchhe sujhav bhi diye.

nishpaksh vishveshvaraiya

us samay vah qarib 92 varsh ke the, jab pndit neharoo ne yah sujhav diya ki gnga par pul banane ke lie vah vibhinn rajy sarakaron ke prastavon ki janch karen. unhen bihar men mokameh, rajamahal, sakarigali ghat, aur pashchim bngal men farakka men se do sthalon ko chunana tha. neharoo ne yah kahakar unhen chuna ki 'vah eemanadar, charitravan v udar rashtriy drishtikon rakhane vale injiniyar hain, jo pakshapatarahit nirnay le sakate hain. sthaniy davabon se oopar uth kar kary kar sakate hain aur unake vicharon ka sab log samman karate hain, evn ve sab unako svikar karate hain.' vishveshvaraiya un sthalon par gaye. unhonne sah payalat ki sit par, kaaukapit men baithakar, nadi aur nadi ke taton ka bariki se janch karane ke liye havaee sarvekshan kiya. taki pul banane ke lie sahi sthal ko chuna ja sake. is daure ke dauran vah patana men ruke. rajyapal em. es. ane ne unhen rajabhavan men rahane ka nimntran diya. vishveshvaraiya ne yah kahate hue asvikar kiya ki yah unake lie anuchit hoga ki vah rajyapal ki mehamanavazi ka anand uthayen. jabaki samiti ke any sadasy hotalon men rahenge. rajyapal ne tab samiti ke sare sadasyon ko amntrit kiya. bad men em. es. ane ne kaha, 'suvidha se pahale kartavy vishveshvaraiya ka adarsh hai.' antat: vishveshvaraiya ne pul banane ke lie mokameh aur farakka namak sthanon ka sujhav diya.

bharat ratn

apani shatabdi poori karane ke bad bhi yah mahanh vyakti poori tarah svasth tha. vah subah-sham sair par jate. vah sada samay ke paband rahe aur unamen jine ka utsah sada bana raha. vah apane vicharon men poornaroop se svatntr the. jab unhen sanh 1955 men bharat ratn pradan kiya gaya, to unhonne pndit neharoo ko likha, 'agar ap yah sochate hain ki is upadhi se vibhooshit karane se main apaki sarakar ki prashnsa karoonga, to apako nirasha hi hogi. main saty ki tah tak pahunchane vala vyakti hoon.' neharoo ne unaki bat ki prashnsa ki. unhonne vishveshvaraiya ko ashvasan diya ki rashtriy ghatanaon v vikas par tippani karane ke lie vah svatntr hain. yah samman unhen unake karyon ke liye diya gaya hai. isaka matalab unhen chup karana nahin hai.

antim samay

102 varsh ki ayu men bhi vah kam karate rahe. unhonne kaha, "jng lag jane se behatar hai, kam karate rahana." jab tak vah kary kar sakate the, karate rahe. 14 aprail sanh 1962 ko unaka svargavas ho gaya. lekin vah apane karyon ke dvara amar ho gaye. ant samay tak bhi unaka gyan pane ka utsah kam nahin hua tha. vah ekagrachitt hokar gyan ki talash karate rahe. jo gyan unhonne prapt kiya, usase unhen prakriti aur prakriti men nihit shakti v oorja ko jan kalyan ke lie kam men lagane men sahayata mili. vishveshvaraiya mahanh vyakti ke roop men nahin janme the. n hi mahanata un par jabaradasti thopi gee thi. kathin parishram, gyan ko prapt karane ke athak prayas, pariyojanaon v yojanaon ko karyanvit karane ke lie gyan ka upayog, jisake dvara janasamuday ki arthik v samajik sthiti ko sudharane ke adhik avasar mile, dvara mahanata prapt ki. vishveshvaraiya men bahumoortidarshi jaisa kuchh tha. jitani bar bhi ham unhen dekhate hain, unaki mahanata ka ek naya udaharan samane ata hai. chahe unhonne kisi bhi drishtikon se socha ho, unaki mahanata ka koee muqabala nahin kar sakata. unaki gahan rashtriyata ki bhavana hi hai jo hamara dhyan aj bhi unaki or akarshit karati hai. doosari or ham unake kam ke prati drishtikon se prabhavit hain, aur age dekhen to garibon ke prati unake sthaee prem ko dekhate hain, aur phir dekhen to ham unake achchhe svasthy men jhankate hain. unaki mahanata ke pahaloo asimit hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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