गोपाल कृष्ण गोखले  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gopal krishn gokhale
Gopal-Krishna-Gokhle.jpg
poora nam gopal krishn gokhale
janm 9 mee, 1866 ee.
janm bhoomi kolhapur, maharashtr (bharat)
mrityu 19 pharavari, 1915 ee.
mrityu sthan mumbee, maharashtr
mrityu karan madhumeh, dama
abhibhavak shri krishnarav shridhar gokhale
nagarikata bharatiy
prasiddhi svatntrata senani, samajasevi, vicharak evn samaj sudharak; ap mahatma gandhi ke rajanitik guru bhi the.
parti bharatiy rashtriy kangres
shiksha snatak
vishesh yogadan 'bharat sevak samaj' (saravents aauf indiya sosaiti) ki sthapana
any janakari apani shiksha poori karane par gopal krishn kuchh din 'nyoo inglish haee skool' men adhyapak rahe the. bad men poona ke prasiddh 'phargyoosan kaaulej' men itihas aur arthashastr ke pradhyapak rahe. balagngadhar tilak aur gokhale men paraspar kee matabhed the.

gopal krishn gokhale (angrezi: Gopal Krishna Gokhale, janm: 9 mee, 1866 ee., kolhapur, maharashtr; mrityu: 19 faravari, 1915 ee.) apane samay ke advitiy snsadavid aur rashtrasevi the. yah ek svatntrata senani, samajasevi, vicharak evn sudharak bhi the. 1857 ee. ke svatntrata sngram ke nau varsh bad gokhale ka janm hua tha. yah vah samay tha, jab svatntrata sngram asaphal avashy ho gaya tha, kintu bharat ke adhikansh deshavasiyon ke hriday men svatntrata ki ag dhadhakane lagi thi.[1]

jivan parichay

gopal krishn gokhale ka janm 9 mee, 1866 ee. ko maharashtr men kolhapur namak gram men hua tha. inake pita krishnarav shridhar gokhale ek garib kintu svabhimani brahman the. pita ke asamayik nidhan ne gopal krishn ko bachapan se hi sahishnu aur karmath bana diya tha. snatak ki digri prapt kar gokhale govind ranade dvara sthapit 'dekkan ejukeshan sosayati' ke sadasy bane. bad men ye maharashtr ke 'sukarat' kahe jane vale govind ranade ke shishy ban gaye. shiksha poori karane par gopalakrishn kuchh din 'nyoo inglish haee skool' men adhyapak rahe. bad men poona ke prasiddh phargyoosan kaaulej men itihas aur arthashastr ke pradhyapak ban ge.

eemanadari

gopal krishn tab tisari kaksha ke chhatr the. adhyapak ne jab bachchon ke grihakary ki kaaupiyan janchi, to gopal krishn ke alava kisi ke javab sahi nahin the. unhonne gopal krishn ko jab shabashi di, to gopal krishn ki ankhon se ashrudhara bahane lagi. sabhi hairan ho uthe. grihakary unhonne apane bade bhaee se karavaya tha. yah ek tarah se us nishtha ki shuruat thi, jisake adhar par gokhale ne age chalakar apane char siddhanton ki ghoshana ki-

  1. saty ke prati adigata
  2. apani bhool ki sahaj svikriti
  3. lakshy ke prati nishtha
  4. naitik adarshon ke prati adarabhav

vakapatuta ka kamal

bal gngadhar tilak se milane ke bad gokhale ke jivan ko nee disha mil gee. gokhale ne pahali bar kolhapur men ek sarvajanik sabha ko snbodhit kiya. san 1885 men gokhale ka bhashan sunakar shrota mntramugdh ho ge the, bhashan ka vishay tha-

angreji hukoomat ke adhin bharat.[2]

sarvajanik kary

nyayamoorti mahadev govind ranade ke snpark men ane se gopal krishn sarvajanik karyon men ruchi lene lage. un dinon poona ki 'sarvajanik sabha' ek pramukh rajanitik snstha thi. gokhale ne usake mntri ke roop men kary kiya. isase unake sarvajanik karyon ka vistar hua. kangres ki sthapana ke bad ve us snstha se jud ge. kangres ka 1905 ka banaras adhiveshan gokhale ki hi adhyakshata men hua tha. un dinon desh ki rajaniti men do vicharadharaon ka pradhany tha. lokamany tilak tatha lala lajapat ray jaise neta garam vicharon ke the. savaidhanik riti se desh ko svashasan ki or le jane men vishvas rakhane vale gokhale naram vicharon ke mane jate the. apaka kranti men nahin, sudharon men vishvas tha.[1]

rajaniti men pravesh

gokhale ka rajaniti men pahali bar pravesh 1888 ee. men ilahabad men hue kangres ke adhiveshan men hua. 1897 ee. men dakshin shiksha samiti ke sadasy ke roop men gokhale aur vacha ko inglaind jakar 'velbi ayog' ke samaksh gavahi dene ko kaha gaya. 1902 ee. men gokhale ko 'impiriyal lejisletiv kaunsil' ka sadasy chuna gaya. unhonne namak kar, anivary prathamik shiksha evn sarakari naukariyon men bharatiyon ko adhik sthan dene ke mudde ko kaunsil men uthaya. ugravadi dal ne unaki snyam ki gati ki badi alochana ki. unhen prayah shithil udaravadi bataya gaya. sarakar ne unhen kee bar ugravadi vicharon vale vyakti tatha chhadamh vidrohi ki sngya di.

mahadev govind ranade ke shishy gopal krishn gokhale ko vittiy mamalon ki advitiy samajh aur us par adhikarapoorvak bahas karane ki kshamata se unhen 'bharat ka gledaston' kaha jata hai. ve bharatiy rashtriy kangres men sabase prasiddh naramapnthi the.
gopal krishn gokhale ke hastakshar kara hua chitr
1905 men gokhale ne 'bharat sevak samaj' (saravents aauf indiya sosaiti) ki sthapana ki, taki naujavanon ko sarvajanik jivan ke lie prashikshit kiya ja sake. unaka manana tha ki vaigyanik aur takaniki shiksha bharat ki mahattvapoorn avashyakata hai. isilie inhonne sabase pahale prathamik shiksha lagoo karane ke liye sadan men vidheyak bhi prastut kiya tha. isake sadasyon men kee pramukh vyakti the. unhen nam matr ke vetan par jivan-bhar desh seva ka vrat lena hota tha. gokhale ne rajakiy tatha sarvajanik karyon ke lie 7 bar inglaind ki yatra ki.[1]
sudharak ki kadi bhasha

'kesari' aur 'maratha' akhabaron ke madhyam se lokamany tilak jahan angrez hukoomat ke viruddh lad rahe the, vahin 'sudharak' ko gokhale ne apani ladaee ka madhyam banaya hua tha. 'kesari' ki apeksha 'sudharak' ka roop akramak tha. sainikon dvara balatkar ka shikar huee do mahilaon ne jab atmahatya kar li, to 'sudharak' ne bharatiyon ko kadi bhasha men dhikkara tha-

tumhen dhikkar hai, jo apani mata-bahanon par hota hua atyachar chuppi sadhakar dekh rahe ho. itane nishkriy bhav se to pashu bhi atyachar sahan nahin karate.
in shabdon ne bharat men hi nahin, inglaind ke sabhy samaj men bhi khalabali macha di thi. 'sarvent aauf sosayati' ki sthapana gokhale dvara kiya gaya mahattvapoorn kary tha. is tarah gokhale ne rajaniti ko adhyatmikata ke dhanche men dhalane ka anutha kary kiya. is sosaiti ke sadasyon ko ye 7 shapath grahan karani hoti thin-

  1. vah apane desh ki sarvochch samajhega aur usaki seva men pran nyochhavar kar dega.
  2. desh seva men vyaktigat labh ko nahin dekhega.
  3. pratyek bharatavasi ko apana bhaee manega.
  4. jati samaday ka bhed nahin manega.
  5. sosaiti usake aur usake parivar ke lie jo dhanarashi degi, vah usase sntusht rahega tatha adhik kamane ki or dhyan nahin dega.
  6. pavitr jivan bitaega. kisi se jhagada nahin karega.
  7. sosayati ka adhikatam snrakshan karega tatha aisa karate samay sosayati ke uddeshyon par poora dhyan dega.[2]

sachche rashtravadi

gokhale udaravadi hone ke sath-sath sachche rashtravadi bhi the. ve angrezon ke prati bhakti ko hi rashtrabhakti samajhate the. gokhale yah kalpana nahin kar sakate the ki angrezi samrajy ke bahar bharat kuchh pragati kar sakata hai. angrezi samrajy ko chunauti dene ke dushparinamon ki kalpana karake hi ve angrezi samrajy ke bhari samarthak ban gaye. laaurd harding se gokhale ne kaha tha ki "yadi angrez bharat chhodakar chale gaye, tab unake pahunchane se poorv bharatiy neta unako laut ane ke lie tar dvara amntrit karengen." garam dal ke logon ne unhen 'durbal hriday ka udaravadi evn chhipa hua rajadrohi kaha. unhonne 1909 ee. ke marle-minto sudhar ke nirman men sahayog kiya. 1912-1915 ee. tak gokhale ' bharatiy lok seva ayog' ke adhyaksh rahe. rashtr ki seva ke lie rashtriy pracharakon ko taiyar karane hetu gokhale ne 12 joon, 1905 ko 'bharat sevak samiti' ki sthapana ki. is snstha se paida hone vale mahatvapurn samaj sevakon men vi. shrinivas shastri, ji.ke. devadhar, en.em. joshi, pndit hriday narayan kunjaroo adi the. unhonne 'poona sarvajanik sabha' ki patrika tatha 'sudharak' ka sampadan bhi kiya.

gandhi ji ko mili thi gokhale se prerana

Blockquote-open.gif 'kesari' aur 'maratha' akhabaron ke madhyam se tilak jahan angrezi hukoomat ke viruddh lad rahe the, vahin 'sudharak' ko gokhale ne apani ladaee ka madhyam banaya hua tha. 'kesari' ki apeksha 'sudharak' ka roop akramak tha. sainikon dvara balatkar ka shikar huee do mahilaon ne jab atmahatya kar li, to 'sudharak' ne bharatiyon ko kadi bhasha men dhikkara tha- tumhen dhikkar hai, jo apani mata-bahanon par hota hua atyachar chuppi sadhakar dekh rahe ho. itane nishkriy bhav se to pashu bhi atyachar sahan nahin karate. Blockquote-close.gif

gandhi ji gokhale ko apana rajanitik guru manate the. apake paramarsh par hi unhonne sakriy rajaniti men bhag lene se poorv ek varsh tak desh men ghoomakar sthiti ka adhyayan karane ka nishchay kiya tha. sabaramati ashram ki sthapana ke lie gokhale ne gandhi ji ko arthik sahayata di. gokhale sirph gandhi ji ke hi nahin balki mohammad ali jinna ke bhi rajanitik guru the. gandhi ji ko ahinsa ke jarie svatntrata sngram ki ladaee ki prerana gokhale se hi mili thi. gokhale ki prerana se hi gandhi ji ne dakshin aphrika men rngabhed ke khilaf andolan chalaya. sanh 1912 men gandhi ke amntran par vah khud bhi dakshin aphrika ge aur vahan jari rngabhed ki ninda ki. jan neta kahe jane vale gokhale naramapnthi sudharavadi the. unhonne azadi ki ladaee ke sath hi desh men vyapt chhuachhoot aur jativad ke khilaf andolan chalaya. vah jivanabhar hindoo muslim ekata ke lie kam karate rahe. mohammad ali jinna ne bhi unhen apana rajanitik guru mana tha. yah bat alag hai ki bad men jinna gokhale ke adarshon par qayam nahin rah pae aur desh ke bntavare ke nam par bhari khoonakharaba karaya.[3]

savaidhanik sudhar

vaisaray ki kaunsil men rahate hue gokhale ne kisanon ki sthiti ki or anek bar dhyan dilaya. ve savaidhanik sudharon ke lie nirntar zor dete rahe. 'minto marle sudharon' ka bahut kuchh shrey gokhale ke pratyanon ko hai. naram vicharon ke hote hue desh ke badalate tevar se gokhale bilkul alag nahin the. isalie 'bng bhng' ke virodh men arnbh men bahishkar ke snbndh men unhonne kaha tha-

yadi sahayog ke sare marg avaruddh ho jaen aur desh ki lok-chetana isake anukool ho, bahishkar ka prayog sarvatha uchit hai.[1]

nidhan

gopal krishn gokhale madhumeh, dama jaisi kee gnbhir bimariyon se pareshan rahane lage aur antat: 19 pharavari, 1915 ee. ko mumbee, maharashtr men unaka nidhan ho gaya. gokhale ne bharat ke lie 'kaunsil aauf d sekretari aauf stet' aur 'naitahud' ki upadhi men pad grahan karane se inkar kar diya tha. unhonne aisa isalie kiya, kyonki ve nimn jati ke hinduon ki shiksha aur rozagar men sudhar ki mang kar rahe the, jisase ki unhen atm-samman aur samajik star pradan kiya ja sake. gokhale ne svadeshi ka prachar karate hue bharat men audyogikikaran ka samarthan kiya, kintu ve bayakat ki niti ke viruddh the. apane samajhautavadi svabhav ke vashibhoot hokar 1906 ke kalakatta adhiveshan men unhonne bayakat ke prastav ka samarthan kiya. gokhale ki mrityu ke bad mahatma gandhi ne apane is rajanitik guru ke bare men kaha "sar phirojashah mujhe himalay ki tarah dikhaee diye, jise mapa nahin ja sakata aur lokamany tilak mahasagar ki tarah, jisamen koee asani se utar nahin sakata, par gokhale to gnga ke saman the, jo sabako apane pas bulati hai." tilak ne gokhale ko 'bharat ka hira', 'maharashtr ka lal' aur 'karyakartaon ka raja' kahakar unaki sarahana ki.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 sharma, liladhar bharatiy charit kosh (hindi). bharatadiskavari pustakalay: shiksha bharati, dilli, prishth 246-247.
  2. 2.0 2.1 gopal krishn gokhale (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) bharatiy sahity sngrah. abhigaman tithi: 6 mee, 2011.
  3. gandhi ji ko mili thi gokhale se prerana (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) samay laiv. abhigaman tithi: 6 mee, 2011.

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