जगजीवन राम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

jagajivan ram
Jagjivan-Ram.jpg
poora nam baboo jagajivan ram
any nam babooji
janm 5 aprail, 1908 ee.
janm bhoomi bhojapur ka 'chndava ganv', bihar
mrityu 6 julaee, 1986 ee.
abhibhavak shobha ram (pita)
sntan putri- mira kumar
nagarikata bharatiy
prasiddhi dalit varg ke masiha ke roop men yad kiya jata hai.
parti kangres aur janata dal
pad shram mntri, rel mntri, krishi mntri, raksha mntri aur up-pradhanamntri adi padon par rahe.
shiksha snatak
vidyalay kalakatta vishvavidyalay
bhasha hindi, angrezi
jel yatra bharat chhodo andolan ke dauran jel yatra ki.
any janakari babooji sasaram kshetr se ath bar chunakar snsad men ge aur bhinn-bhinn mntralay ke mntri ke roop men kary kiya. ve 1952 se 1984 ee. tak lagatar sansad chune ge.

jagajivan ram (angrezi: Jagjivan Ram, janm- 5 aprail 1908; mrityu- 6 julaee, 1986) adhunik bharatiy rajaniti ke shikhar purush jinhen adar se 'babooji' ke nam se snbodhit kiya jata tha. lagabhag 50 varsho ke snsadiy jivan men rashtr ke prati unaka samarpan aur nishtha bemisal hai. unaka snpoorn jivan rajanitik, samajik sakriyata aur vishisht upalabdhiyon se bhara hua hai. sadiyon se shoshan aur utpidit daliton, mazadooron ke moolabhoot adhikaron ki raksha ke lie jagajivan ram dvara kie ge qanooni pravadhan aitihasik hain. jagajivan ram ka aisa vyaktitv tha jisane kabhi bhi anyay se samajhauta nahin kiya aur daliton ke samman ke lie hamesha sngharsharat rahe. vidyarthi jivan se hi unhonne anyay ke prati avaz uthayi. baboo jagajivan ram ka bharat men snsadiy lokatntr ke vikas men mahati yogadan hai.

janm

ek dalit ke ghar men janm lekar rashtriy rajaniti ke kshitij par chha jane vale baboo jagajivan ram ka janm bihar ki us dharati par hua tha jisaki bharatiy itihas aur rajaniti men mahattvapoorn bhoomika rahi hai. baboo jagajivan ram ka janm 5 aprail 1908 ko bihar men bhojapur ke chndava ganv men hua tha. unaka nam jagajivan ram rakhe jane ke pichhe prakhyat snt ravidas ke ek dohe - prabhu ji sngati sharan tihari, jagajivan ram murari, ki prerana thi. isi dohe se prerana lekar unake mata-pita ne apane putr ka nam jagajivan ram rakha tha. unake pita shobha ram ek kisan the, jinhonne british sena men naukari bhi ki thi.

shiksha

inhonne snatak ki digri kalakatta vishvavidyalay se 1931 men li.

svatntrata andolan men bhag

jagajivan ram us samay mahatma gandhi ke netritv men azadi ke lie sngharsh karane vale dal men shamil hue, jab angrez apani poori taqat ke sath azadi ke sapane ko hamesha ke lie kuchal dena chahate the. prithakh nirvachan kshetron ke lie angrejon ne apani sari taqat jhonk di thi. muslim lig ki kaman jinna ke hath men thi aur ve angrejon ke hath ki kathaputali bane the.

gandhi ji ne samrajyavadi angrejon ke irade ko bhanp liya tha ki svatntrata andolan ko kamazor karane ke lie angrezon ki phoot dalo, raj karo niti ko babooji ne samajha. hindoo muslim vibhajan kar angrezon ne daliton aur savarnon ke madhy khaee banane prarambh ki, jisamen vah saphal bhi hue aur daliton ke lie 'nirvachan mndal', 'matantaran' aur 'achhootistan' ki baten hone lagin. mahatma gandhi ne isake dooragami parinamon ko samajha aur amaran anashan par baith ge. yah rashtriy snkat ka samay tha. is samay rashtravadi babooji jyoti stnbh banakar ubhare. unhonne daliton ke samoohik dharm-parivartan ko roka aur unhen svatntrata ki mukhyadhara se jodane men rajanitik kaushal aur dooradarshita ka parichay diya. is ghatana ke bad babooji daliton ke sarvamany rashtriy neta ke roop men pratishthit ho ge. vah bapoo ke vishvasaniy aur priy patr bane aur rashtriy rajaniti ke kendr men a ge.

angrezon ka virodh

1936 men 28 sal ki umr men hi unhen bihar vidhan parishad ka sadasy chuna gaya tha. 'gavarment aauph indiya ekt' 1935 ke antargat 1937 men angrezon ne bihar men kangres ko harane ke lie yoonus ke netritv men kathaputali sarakar banavane ka nishphal prayatn kiya. is chunav men babooji nirvirodh nirvachit hue aur unake 'bharatiy dalit varg sngh' ke 14 sadasy bhi jite. unake samarthan ke bina vahan koee sarakar nahin ban sakati thi. yoonus ne babooji ko manachaha mntri pad aur any pralobhan diye, kintu babooji ne us prastav ko turnt thukara diya. yah dekhakar gandhi ji ne 'patrika harijan' men is par tippani karate hue ise deshavasiyon ke lie adarsh aur anukaraniy bataya. usake bad bihar men kangres ki sarakar men vah mntri banen kintu kuchh samay men hi angrez sarakar ki laparavahi ke karan mahatma ji ke kahane par kangres sarakaron ne istipha de diya. babooji is kam men sabase age rahe. munbee men 9 agast 1942 ko mahatma gandhi ne bharat chhodo andolan prarambh kiya to jagajivan ram sabase age the. yojana ke anusar unhen bihar men andolan tej karana tha lekin das din bad hi giraphtar kar lie gaye.

rajaniti men saphalata

Blockquote-open.gif babooji ke prayatnon se ganv - ganv tak dak aur taragharon ki vyavastha ka bhi vistar hua. relamntri ke roop men babooji ne desh ko atm-nirbhar banane ke lie varanasi men dijal injan karakhana, pairamboor men 'savari dibba karakhana' aur bihar ke jamalapur men 'mal dibba karakhana' ki sthapana ki. Blockquote-close.gif

san 1946 men pndit javaharalal neharoo ki antarim sarakar men shamil hone ke bad vah satta ki uchch sidhiyon par chadhate chale ge aur tis sal tak kangres mntrimndal men rahe. panch dashak se adhik samay tak sakriy rajaniti men rahe baboo jagajivan ram ne samajik karyakarta, sansad aur kaibinet mntri ke roop men desh ki seva ki. unaki sabase badi upalabdhi thi ki shram, krishi, snchar, relave ya raksha, jo bhi mntralay unhen diya gaya unhonne usaka prashasanik dakshata se snchalan kiya aur usamen sadaiv safal rahe. kisi bhi mntralay men samasya ka samadhan badi kushalata se kiya karate the. unhonne kisi bhi mntralay se kabhi istifa nahin diya aur sabhi mntralayon ka karyakal poora kiya.

shram mntri

1946 tak vah gandhi ji ke hriday men utar ge the. ab tak angrezon ne bhi babooji ko bharatiy dalit samaj ke sarvamany neta ke roop men svikar kar liya. azadi ke bad jo pahali sarakar bani usamen unhen shram mntri banaya gaya. yah unaka priy vishay tha. vah bihar ke ek chhote se ganv ki mati ki upaj the, jahan unhonne khetihar mazadooron ka trasadi se bhara jivan dekha tha. vidyarthi ke roop men kolakata men mil - mazadooron ki darun sthiti se bhi unaka sakshatkar hua tha. bajooji ne shram mntri ke roop men mazadooron ki jivan sthitiyon men avashyak sudhar lane aur unaki samajik, arthik suraksha ke lie vishisht qanooni pravadhan kie, jo aj bhi hamare desh ki shram - niti ka mooladhar hain.

mazadooron ke hitaishi

Blockquote-open.gif babooji sasaram kshetr se ath bar chunakar snsad men ge aur bhinn-bhinn mntralay ke mntri ke roop men kary kiya. ve 1952 se 1984 tak lagatar sansad chune ge. Blockquote-close.gif

doosare vishvayuddh ke bad angrezon ne bharat chhoda to unaka prayas tha ki pakistan ki bhanti bharat ke kee tukade kar die jaen. shimala men kaibinet mishan ke samane babooji ne daliton aur any bharatiyon ke madhy phoot dalane ki angrezon ki koshish ko nakam kar diya. antarim sarakar men jab barah logon ko lard vavel ki kaibinet men shamil hone ke lie bulaya gaya to usamen baboo jagajivan ram bhi the. unhen shram vibhag diya gaya. is samay unhonne aise qanoon banae jo bharat ke itihas men am adami, mazadooron aur dabe kuchale vargon ke hit ki disha men mil ke patthar mane jate hain. unhonne 'minimam vejej ekt', 'indastriyal dispyoots ekt' aur 'tred yooniyan ekt' banaya jise aj bhi mazadooron ke hit men sabase bade hathiyar ke roop men jana jata hai. unhonne 'emplaij stet inshyorens ekt' aur 'provident phnd ekt' bhi banavaya.

snsad men

bharat ki snsad ko baboo jagajivan ram apana doosara ghar manate the. 1952 men unhen neharoo ji ne 'snchar mntri' banaya. us samay snchar mntralay men hi vimanan vibhag bhi tha. unhonne niji vimanan knpaniyon ka rashtriyakaran kiya aur ganvon men dakakhanon ka netavark vikasit kiya. bad men neharoo ji ne unhen rel mntri banaya. us samay unhonne relave ke adhunikikaran ki buniyad dali aur relave karmachariyon ke lie kalyanakari yojanaen prarambh ki. unhin ke prayas se aj relave desh ka sabase bada vibhag hai. ve sasaram kshetr se ath bar chunakar snsad men ge aur bhinn-bhinn mntralay ke mntri ke roop men kary kiya. ve 1952 se 1984 tak lagatar sansad chune ge.

sngathan

unhen pad ki lalasa bilkul n thi. jab kamaraj yojana aee to unhonne sngathan ka kam prarambh kiya. shastri ji ki mrityu ke bad jab indira ji ne pradhanamntri pad snbhala to indira ji ne baboo ji ko ati kushal prashasak ke roop men apane sath liya. vah bharat ke lie bahut kathin din the.

harit kranti

1962 men chin aur 1965 men pakistan se ladaee ke karan garib aur kisan bhukhamari se lad rahe the. amerika se pi.el- 480 ke antargat sahayata men milane vala gehoon aur jvar mukhy sadhan tha. aisi visham paristhiti men daau naauraman boralag ne bharat akar 'harit kranti' ka sootrapat kiya. harit kranti ke antargat kisanon ko achchhe aujar, sinchaee ke lie pani aur unnat bij ki vyavastha karani thi. adhunik takaniki ke pakshadhar baboo jagajivan ram krishi mntri the aur unhonne daau naauraman boralag ki yojana ko desh men lagoo karane men poora rajanitik samarthan diya. do dhaee sal men hi halat badal gaye aur amerika se anaj ka ayat rok diya gaya. bharat 'phood saraplas' desh ban gaya tha.

raksha mntri ke roop men

Blockquote-open.gif chhuachhoot virodhi ek sammelan men jagajivan ram ne kaha- savarn hinduon ki in nasihaton se ki mans bhakshan chhod do, madira mat piyo, saphaee ke sath raho, ab kam nahin chalega. ab dalit upadesh nahin, achchhe vyavahar ki mang karate hain aur unaki mang svikar karani hogi. shabdon ki nahin thos kam ki avashyakata hai. muhammad ali jinna ne musalamanon ko apana alag desh banane ke lie ukasa diya hai. daau ambedakar ne achhooton ke lie prithakh nirvachan mndal ki mag ki hai. rashtr ki rachana hamase huee hai, rashtr se hamari nahi. rashtr hamara hai. ise ekatabaddh karane ka prayas bharat ke logon ko hi karana hai. mahatma gandhi ne nirnay liya hai ki chhuachhoot ko samapt karana hoga. isake lie mujhe apani kurbani bhi deni pade to main pichhe nahin hatoonga. desh ki azadi ki ladaee men sabhi dharm aur jati ke logon ko badi snkhya men jodana hoga. Blockquote-close.gif

1962 aur 1965 ki ladaee ke bad bhookh ki samasya ko unhonne bahut bahaduri aur soojhaboojh se parast kiya. 1971 men bangladesh ki sthapana ke pahale bharat aur pakistan ki ladaee men baboo ji ne jis tarah apani senaon ko rajanitik sahayog diya vah sainy itihas men ek udaharan hai. jab kangres ke tamam purane netaon ne indira gandhi ka sath chhod diya tha, baboo jagajivan ram hamesha unake sath rahe, kintu unhonne kabhi bhi moolyon se samajhauta nahin kiya.

snchar aur parivahan mntri ke roop men

isi prakar snchar aur parivahan mntri ke roop men unhonne virodh ke bad bhi niji havaee sevaon ke rashtriyakaran ki disha men saphal prayog kiya. phalasvaroop 'vayu seva nigam' bana aur 'indiyan eyar lains' v 'eyar indiya' ki sthapana huee. is rashtriyakaran ka prabal virodh hua, jise dekhate hue saradar patel bhi ise kuchh samay ke lie sthagit karane ke paksh men the. babooji ne unase kaha tha - 'azadi ke bad desh ke punarnirman ke siva aur kam hi kya bacha hai?' isi samay babooji ke prayatnon se ganv - ganv tak dak aur taragharon ki vyavastha ka bhi vistar hua. relamntri ke roop men babooji ne desh ko atm-nirbhar banane ke lie varanasi men dijal injan karakhana, pairamboor men 'savari dibba karakhana' aur bihar ke jamalapur men 'mal dibba karakhana' ki sthapana ki.

Blockquote-open.gif babooji ne saradar patel se kaha tha - 'azadi ke bad desh ke punarnirman ke siva aur kam hi kya bacha hai?' Blockquote-close.gif

patana men ayojit chhuachhoot virodhi sammelan men unhonne kaha - savarn hinduon ki in nasihaton se ki mans bhakshan chhod do, madira mat piyo, saphaee ke sath raho, ab kam nahin chalega. ab dalit upadesh nahin, achchhe vyavahar ki mang karate hain aur unaki mang svikar karani hogi. shabdon ki nahin thos kam ki avashyakata hai. muhammad ali jinna ne musalamanon ko apana alag desh banane ke lie ukasa diya hai. daau ambedakar ne achhooton ke lie prithakh nirvachan mndal ki mag ki hai. rashtr ki rachana hamase huee hai, rashtr se hamari nahi. rashtr hamara hai. ise ekatabaddh karane ka prayas bharat ke logon ko hi karana hai. mahatma gandhi ne nirnay liya hai ki chhuachhoot ko samapt karana hoga. isake lie mujhe apani kurbani bhi deni pade to main pichhe nahin hatoonga. desh ki azadi ki ladaee men sabhi dharm aur jati ke logon ko badi snkhya men jodana hoga.

janata dal men

azadi ke bad jab pahali sarakar bani to ve usamen kaibinet mntri ke roop men shamil hue aur jab tanashahi ka virodh karane ka avasar aya to lokashahi ki sthapana ki ladaee men shamil ho ge. 1969 men kangres ke vibhajan ke samay inhonne shrimati indira gandhi ka sath diya tatha kangres parti ke adhyaksh chune ge . 1970 men inhonen kangres parti chhod di aur janata dal men shamil ho gaye the. sab janate hain ki 6 pharavari 1977 ke din kendriy mntrimndal se diya gaya unaka istifa hi vah taqat thi jisane imarajensi ko khatm kiya.

jivani ke mukhy bindu

  • jagajivan ram ne 1928 men kolakata ke velingatan skveyar men ek vishal mazadoor raili ka ayojan kiya tha jisamen lagabhag 50 hazar log shamil hue.
  • netaji subhash chndr bos tabhi bhanp ge the ki jagajivan ram men ek bada neta banane ke tamam gun maujood hain.[1]
  • mahatma gandhi ke ahvan par bharat chhodo andolan men bhi jagajivan ram ne mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhaee. vah un bade netaon men shamil the jinhonne dvitiy vishvayuddh men bharat ko jhonkane ke angrezon ke phaisale ki ninda ki thi. isake lie unhen jel bhi jana pada.[1]
  • varsh 1946 men vah javahar lal neharoo ke netritv vali sarakar men sabase kam umr ke mntri bane. bharat ke pahale mntrimndal men unhen shram mntri ka darja mila aur 1946 se 1952 tak is pad par rahe.
  • jagajivan ram 1952 se 1986 tak snsad sadasy rahe. 1956 se 1962 tak unhonne rel mntri ka pad snbhala. 1967 se 1970 aur phir 1974 se 1977 tak vah krishi mntri rahe.
  • itana hi nahin 1970 se 1971 tak jagajivan ram bharatiy rashtriy kangres ke adhyaksh bhi rahe. 1970 se 1974 tak unhonne desh ke rakshamntri ke roop men kam kiya.
  • 23 march, 1977 se 22 agast, 1979 tak vah bharat ke up pradhanamntri bhi rahe.
  • apatakal ke dauran varsh 1977 men vah kangres se alag ho ge aur 'kangres phaaur demokresi' nam ki parti ka gathan kiya aur janata gathabndhan men shamil ho ge. isake bad 1980 men unhonne kangres (je) ka gathan kiya.

nidhan

6 julaee, 1986 ko 78 sal ki umr men is mahanh rajanitigy ka nidhan ho gaya. baboo jagajivan ram ko bharatiy samaj aur rajaniti men dalit varg ke masiha ke roop men yad kiya jata hai. vah svatntr bharat ke un gine chune netaon men the jinhonne desh ki rajaniti ke sath hi dalit samaj ko bhi nayi disha pradan ki.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 badhaen langh bulndiyon par pahunche jagajivan ram (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) samay laiv. abhigaman tithi: 5 apral, 2011.

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