राष्ट्रीय चिह्न और प्रतीक  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

is lekh men apako bharat ki rashh‍triy pahachan ke pratikon ka parichay diya gaya hai. yah pratik bharatiy pahachan aur virasat ka moolabhoot hish‍sa hain. vishh‍v bhar men base vividh prishh‍thabhoomiyon ke bharatiy in rashh‍triy pratikon par garv karate hain kh‍yonki ve prath‍yek bharatiy ke hriday men gaurav aur desh bhakti ki bhavana ka snchar karate hain.

tirnga ashok chinh jan gan man am kamal bagh gnga gnga daaulfin mor vandemataram haauki baragad

rashh‍triy dhh‍vaj

tirnga

hamara rashtriy dhvaj tin rngon se bana hai isalie ham ise tirnga bhi kahate hain. isamen sabase oopar gahara kesariya, bich men safed aur sabase niche gahara hara rng barabar anupat men hai. dhh‍vaj ko sadharan bhasha men 'jhnda' bhi kaha jata hai. jhnde ki chaudaee aur lamh‍baee ka anupat 2:3 hai. safed patti ke kendr men gahara nile rng ka chakr hai, jisaka praroop ashok ki rajadhani saranath men sthapit sinh ke shirshaphalak ke chakr men dikhane vale chakr ki bhanti hai. chakr ki paridhi lagabhag safed patti ki chaudaee ke barabar hai. chakr men 24 tiliyan hain. rashh‍triy dhh‍vaj ka dijain 22 julaee, 1947 ko bharat ke snvidhan dvara apanaya gaya tha.

rashh‍triy pakshi

mor

mor ke adbhut saundary ke karan hi bharat sarakar ne 26 janavari, 1963 ko ise rashtriy pakshi ghoshit kiya. bharatiy janamanas ke man men basa aur asthaon se racha basa pakshi mor, pavon krish‍tatus, bharat ka rashh‍triy pakshi hai. isaki do prajatiyan hain-

  • nila ya bharatiy mor (paivo kristetas), jo bharat aur shrilnka (bhootapoorv silon) men paya jata hai.
  • hara ya java ka mor (pi. myootikas), jo myanmar (bhootapoorv barma) se java tak paya jata hai.

rashh‍triy pushh‍p

kamal

bharat ka rashtriy pushp kamal (nelnbo nyoosipera gartan) hai. yah ek pavitr pushp hai tatha prachin bharatiy kal aur puranon men isaka mahattvapoorn sthan hai. prachinakal se hi ise bharatiy snskriti men shubh pratik mana jata hai.

rashh‍triy ped

baragad

bharat ka rashh‍triy vriksh baragad (phaikas benghalensis) hai. baragad ka vriksh ghana evn phaila hua hota hai. isaki shakhaen door-door tak phaili tatha jaden gahari hoti hain. itani gahari jaden kisi aur vriksh ki nahin hotin.

rashh‍triy gan

jan gan man ka vadan hetu nad-svar lipi

sh‍vargiy kavi ravindranath taigor dvara snkshipt "jan gan man" ke nam se prakhh‍yat shabdon aur sngit ki rachana, bharat ka rashh‍tragan hai. aisi stuti ya gan, jo rashtraprem ki bhavana abhivyakt karata ho tatha shasakiy roop se adhikarik rashtragan ke roop men svikrit ho ya janasadharan men lokapriy ho. sabase purana rashtragan gret briten ka ‘gaaud sev d kvin’ hai, jise 1825 men rashtragan ke roop men varnit kiya gaya tha, halanki 18vin sadi ke madhy se hi yah deshaprem ke git ke roop men lokapriy raha tatha rajasi samarohon men gaya jata tha. 19vin tatha 20vin sadi ke arnbh men adhikansh yooropiy deshon ne briten ka anusaran kiya, kuchh rashtragan khas uddeshy se likhe ge, jabaki any ko pahale se maujood dhunon se apanaya gaya. ise is prakar padha jata hai.


jan-gan-man adhinayak, jay he
bharat-bhagh‍y-vidhata,
pnjab-sindhu gujarat-maratha,
dravid-uth‍kal bng,
vinh‍dhh‍y-himachal-yamuna gnga,
uchh‍chhal-jaladhi-tarng,
tav shubh name jage,
tav shubh ashish mange,
gahe tav jay gatha,
jan-gan-mngal dayak jay he
bharat-bhagh‍y-vidhata
jay he, jay he, jay he
jay jay jay jay he.

rashh‍triy nadi

gnga nadi, varanasi

bharat ki sabase mahattvapoorn nadi gnga, rashh‍triy nadi hai, jo bharat aur bangladesh men milakar 2,510 kimi ki doori tay karati huee uttaranchal men himalay se lekar bngal ki khadi ke sundaravan tak vishal bhoo-bhag ko sinchati hai. gnga, desh ki prakritik snpada hi nahin, jan jan ki bhavanatmak astha ka adhar bhi hai.

rashh‍triy jaliy jiv

gnga daaulfin

"gnga daaulfin" (Platanista gangetica) bharat ki rashh‍triy jaliy jiv hai. daaulfin ki do prajatiyan hain. ye bharat, bangladesh, nepal tatha pakistan men paee jati hain. gnga daaulfin sabhi deshon ke nadiyon ke jal, mukhyatah gnga nadi men tatha sindhu nadi daaulfin, pakistan ke sindhu nadi ke jal men paee jati hai.

rajakiy pratik

ashok chihn

bharat ka rashh‍trachihn saranath sthit ashok ke sinh stnbh ki anukriti hai, jo saranath ke sngrahalay men surakshit hai. mool stnbh men shirsh par char sinh hain, jo ek-doosare ki or pith kie hue hain.

rashh‍triy pnchang

shak snvat ya rashtriy shake bharat ka rashtriy pnchang hai. yah 78 varsh eesa poorv prarambh hua tha. chaitr 1, 1879 shak snvat (22 march 1957) ko ise adhikarik roop se vidhivat apanaya gaya. 500 ee. ke uparant snskrit men likhit sabhi jyotishashastriy granth shak snvat ka prayog karane lage. is snvat ka yah nam kyon pada, is vishay men vibhinn ek mat hain. ise kushan raja kanishk ne chalaya ya kisi any ne, is vishay men antim roop se kuchh nahin kaha ja saka hai. yah ek katin samasya hai jo bharatiy itihas aur kal nirnay ki atyant kathin samasyaon men mani jati hai.

rashh‍triy pashu

bagh

rashtriy pashu 'bagh' (painthara taigris-linnayas), pile rngon aur dharidar lomacharm vala ek pashu hai. rajasi bagh, tendua, taigris dharidar janavar hai. apani shalinata, dridhata, phurti aur apar shakti ke lie bagh ko 'rashtriy pashu' kahalane ka gaurav prapt hai. isaki ath prajatiyon men se bharat men paee jane vali prajati ko ‘raauyal bngal taigar’ ke nam se jana jata hai. uttar-pashchim bharat ko chhodakar baki sare deshon men yah prajati payi jati hai. bharat ke atirikt yah nepal, bhootan aur bngaladesh jaise padosi deshon men bhi paya jata hai.

rashh‍triy git

vande mataramh

bnkimachndr chatarji ne vnde mataramh git ki snskrit men rachana ki hai. shri aravindi ne is git ka angrezi men aur arif mauhammad khan ne isaka urdoo men anuvad kiya hai. isaka sh‍than jan gan man ke barabar hai. yah sh‍vatntrata ki ladaee men logon ke lie prarena ka srot tha. vah pahala rajanitik avasar, jab yah git gaya gaya tha, 1896 men bharatiy rashtriy kangres ka adhiveshan tha. isaka pratham pad is prakar hai-

vnde mataramh, vnde mataramh!
sujalamh, suphalamh, malayaj shitalamh,
shasyashyamalamh, mataramh! vnde mataramh!
shubhrajyotsanamh pulakitayaminimh,
phullakusumit drumadal shobhinimh,
suhasinimh sumadhur bhashinimh,
sukhadamh varadamh, mataramh!
vnde mataramh, vnde mataramh॥

rashh‍triy phal

am

am (menigiphera indika) bharat ka rashtriy phal hai. kajoo parivar (enakardiesi) ka sadasy, vishv ke ushnakatibndhiy kshetr ka ek mahattvapoorn phal hai. ooshnakatibndhiy deshon men am bade paimane par paida hote hain. am ko poorvi eshiya, myanmar (bhootapoorv barma) aur bharat ke asam rajy ka sthaniy phal mana jata hai. am ek goode dar phal hai, jise pakakar khaya jata hai ya kachh‍cha hone par ise achar adi men ish‍temal kiya jata hai.

rashh‍triy khel

haauki

bharat ka rashtriy khel haauki hai. haauki ka prarambh varsh 2010 se 4,000 varsh poorv eeran men hua tha. isake bad bahut se deshon men isaka agaman hua par uchit sthan n mil saka. ant men ise bharat men vishesh samman mila aur yah rashtriy khel bana. hamare desh men isaka arambh 100 varshon se pahale hua tha. 11 khiladiyon ke do virodhi dalon ke bich maidan men khele jane vale is khel men pratyek khiladi marak bindu par mudi huee ek chhadi (stik) ka istemal ek chhoti v kathor gend ko virodhi dal ke gol men marane ke lie karata hai. barf men khele jane vale isi tarah ke ek khel 'aees haauki' se bhinnata darshane ke lie ise maidani haauki kahate hain.

rashtriy mudra

bharatiy rupe ka pratik chihn

bharatiy rupe ka pratik chihn antararashtriy star par adan-pradan tatha arthik snbalata ko parilakshit kar raha hai. rupe ka chihn bharat ke lokachar ka bhi ek roopak hai. rupe ka yah naya pratik devanagari lipi ke 'r' aur roman lipi ke akshar 'ar' ko mila kar bana hai, jisamen ek kshaitij rekha bhi bani huee hai. yah rekha hamare rashtradhvaj tatha barabar ke chihn ko pratibinbit karati hai. bharat sarakar ne 15 julaee, 2010 ko is chihn ko svikar kar liya hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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