आम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

am vishay soochi
am
am
jagat padap (Plantae)
gan saipindels (Sapindales)
kul enakardiyesi (Anacardiaceae)
jati maingifera (Mangifera)
prajati indika (indica)
dvipad nam maingifera indika (Mangifera indica)
any janakari am bharat ka rashtriy phal hai. am ek goode dar phal hai, jise pakakar khaya jata hai ya kachh‍cha hone par ise achar adi men ish‍temal kiya jata hai.

am (angrezi: Mango) phalon ka raja kahalata hai. am maingifera indika bharat ka rashtriy phal hai. kajoo parivar (enakardiesi) ka sadasy, vishv ke ushnakatibndhiy kshetr ka ek mahattvapoorn phal hai. ooshnakatibndhiy deshon men am bade paimane par paida hote hain. am ko poorvi eshiya, myanmar[1] aur bharat ke asam rajy ka sthaniy phal mana jata hai. am ek goode dar phal hai, jise pakakar khaya jata hai ya kachh‍cha hone par ise achar adi men ish‍temal kiya jata hai. yah maingifera indika ka phal arthath am hai jo ushh‍n katibndhi hish‍se ka sabase adhik mahath‍vapoorn aur vh‍yapak roop se ugaya jane vala phal hai. phalon ka raja am ke bare men logon ki alag- alag dharanaen hain. kuchh logon ka manana hai ki is phal men behad kailarij hoti hain, to vahin kuchh ise sehat ke lie kee tarah se fayademnd batate hain. garmiyon men yahi ek aisa phal hai, jo rasila v mitha hai aur har umr ke logon ko bhata hai. bharat men any prakar ke am pae jate hain.

am ka vriksh

am atynt upayogi, dirghajivi, saghan tatha vishal vriksh hai, jo bharat men dakshin men kanyakumari se uttar men himalay ki taraee tak (3000 phut ki oonchaee tak) tatha pashchim men pnjab se poorv men asam tak, adhikata se hota hai. anukool jalavayu milane par isaka vriksh 50 - 60 phut ki oonchaee tak pahunch jata hai. vanaspati vaigyanik vargikaran ke anusar am 'ainakardiyesi' kul ka vriksh hai. am ke kuchh vriksh bahut hi bade hote hain.

am

daauktar em.es.randhava (1949) ke anusar 'budanaganv' (chndigadh) men 'chhappar' namak am ke ek vriksh ke tane ka ghera 32 phut hai, anek shakhaen panch se lekar 12 phut tak moti aur 70 se 80 phut tak lnbi hain. chhappar 2700 varg gaj sthan ghere hue hai aur usake phal ki ausat varshik upaj 450 man hai.

  • am ka vriksh ek sadabahar vriksh hai.
  • isaki lnbaee 15-18 mitar tak hoti hai aur isaki ayu kafi lnbi hoti hai.
  • isake kuntakar patte 30 semi tak lnbe hote hain; phool chhote, gulabi aur khushaboodar hote hain. lnbi dndiyon ke chhor par chhote guchchhon men hote hain.
  • yah ubhayalingi hote hain, arthath kuchh men punkesar v strikesar, donon hote hain aur kuchh men sirf punkesar hote hain.

vriksh ka svaroop

am ka vriksh bada aur khada athava phaila hua hota hai; oonchaee 30 se 90 phut tak hoti hai. chhal khuradari tatha matamaili ya kali, lakadi gathili aur thas hoti hai. isaki pattiyan sadi, ekantarit, lnbi, prasakar (bhale ki tarah) athava dirghavrittakar, nukili, 5 se 16 inch tak lnbi, 1 se 3 inch tak chaudi, chikani aur gahare hare rng ki hoti hai; pattiyon ke kinare kabhi kabhi laharadar hote hain. vrint (enthal) 1 se 4 inch tak lnbe, jod ke pas phoole hue hote hai. pushpakram snyut ekavardhyaksh (painikil), prashakhit aur lomash hota hai. phool chhote, halake basnti rng ke ya lalachhaunh, bhini gndhamay aur pray: enthalarahit hote hain; nar aur ubhayalingi donon prakar ke phool ek hi bar (painikil) par hote hain. bahmadal (sepal) lnbe ande ke roop ke, avatal (kaaunakev); pnkhudiyan bahmadal ki apeksha duguni badi, andakar, tin se panch tak ubhadi huee narngi rng ki dhariyon sahit, binb (disk) mansal, panch bhagashil (lobd); ek paragayukt (fartail) punkesar, char chhote aur vividh lnbaiyon ke bndhy punkesar (staiminnod); parag kosh kuchh kuchh baingani aur andashay chikana hota hai. phal saras, mansal, ashthil, tarah tarah ki banavat evn akaravala, 4 se 25 sentimitar tak lnba tatha 1 se 10 sentimitar tak gherevala hota hai. pakane par isaka rng hara, pila, jogiya, sinduriya athava lal hota hai. phal goodedar, phal ka gooda pila aur narngi rng ka tatha svad men atynt ruchikar hota hai. isake phal ka chhilaka mota ya kagazi tatha isaki guthali ekal, kathali evn pray: reshedar tatha ekabijak hoti hai. bij bada, dirghavath, andakar hota hai.

am ka joos

am ka itihas

  • purtagali vyapari bharat men am lekar ae the. isake bijon ko ek jagah se doosari jagah le jane men kathinaee[2] ke karan snbhavatah 1700 ee. men brazil men ise lagae jane se pahale pashchimi golarddh isase lagabhag aparichit hi tha, 1740 men yah vest indiz pahuncha. kee navabon aur rajaon ke namon par bhi isaka namakaran hua.
  • am ka itihas atynt prachin hai. di kaidal (sanh‌ 1844) ke anusar 'amr' prajati (mainjifera jinas) snbhavat: barma, syam tatha malaya men utpann huee, parntu bharat ka am, mainjifera indika, jo yahan, barma aur pakistan men jagah jagah svayn (jngali avastha men) hota hai, barma-asam athava asam men hi pahale pahal utpann hua hoga.
  • bharat ke bahar logon ka dhyan am ki or sarvapratham snbhavat: buddhakalin prasiddh yatri, hven tsang (632-45) ne akarshit kiya.

prajatiyan

udyan men lagae janevale am ki lagabhag 1400 jatiyon se ham parichit hain. inake atirikt kitani hi jngali aur bijoo kismen bhi hain. gngoli adi (sanh‌ 1955) ne 210 badhiya kalami jatiyon ka sachitr vivaran diya hai. vibhinn prakar ke amon ke akar aur svad men bada antar hota hai. kuchh ber se bhi chhote tatha kuchh, jaise - saharanapur ka 'hathijhool', bhar men do, dhaee ser tak hote hain. kuchh atynt khatte athava svadahin ya chep se bhare hote hain, parntu kuchh atynt svadisht aur madhur hote hain.

videshiyon dvara prashnsit

  • 'phhऱayar' (sanh‌ 1673) ne am ko adoo aur khoobani se bhi ruchikar kaha hai.
  • 'haimiltan' (sanh‌ 1727) ne gova ke amon ko bade, svadisht tatha snsar ke phalon men sabase uttam aur upayogi bataya hai.
am

am ke any nam

  • is phal ka nam maingo, jisase yah angrezi tatha spenishabhashi deshon men pahachana jata hai.
  • tamil bhasha men main-ke ya main-ge se utpann hua hai.
  • purtagaliyon ne pashchim bharat men basane par mainga ke roop men apanaya tha.
  • am ko alag-alag nam die ge jaise lngada, dashahari, alaphaaunso aur chaunsa.

bharat men am

bharat men, pahadi kshetron ko chhod kar am lagabhag sabhi sthanon par paida hota hai. hamare yahan am ki sainkadon kismen hai. yah akar aur rngon men alag-alag hote hain. bharat men am ki fasal ati prachinakal se ugaee jati rahi hai. am ko annt samay se bharat men ugaya jata raha hai. vishv ke anek deshon men am ki alag-alag jati hoti hai. phir bhi hindustan ka prasiddh phal am hi hai. ankadon ke mutabik is samay bharat men prativarsh ek karod tan am paida hota hai jo duniya ke kul utpadan ka 52 fisadi hai. svad, svasthy evn bal snvardhan ki drishti se am sabhi phalon men age hai. am bhinn-bhinn jati ke hote hain. kintu sabhi amon ke gun prayah ek se hi hote hain.

am vikreta

am bharat ke lokagiton aur dharmik anushthanon se anivary roop se juda hai. kavi kalidas ne isaki prashnsa men git likhe hain. alekzandar ne isaka sh‍vad chakha hai aur sath hi chini dharm yatri huen-sang ne bhi. mugal badashah akabar ne bihar ke darabhnga men 1,00,000 se adhik am ke paudhe rope the, jise ab 'lakhi bag' ke nam se jana jata hai. svayn buddh ko ek amrakunj bhent kiya gaya tha, taki vah usaki chhanv men vishram kar saken.

bharat ke nivasiyon men ati prachin kal se am ke upavan lagane ka prem hai. yahan ki udyani krishi men kam anevali bhoomi ka 70 pratishat bhag am ke upavan lagane ke kam ata hai. spasht hai ki bharatavasiyon ke jivan aur arthavyavastha ka am se ghanishth snbndh hai. isake anek nam jaise 'saurabh', 'rasal', 'chuvat', 'tapaka', 'sahakar', 'am', 'pikavallabh' adi bhi isaki lokapriyata ke praman hain. ise 'kalpavriksh' arthath manovachhint phal denevala bhi kahate hain.

shatapath brahman men am ki charcha isaki vaidik kalin tatha 'amarakosh' men isaki prashnsa isaki buddhakalin mahatta ke praman hain. bharatavarsh men am se snbndhit anek lokagit, akhyayikaen adi prachalit hain aur hamari riti, vyavahar, havan, ygy, pooja, katha, tyohar tatha sabhi mngalakayan men am ki lakadi, patti, phool athava ek n ek bhag pray: kam ata hai. am ke 'baur' ki upama 'vasntadoot' se tatha 'mnjari' ki 'manmathatir' se kaviyon ne di hai. upayogita ki drishti se am bharat ka hi nahin varanh samast ushn katibndh ke phalon ka raja hai aur bahut tarah se upayog hota hai. kachche phal se chatani, khataee, achar, murabba adi banate hain. pake phal atynt svadisht hote hain aur inhen log bade chav se khate hain. ye pachak, rechak aur balaprad hote hain.

am ki fasal

am ke lie kisi vishesh mitti ki avashyakata nahin hoti, lekin achchhi qismen sirf unhin jagahon par achchhi fasal deti hai, jahan phalon ki paidavar badhane layaq badhiya shushk mausam rahata ho. adhik varsha vale kshetron men phaphoond ke karan hone vala rog enthrakanoz phoolon aur kachche phalon ko nasht kar deta hai tatha is par niyntran bhi mushkil hota hai. grafting ya bading ke zariye isaka snjanan kiya jata hai. do vrikshon ko bina kate qalam lagane[3] ki prakriya eshiya ke kee ilaqon men kafi lokapriy hai, lekin yah bahut mehanat vali aur kharchili prakriya hai. florida men zyada saksham tariqon, patali parat ke aropan aur katakar ankur lagane, ka vikas kiya gaya hai aur inaka vanijyik upayog bhi kiya ja raha hai.

am

akar aur lakshan

  • isake phal akar aur lakshanon men bhinnata lie hote hai; sabase chhote phal aloobukhara jitana bada hota hai. jabaki bade phal 1.8 se 2.3 kigra tak hote hain.
  • isaka akar andakar, gol, hridayakar, gurde ke akar ka ya lnba aur patala hota hai.
  • isaki kuchh qismen chatakili lal aur pili rngat vali hoti hain, jabaki any phike hare rng ki hoti hain.
  • phal men paya jane vala ekamatr bada bij chapata hota hai aur isake charon or maujood gooda pile se narngi rng ka rasadar hota hai aur isaka svad vishesh mithi gndh ke sath mazedar hota hai.

svasthy aur am

am lakshmipatiyon ke bhojan ki shobha tatha garibon ki udarapoorti ka ati uttam sadhan hai. pake phal ko tarah tarah se surakshit karake bhi rakhate hain. ras ka thali, chakale, kapade ityadi par pasar, dhoop men sukha 'amavat' banakar rakh lete hain. yah badi svadisht hoti hai aur ise log bade prem se khate hain. kahin kahin phal ke ras ko ande ki saphedi ke sath milakar atisar aur anve ke rog men dete hain. pet ke kuchh rogon men chhilaka tatha bij hitakar hota hai. kachche phal ko bhoonakar pana bana, namak, zira, hing, podina ityadi milakar pite hain, jisase taravat ati hai aur loo lagane ka bhay kam rahata hai. am ke bij men 'mailik aml' adhik hota hai aur yah khooni bavasir aur pradar men upayogi hai.

ayurved aur am

am

aryuvedik matanusar am ke pnchang (panch ang) kam ate hain. is vriksh ki antarchhal ka kvath pradar, khooni bavasir tatha phephadon ya ant se raktasrav hone par diya jata hai. chhal, jad tatha patte kasaile, malarodhak, vat, pitt tatha kaph ka nash karane vale hote hain. patte bichchhoo ke katane men tatha inaka dhuan gale ki kuchh vyadhiyon tatha hichaki men labhadayak hai. phoolon ka choorn ya kvath atisar tatha sngrahani men upayogi kaha gaya hai.

am ka baur shital, vatakarak, malarodhak, agnidipak, ruchivardhak tatha kaph, pitt, prameh, pradar aur atisar ko nasht karane vala hai.

kachcha phal kasaila, khatta, vat pitt ko utpann karane vala, anton ko sikodane vala, gale ki vyadhiyon ko door karane vala tatha atisar, mootravyadhi aur yonirog men labhadayak bataya gaya hai.

paka phal madhur, snigdh, viryavardhak, vatanashak, shital, pramehanashak tatha vran shleshm aur rudhir ke rogon ko door karane vala hota hai. yah shvas, amlapitt, yakritavriddhi tatha kshay men bhi labhadayak hai.

adhunik anusndhanon ke anusar am ke phal men vitamin e aur si pae jate hain. anek vaidyon ne keval am ke ras aur doodh par rogi ko rakhakar kshay, sngrahani, shvas, raktavikar, durbalata ityadi rogon men saphalata prapt ki hai. phal ka chhilaka garbhashay ke raktasrav, raktamay kale daston men tatha munh se balagam ke sath rakt jane men upayogi hai. guthali ki gari ka choorn (matra 2 mash) shvas, atisar tatha pradar men labhadayak hone ke sivay kriminashak bhi hai.

grihanirman men prayog v nee prajati

am ki lakadi grihanirman tatha ghareloo samagri banane ke kam ati hai. yah eedhan ke roop men bhi adhik barati jati hai. am ki upaj ke lie kuchh kuchh baloovali bhoomi, jisamen avashyak khad ho aur pani ka nikas thik ho, uttam hoti hai. am ki uttam jatiyon ke ne paudhe pray: bhentakalam dvara taiyar kie jate hain. kalamon aur mukulan (bardig) dvara bhi aisi kismen taiyar ki jati hain. bijoo amon ki bhi anek badhiya jatiyan hain, paratu inamen vishesh asuvidha yah hai ki is prakar utpann amon men vanchhit paitrik gun kabhi ate hain, kabhi nahin, isalie ichchhanusar uttam jatiyan is riti se nahin mil sakatin. am ki vishesh uttam jatiyon men varanasi ka lngada, bnbee ka alaphanjo tatha malihabad aur lakhanoo ke dashahari tatha sapheda ullekhaniy hain.

am ke vibhinn prayog

  • yah apane sabhi roopon men akarshan ka kendr hai.
  • am ko choosakar, katakar joos nikalakar, kek, pestri men dal kar ya phir chatani aur achar men dalakar khaya ja sakata hai.
am
  • baur, kairi yani kachchi anbiya aur poora paka am ko bhi khaya jata hai.
  • am ka istemal pana banane, achar, murabbe aur jaim banane men kiya jata hai.
  • am se amachoor yani am ki khataee bhi banati hai.

am ke fayade

  • am men sabhi phalon se adhik vitamin e hota hai. isake atirikt vitamin ‘bi’ bhi adhik hote hain. isamen 'ayaran' bhi behad tadad men paya jata hai,
  • isamen vitamin 'si' aur 'ee' bharapoor tadad men paya jata hai. jo ankhon ke lie behad fayademnd hote hain.
  • am aur jamun ka ras saman bhag men milakar kuchh dinon tak pine se madhumeh rog thik ho jata hai.
  • am khane se gurde ki durbalata door hoti hai.
  • am un logon ke lie bhi poshan yukt hai, jo kamazor, kam oorja aur kam oorjasvita ki dikkat se guzar rahe hai. yah phal sharir ko turnt oorja deta hai. yahan tak ki hara am aur kairi vitamin 'si' ka achchha srot hain aur isamen chini ki matra bhi n ke barabar hoti hai.
  • am enti aauksident ka achchha srot hai. yah enti aauksident n keval umr badhane ki pragati ko kam kar dete hain, balki tvacha se judi kee bimariyon masalan, saravaikal aur kolan kainsar se bhi bachata hai.
  • am sharir se hanikarak visheli padarth aur phri redikals ko bahar karane men bhi sahayak hai.
  • vahin doosari aur am resho se bharapoor hota hai aur kabj hone se rokata hai. yah pitt ko kam karata hai aur pachan tantr ko thik banae rakhata hai.
  • agar chehare ka saundary badhana ho, to am ke ras men shahad milakar chehare par lagaen.
  • agar bal jhadate hon, to am ke komal patte tatha dnthal ko pani men ubal kar sir dhoen.
  • kan sunn hone ki samasya par am ka patta pisakar bina pani ke halka garam kar kan men do char boond dalen. ankhon ke charon or kale ghere ya jhaee hon, to am ke ras ko ruee se chehare par lagaen.

am khane se hone vale nuqasan

am
  • am men chini ki matra bahut zyada hoti hai, isalie ise kam matra men len.
  • jo log mote hain, ve ise kam khaya karen. nahin to, yah sharir men haramonal badalav ki vajah ban sakata hai.
  • am ko ek sath bahut matra men khana nuqasanadeh hota hai.
  • am khane ke bad munhase ho jate hain. isalie ise dahi ya sookhe phalon ke sath khaenge, to yah zyada fayademnd rahega.
  • am ke adhik matra men khane se madhumeh v motapa badhane ki dikkat se guzarana pad sakata hai.

am ke shatru

am ke anek shatru hain. inamen 'ainthrau kanos', jo kavakajanit rog hai aur ardrata pradhan pradeshon men adhik hota hai, 'paudari mildiu', jo ek any kavak se utpann hone vala rog hai tatha 'blaik tip', jo bahudha eet choone ke bhatthon ke dhuen ke snsarg se hota hai, pradhan hain. anek kide makode bhi isake shatru hain. inamen 'maingohaaupar', 'maingo borar', 'phroot flaee' aur 'dimak' mukhy hain. jal - choona - gndhak mishran, surti ka pani tatha snkhiya ka pani in rogon men labhakari hota hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

vithika

tika tippani

  1. bhootapoorv barma
  2. yah zyada samay tak surakshit nahin rah pate
  3. jisamen ek ankur tatha ek svatntr roop se lagae ge paudhe ke moolavrint ko jod diya jata hai aur bad men ankur ko usake tane se katakar hata diya jata hai
  • di.kaundol krit 'e orijin aauph kaltiveted plantas' (kegan paaul trench ऍd kn. lndan, 1884)
  • ganguli, es.ar. krit 'd maingo' (indiyan kanusil aauph aigrikalcharal risarch, nee dilli, 1957)
  • mukarji, es.ke. dvara 'd orijin aauph maingo' (indiyan jaranal aauph jenetiks ऍd plant briding, 1951)
  • mukarji es.ke. dvara 'd maingo, its baautani, kaltiveshan ऍd fyoochar inproovament speshali aiz aaubjarvd in indiya' (ikaaunomik baaut. 7 (2): 132-162, epril-joon)
  • randhava, em.es. krit 'e jaent maingo tri; vaivilaauv'
  • en.aee.: 'd arijin, vairieshan, immyuniti ऍd briding aauph kaltiveted plantas' (krautika botainika, 13(1.6) 1949-50).
  • hindi vishv kosh (bhag ek) prishth - 390 -391

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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