रक्त  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(रुधिर se punarnirdeshit)
ungali par rakt

rakt (angrezi : Blood) manav sharir ka ek mahattvapoorn bhag aur taral snyoji ootak hai. yah rakt vahiniyon ke andar vibhinn angon men niyamit roop se gatishil rahata hai. rakt vahiniyon men pravahit hone vala rakt pray: gadha, thoda-sa chipachipa aur lal rng ka hota hai. yah ek jivit ootak hai. rakt, plajma aur rakt kanon se mil kar bana hota hai. plajma ek nirjiv aur tarat madhyam hai, jisamen rakt kan tairate rahate hain. plajma ke madhyam se hi rakt ke kan sampoorn sharir men pahunchate rahate hain. 'rakt parisachnran sasthan' manav sharir ka vah parivahan tantr hai, jisake dvara ahar, aauksijan, pani evn any sabhi avashyak padarth ootak koshikaon tak pahunchate hain aur vahan ke vyarth padarth le jaye jate hain. isamen rakt, hriday evn rudhir-vahiniyon ka samavesh hota hai.

manav sharir men matra

rakt ek taral snyoji ootak hai. yah halke ya gahare lal rng ka aparadarshi, gadha, kshariy v svad men namakin hota hai. yah hriday evn rudhir vahiniyon men pravahit hokar sampoorn sharir men nirntar paribhraman karata rahata hai. manushy ke sharir men rakt ki matra sharir ke bhar ka lagabhag 7 se 8% hoti hai. atah ek svasth manushy ke sharir men lagabhag 5 se 6 litar rakt hota hain, jo usake sampoorn sharir ke bhar ka lagabhag 9/13van bhag hota hai. striyon ke sharir men rakt ki matra lagabhag 4 se 5 litar hoti hai.

snrachana

snrachana ke adhar par manushy ke rakt ko do bhagon men vibhakt kiya gaya hai-

  1. plajma - ayatan ke adhar par lagabhag 55 se 60% bhag.
  2. rudhir kanikaen ya rudhiranu - lagabhag 40 se 45% bhag.

plajma

plajma rakt ka halke pile rng ka, kuchh kshariy, saph, paradarshak aur adharabhoot (maitriks) taral hota hai. yah rakt ka lagabhag 55 se 60% bhag banata hai. isamen 90 se 92% bhag jal tatha shesh 8 se 10% bhag men kee prakar ke karbanik aur akarbanik padarth hote hain.

karbanik padarth

inamen sabase adhik matra men plajma protins hote hain, jo mukhyatah 'elbyoomin', 'globyoolins' aur 'prothrombin' tatha 'phaibrinojan' se milakar bane hote hain. ye rakt ke parasaran dab ko nirdharit karate hain.

  1. globyoolins - ye entibaaudij ka kam karate hain aur vishaile padarthon, vairas aur jivanuon ko nasht karate hain.
  2. prothrombin tatha phaibrinojan - ye rakt ka thakka jamane men sahayak hain. inake atirikt, haaurmons, sharkara, vitamin, amino aml, vasiy aml, entibaaudij, yoorik aml adi hote hain.
akarbanik padarth

inamen sabase adhik matra men sodiyam baikarbonet tatha sodiyam kloraid upasthit hote hain. inake atirikt kuchh matra men kailsiyam, maignishiyam, potaishiyam, loha adi ke phaausphet, baikarbonet, salphet, kloraids adi bhi paye jate hain.

gaisen

uparyukt karbanik evn akarbanik padarthon ke atirikt plajma men aauksijan, karban dai-aauksaid, naitrojan v amoniya adi gaisen bhi ghulit avastha men paee jati hain.

rakt kanikaen

plajma ke atirikt shesh rakt ka lagabhag 40-45% bhag rudhiranuon ka bana hota hai. is bhag ko himetokrit kahate hain. manushy ke rakt men nimnalikhit tin prakar ki rudhir kanikaen ya rudhiranu paee jati hain-

rakt koshika
  1. lal rakt kanikaen
  1. shvet rakt kanikaen
  1. rakt plentalets

lal rakt kanikaen

ye manushy tatha any sabhi kasheruki praniyon men hi paee jati hain tatha 99% rudhir kanikaen lal rudhiranu hi hote hain. vibhinn vargon ke kasherukiyon men inaki snkhya, akar v pariman adi men bhinnata hoti hai, kintu inake pramukh kary sabhi men saman hote hain. manushy ke lal rudhiranu chhote, chapate gol tatha donon or se bich men dabe hue hote hain. inamen kendrak nahin hota hai. ek ghan milimitar men inaki snkhya lagabhag 55 lakh hoti hai. inaka vyas 8.0 tatha motaee 1-2 hoti hai. inaka jivanakal 120 din hota hai. inaka nirman asthiyon ki lal majja men hota hain. inaka pramukh kary aauksijan ka parivahan karana hai.

shvet rakt kanikaen

ye lal rudhir kanikaon se badi, kintu snkhya men kam aniyamit akar ki evn kendrak yukt hoti hain. manushy ke ek ghan milimitar rudhir men inaki snkhya lagabhag 7500 (6000-10,000) tak hoti hai. inamen himoglobin nahin paya jata hai. isalie ye safed ya rngahin hoti hai. inaka nirman pliha ke andar hota hai. ye mukhyat: hanikarak jivanuon evn roganuon ka bhakshan karati hain. ye do prakar ki hoti hain-

  1. kanikamay shvet rudhiranu
  2. kanikarahit shvet rudhiranu

rakt pletalets

ye keval staniyon ke rudhir men hi paee jati hain. manushy ke rakt men inaki snkhya 2.5 lakh prati ghan milimitar hoti hai. ye ati sookshm, kendrakavihin, snkuchanashil, gol ya andakar, ubhayottar evn plet ke akar ki hoti hain. inamen 15% vasa 50% protin hoti hai. inaka kary kshatigrast bhag se bahate hue rakt ka thakka zamana hai. thakka jamane se use sthan se rudhir ka bahana band ho jata hai. inaka jivanakal 1-8 ya 10 din hota hai.

rakt ke kary

sharir men rakt ke pramukh kary nimnalikhit hain-

  • poshak padarthon ka parivahan - rakt aharanal men pachen hue avashoshit kie ge poshak padarthon ko sharir ke vibhinn bhagon men pahunchata hai.
  • aauksijan ka parivahan - rakt shvasanangon (phephadon adi) se aauksijan (O2) ko lekar sharir ki vibhinn koshikaon men pahunchata hai.
  • karban daiaauksaid ka parivahan - koshikiy shvasan kriya men utpann CO2 rakt dvara shvasanangon men pahunch jati hai, jahan se ise bahar nikal diya jata hai.
  • utsarji padarthon ka parivahan - rakt sharir men utpann amoniya, yooriya, yoorik aml adi hanikarak padarthon ko utsarji angon vrikkon) tak pahunchata hai, jahan se inhen sharir se bahar nikal diya jata hai.
  • any padarthon ka parivahan - ant:stravi grnthiyon dvara stravit haaurmons, enjaims evn entibaaudij ko rudhir ke vibhinn bhagon men sthanantarit kiya jata hai.
  • rogon se suraksha - sharir ke kisi bhi bhag par hanikarak jivanuon, vishanuon v roganuon adi ka akraman hote hi rudhir ke shvet rudhiranu inaka bhakshan karake inhen nasht kar dete hain. rudhir men upasthit entibaaudij entitaauksin banakar vishaile aur bahari asngat padarthon ko nishkriy karake inaka vighatan kar dete hain.
  • sharir ka tap niyntran - rakt sharir ke vibhinn bhagon men tapaman ko niyntrit karake ek-sa banae rakhane ka mahattvapoorn kary karata hai. jab sharir ke adhik sakriy bhagon men bahut tivr upapachay ke phalasvaroop tap badhane lagata hai, tab rakt tvacha ki rudhir vahiniyon men adhik matra men pravahit hokar sharir ki satah par apana aur sharir ka shitalan karata hai.
  • sharir ki saphaee - rakt ki shvet rudhiranu mrit evn tooti-phooti koshikaon ke kachare v any nirarthak vastuon ka bhakshan karake inhen nasht karate hain. is prakar rakt sharir ki saphaee ka kary karata hai.
  • rudhir ka jamana ya thakka jamana - chot lagane se rudhir vahiniyon ke phatane par rudhir bahakar bahar jane se rokane ke lie rakt thakka jamane ka kary karata hai. is kriya men rakt ki thraaumbosaits sahayak hoti hain.
  • ghav ka bharana - rakt avashyak padarth pahunchakar sharir ke toote-phoote angon ki marammat v ahat bhagon men ghavon ko bharane men sahayata pradan karata hai.
  • sharir ke ant: vatavaran ka samasthaitikata niyntran - rakt sharir ke vibhinn bhagon ke bich samnvayan sthapit karake sharir ke ant: vatavaran ko uchit banae rakhate hain.
  • anuvnshik bhoomika - rakt entijan ke karan anuvnshik star par mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhata hai.

inhen bhi dekhen: rudhir vahiniyan, rakt aauksikshinata, raktakshinata, raktasrav evn raktachap


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