ऊतक  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

snyoji ootak
Connective Tissue

(angrezi:Tissue) is lekh men manav sharir se snbndhit ullekh hai. saman gunon vali, ek hi akar ki tatha ek hi kary karane vali koshikaon ke samooh ko ootak kahate hain.

jaisa ki gyat hai ki manav ek bahukoshiy prani hai, jisamen koshikaon rachana tatha kary men ek-doosare se bhinn hota hain. ek prakar ki koshikaen, ek hi prakar ka kary karati hain aur ek hi varg ke ootakon jaise- asthi, upasthi, peshi adi ka nirman karati hain. snkshep men saman rachana tatha saman karyon vali koshikaon ke samooh ko ootak kahate hain. pratyek ootak ka apana vishisht kary hota hai. ootakon ka nirman karate samay koshikaen apas men ek-doosare se ek vishesh antarakoshiki padarth ke dvara judi aur sambandhit rahati hain. bahut se ootak milakar sharir ke angon, jaise- amashay, gurde, yakrit, mastishk adi ka nirman karate hain. pratyek ang ka bhi apana vishisht kary hota hai. vibhinn ang paraspar milakar kisi snsthan ka nirman karate hain jo kisi vishesh kary ko karata hai, jaise-nak, svarayantr, shvas pranal evn phephade milakar shvasan snsthan (tantr) ka nirman karate hain, jo ki sharir evn vayumandal ke bich aauksijan evn karban daiaauksaid ka adan-pradan karata hai.

manav sharir ka nirman nimnalikhit prarambhik ootakon ke milane se hota hai-

ootak srishti ke samast sajiv praniyon, jntuon evn vanaspatiyon ki snrachanatmak eekaee (structural unit) koshika (cell) hoti hai. satrahavin shatabdi men rabart huk ne koshika ki sarnchana ka varnan kiya tha. tab se lekar lagabhag 150 varsho tak is vishay par anusndhan hote rahe. isi prasng men sanh‌ 1824 men ar.je.ech. dayootroshe (R.J.H. Dutrochet) ne ootakon se snbaddh kuchh adhyayan kie the. apana mat vyakt karate hue unhonne likha hai : jntuon ke sabhi savayavi ootak (organic tissues) atyadhik chhoti chhoti gulikakar (globular) evn snsnjan (cohesion) dvara paraspar judi koshikaon dvara bane hote hain. is prakar, jntuon aur vanaspatiyon ke sabhi ang vastav men vividh prakar se roopantarit koshikiy ootak (cellular tissue) matr hi hote hain.

udvikas ke kram men ekakoshikiy jivon se bahukoshikiy jivon ki utpatti huee. koshikavibhajan (cell division) ke phalasvaroop koshikaon ke snrachanatmak evn sharirakriyatmak (structural and physiological) roopon men visheshata ati gee aur unake samuchchay (aggregate) se ootak, ootakon se angapratyng aur angapratyngon se yukt vividh prakar ke jatil jivon ki utpatti hoti gee. ootakon ki sabhi koshikaen pray: akriti, akar tatha kary men ek jaisi hoti aur paraspar sahayog se kary karati hain. inake snghatit rahane ke karan inaka jivan tikaoo aur kary men dakshata (efficiency) ati hai. in koshikaon men aisi vyavastha hoti hai ki ye visheshikrit karyo ka atynt kaushal se snpadan karati hain.

ootak ki paribhasha karate hue yah batalaya gaya hai ki yah ek jaisi anek visheshikrit koshikaon ka samuchchay hota hai, jo katipay jatil kary snpadit karati hain. ye koshikaen samoohon (groups) athava staron (layers) ke roop men paee jati hain aur vishisht karyon ka snpadan karati hain. apas men ye ek prakar ke svasravit kuchh is prakar ki hoti hai ki inake dvara nirmit ang paraspar anyonyashrit hote hain.

in ootakon se vishesh prakar ke kary snpadit hote hain, jaise suraksha, bhojan ka pachan, peshiyon ka snkochan ityadi. rakt, asthi, mansapeshi, kartilej, vasa, tntrikaon adi ki ganana mukhy ootakon men hoti hai. kary ki drishti se ootakon ke nimnalikhit char mukhy prakar batalae ge hain.

1-ipithiliyami ootak (epithelial tissues)

2-yojak (connective tissues)

3-peshiy (muscular tissues)

4-tntrikiy (nervous tissues)

ipithiliyami ootak-ipithiliyami ootakon ko kabhi kabhi avarak ya rekhiy (covering of lining) ootak bhi kahate hain. inaka nyas (arrangement) is prakar ka hota hai ki isase kisi guha (cavity) ko rekha (lining) ya mukt satahon (free surfaces)ka avaran (covering) ban jata hai. ipithiliyami ootak ek ya anek koshikastaron (cell layers) dvara bane hote hain. jais, tvacha evn pachak nalika (di estive layers) ke ootak ipithiliyami ootak hote hain. ye koshikaen dridhatapoorvak snghatit (rigidly compact)aur ek antarkoshikiy asnjan (adhesion) dvara paraspar judi tatha aksar ek adhariy jhilli (basement membrane) par sthit hoti hain.

ipithiliyami ootak

ipithiliyam ootak sharir ki any koshikaon dvara sravit ras dravyon ka chooshan (absorption) tatha anek prakar ke taralon ka sravan (secretion) athava utsarjan karate hain. garbharath bhroon ki pranapratishtha ke sath jab angapratyngon ki utpatti hone lagati hai to pratham ootak ipithiliyami ootak hi hote hain. ye ootak bahyatvcha tatha antastavacha ke roop men prakat hote hain. koshikaon ke ek staravale ootak ko saral tatha ekadhik staronvale ootak ko starit (stiatified) ootak kahate hain. bahyatvacha ki koshikaon ke tal par sookshm khanch (grooves) ya katak (ridges) pae jate hain, jinake karan antarkoshikiy setu (intercelluar bridges) athava antarshakhaen (interdigitations) ban jati hain jinaki akriti anguliyon ki bhanti hoti hai. pratyek setu men paraspar sati huee do bhujaen hoti hain, jo ek koshika se doosari tak phaili rahati hain. snrachana, akriti tatha vinyas ke adhar par in ootakon ko kee prakaron men vibhakt kiya gaya hai.

yojak ootak-inhen adharak (supporive) ootak bhi kahate hain. is prakar ke ootak angon ke bich ke rikt sthanon ko bharate, sharir ke vibhinn bhagon ko ek doosare se milate, aur unhen paraspar jodate hain.

avakashi ootak

in ootakon men ek vishesh prakar ka antarkoshikiy padarth athava maitriks () paya jata hai. yah padarth in koshikaon dvara hi utpann kiya jata hai aur bahut dridh hota hai. yojak ootak ki koshikaen sngathit n hokar bikhari rahati hain. is ootak ki visheshata yah hai ki isaki koshikaen to sajiv, kintu maitriks nirjiv hota hai. yahi nirjiv padarth any ootakon ko paraspar bandhe rahata hai. in koshikaon ki utpatti bhroon ko mesenkaimi (mesenchyme) koshikaon se hoti hai, jinamen barik jivadravyiy pravardh (protoshasmic proceses) uge rahate hain. snyoji ootak bhi kee prakar ke hote hain. chitr 2, 3 aur 4 men vibhinn prakar ke snyojo ootak dikhae ge hain.

tantav ootak

peshiy ootak-peshiyon ka nirman aisi koshikaon dvara hua hota hai, jo avashyakata padate hi tatkal sikud jati hain. ye koshikaen lnbi, lnbi reshon ki akriti ki, hoti hain. uttejana prapt hone par ye kisi bhi disha men mud sakati hain. peshi ki koshikaen sravan kary nahin karatin aur ve snyoji ootak dvara paraspar judi rahati hain. peshiy ootak tin prakar ke hote hain : starit, anastarit tatha hardik. starit ootak (striated tissue) ko svaichchhik (voluntary), pattidar (striped) ya knkaliy (skeletal) peshi ootak bhi kahate hain. starit peshiy reshe bahut lnbe, belanakar hote aur sarkolema (sarcolemma) namak ek ati patali jhilli dvara dhnke rahate hain. starit peshi ke snkuchanashil reshon men do prakar ke padarth pae jate hain, jinake karan ye reshe gahari aur halki pattiyon se yukt dikhalaee dete hain. anastarit peshi ootak ko chikana peshi resha bhi kahate hain. in reshon ki koshikaen takude (spindle) ki akriti ki hoti hain. anastarit peshi adhik adim (primitive) prakar ki mani jati hain. kasherukiy jntuon men yah mukhyataya mootrashay, pachan nal, shvasanali ki divalon adi men paee jati hain. inhen anaichchhik (involuntary) peshi bhi kahate hain. starit peshi un sthanon par paee jati hai jahan tivr gati ki avashyakata hoti hai. jaise teji se udanevale kidon ke pnkhon men aisi peshiyan atyadhik vikasit hoti hain. hardik peshi (cardiac muscle) keval hriday (heart) ki divalon men paee jati hai. yah vishesh prakar ki pattidar peshi hoti hai, jisake reshe shakhayukt hote tatha inaki prashakhaen samipavarti reshon ki shakhaon se judi rahati hain.

jalak ootak

tntrikiy ootak-tntrikiy ootak ki koshikaen ati uttejanashil (irritable) hoti hain. uchchatar jntuon men tntrikatntr ativikasit avastha men hota hai. tntrikatntr (nervous system) tntrika ootak dvara bana hota hai. is ootak ko koshikaen tntrika koshikaen (cells) kahalati hain. in koshikaon men reshen hote hain. tatrikaen samast sharir men phaili rahati hain aur inamen nyooranon (neurons) ki shrrinkhalaen (chains) paee jati hain. tntrika reshe koshikadravy (cytoplasm) dvara bane tatha ek koshika jhilli (cell membrane) dvara dhake rahate hain. kuchh reshon ki lnbaee tin phut tak hoti hai, jaise spainal kard se nikalakar hath ya pair tak phaila resha tin phut se bhi adhik lnba hota hai. tntrika reshe do prakar ke hote hain : aiksan aur dendrait. aiksan koshika snvedanaon ko door le jati aur dendrait bahari snvedanaon ko koshika tak le ati hai.[1]



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adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 178 |

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