कंकाल  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

knkal manav sharir ke dhanche ko kahate hain jo asthiyon se aur kuchh bhagon men upasthiyon (kartilej) se milakar bana hai. upasthinaram aur lachili haddiyon ko kahate hain jinamen se kee ek samay pakar asthiyon men badal jati hain. sadharanat: merudndadhari praniyon men, jinamen manushy bhi hai, knkal sharir ke bhitar rahata hai at: ise antarik knkal kahate hain. kuchh praniyon men, jaise kachhue men, antarik aur bahy donon knkal hote hain. parntu jin praniyon men merudnd nahin hota unamen keval bahy knkal hi hota hai. manushy men bahy knkal keval nakh aur dant ke inaimal ke roop men hi dikhaee padata hai.

manav knkal do bhagon men vibhajit kiya ja sakata hai;
  1. aksh-knkal (aiksiyal skelitan)sir aur dhad ki asthiyan;
  2. shakhaknkal (apendikyular skelitan) oordhv aur adh: shakhaon ki asthiyan (bahu, bhuja, hath aur jangh, tang, pair).

knkal men kul 206 asthiyan hoti hain jo nimnalikhit prakar se vargikrit ki ja sakati hain :

varg asthi snkhya
merudnd (ridh) 26
khopadi 22
hayoid asthi 1
parshuka (pasuli) aur urosthi (chhati ki haddiyan) 25
oordhv shakha (bahu adi) 64
adh: shakha (jangh adi) 62
shrotr asthika 6
kul 206

asthiyon ka vargikaran

akar ki drishti se asthiyon ko char vargo men vibhajit kar sakate hain, lnbi, chhoti, chapati aur visham akaravali.

lnbi asthiyan

ye oordhv aur adh: shakhaon men hoti hain aur gati men uttolanadnd (livar) ki bhanti kam karati hain. inamen ek dnd aur do sire hote hain. dnd nali ke sadrish hota hai jisake bich men majjaguha hoti hai aur divar thas (aviral) asthi ki bani hoti hai. sire phailakar sndhi banane men bhag lete hain. in siron men viral (spaaunji) asthi hoti hai. majjaguha aur viral asthi ke rikt sthanon men majja bhari rahati hai.

chhoti asthiyan

ye bahubhujakar hoti hain aur viral asthi ki bani hoti hain. viral asthi ke charon aur aviral asthi ki ek patali tah hoti hai. knkal men ye un sthanon par rahati hain jahan dridhata ke sath-sath gati ki bhi avashyakata hoti hai, jaise kalaee (manibndh) aur prapatopasthi.

chapati asthiyan

inamen aviral asthi ki do tahen hoti hain jinake bich men viral asthi rahati hai. inaki banavat kahin kahin angon ki raksha karati hai, jaise khopadi aur vaksh, athava inaki chaudi satah se peshiyan lagi rahati hain, jaise skaipula. khopadi ki kuchh asthiyon men viral padarth ke sthan par guha hoti hai jinake bhitar shleshm-jhilli (myookas menbren) lagi rahati hain. guhaon ko vayuvivar kahate hain. ye vivar anan asthiyon men hote hain aur nasika se inaka snbndh rahata hai. knkal ke bhar ko badhae bina hi ye mukh ki akriti banate aur vani ko pratidhvani pradan karate hain.

visham akaravali asthiyan

ye bhinn bhinn roop aur akar ki hoti hain. kasheruka aur khopadi ki kuchh asthiyan is prakar ki hoti hai.

asthimajja

lnbi asthiyon ki majja (bon mairo) guha aur viral asthiyon ke rikt sthanon men bhari rahati hain. balakon men sab majja lal hoti hain, parntu jyon jyon ayu badhati hai, yah pili hone lagati hai. tarun avastha men lal majja keval viral asthiyon men hi rah jati hai aur lnbi asthiyon ki majja guhaon men pili majja paee jati hai. rudhirakanika ki utpatti pradhanat: lal majja karati hai aur is karan isaki rudhirasnprapti prachur matra men hoti hai. pili majja lagabhag samast hi charabi hoti hai aur apekshakrit isaki rudhiraprapti nahin ke barabar hoti hai.

asthichchhad (periaaustiyam)

asthiyon ke charon or tntumay jhilli (faibras menbren) ki kholi hoti hai jise asthichchhad kahate hain. asthichchhad ki do paraten hoti hain. bahari paraten asthi ko simabaddh karati hain. bhitar ki parat bade mahatv ki hoti hai, kyonki isamen poshan karane ke atirikt asthi ban jane ki samarthy bhi hoti hai.

khopadi

khopadi 22 asthiyon se milakar bani hai, jo adhohanvasthi (mendibil) ko chhodakar tankon dvara is prakar judi rahati hai ki unamen ek doosare ke sapeksh koee gati nahin hoti. khopadi ko do bhagon men vibhajit kiya jata hai-

  1. ananabhag
  2. kapal

anan bhag

khopadi ke anan bhag se chehare ka dhancha, nasika tatha munh ki guha banati hai. netraguha kapal aur anan asthiyon ke bich do ashravasthiyan (laikrimal) do nasasthiyan, do nasika kaunka, aur ek halasthi (vomar). inamen se kuchh asthiyan jaise titavasthi aur lalatasthi, kapal aur anan ke bhag hain.

kapal

kapal (kreniyam) andakar hota hai aur bhitar sthit mastishk ki raksha karata hai. kapal ath asthiyon se milakar bana hai. ek lalat asthi, do parshvik asthiyan, ek anukapal, ek titavasthi (ithamaauid) ek jatukasthi (sphinaauid) aur do shnkhasthi (tenporal). kapal sab or se bnd rahata hai. keval isaki tali men kuchh chhote-chhote chhidr rahate hain, jinamen se tntrika aur vahikaen jati hain. tali men pichhe ki or ek bada radhrn hota hai jisamen se mastishk ka ek bhag (mastishk puchchh, middala obalaaudgenta) nikalakar ridharajju se milata hai. kapal ka varnan do bhagon men kiya ja sakata hai:-

(k) gunbaj ke akar ki chhat, aur

(kh) tali, jo visham asthiyon se milakar bani hoti hai.

gunbaj ke akaravali chhat

yah chhah asthiyon se milakar bani hoti hai. age lalatasthi, isake pichhe do parshvik asthiyan aur sabase pichhe anukapalasthi rahati hai. barabaravali bhit ke banane men shnkhasthiyan bhi bhag leti hain. in asthiyon ke bich ki tntusndhiyon ko sivani kahate hain. lalatasthi aur donon parshvik asthiyon ke bich ki sivani ko kaauronail, donon parshvik asthiyan ke bich vali ko saijital aur pichhe ki or ki parshvik asthiyon aur anukapal ke bichavali sivani ko lainbdaaued kahate hain.

kapal ke vivar

janm ke samay kapal ki asthiyan poorn roop se paripakv nahin hotin aur parshvik asthi ke konon par komal jhilli rahati hai. in sthanon ko kapal ke vivar kahate hain. janm ke samay in vivaron ki asthiyan ek doosare par akar kapal ki nap ko chhota bana deti hain. sabase bada vivar age ki or rahata hai, jahan saijital aur kaauronail sivani milati hai. yah janm ke pashchath‌ lagabhag 18 mas tak bnd nahin hota. pichhevala vivar saijital aur lainbdaaued sivani ke sngam par hota hai aur yah janm ke kuchh hi samay bad bnd ho jate hain.

kapal ki tali

yadi chhat ko hata den aur kapal ki tali ko oopar se dekhen to tin vibhag ya vivarak dikhaee dete hain. ye vivarak chhah asthiyon se milakar bane hote hain. lalatasthi, titavasthi, jatukasthi, do shnkhasthiyan aur anukapal.

age vala vivarak tinon men sabase kam gahara hota hai, aur isamen mastishk aur frautal pali rahati hai. is vivarak ke bich ka bhag ithamaid asthi se banata hai. isi asthi se nasika ki chhat bhi banati hai aur isake chhote-chhote chhidron men se ghranatntrika pravesh karati hai. titavasthi aur lalatasthi is vivarak ko netraguha se prithakh karati hain.

madhy vivarak ke bich jatukasthi ke ek chhote se vibhag men poshagrnthi (pitayootari) pind rahata hai. is vibhag ke donon or ek vistirn aur gahara avatal hota hai jisamen pramastishk ki shnkhapali rahati hai. is avatal ki pichhe ki sima shnkhasthi ka prastar (pitaras) bhag banati hai, jisake bhitar madhyakarn aur kan ka gahan (laibirinth) rahata hai.

pichhe ka vivarak sabase adhik gahara hota hai aur isamen anumastishk, madhyamastishk, setu (pauns) aur mastishkapuchchh (maidula aublangeta) rahata hai. isi vivarak men vah bada radhrn hota hai jisamen se mastishkapuchchh (maidula aublang) jata hai. bade radhrn ke donon or jugalar radhrn hota hai jisamen se matrika (jugalar) shira aur kuchh kapalatntrika kapal se bahar ati hain. is vivarak ki pichhe ki sima anukapalasthi banati hai jisamen griva ki prasaran peshiyan lagi rahati hain.

yadi kapal ki tali men asthibhng ho to bahudha sharir ke vishesh bhag se raktasrav ke chihn isaka snket karate hain ki amuk vivarak men asthibhng hua hai. udaharanarth, kapal men chot ke bad yadi nasika, palak ya netrashleshmika (knjnktaiva) ke niche raktapravah ho to samane ke vivarak men aur kan se rakt ka ana bich ke vivarak men asthibhng hona batata hai. griva ke pichhe ki chot aur prasaran peshiyon men rakt ke chihn pichhe vale vivarak men asthibhng hone ka snket karate hain.

khopadi ka anan bhag

anan asthiyan adhohanvasthi ka chhodakar apas men aur kapal ke samane tatha niche ki or tankon dvara badi dridhata se judi rahati hain. netraguha aur nasikaguha pradhanataya anan asthiyon se hi bani hain. parntu inaki chhat kapal dvara banati hai. anan asthiyon ki samany rachana ka gyan khopadi ke chitron ka adhyayan karane se ho sakata hai. ek oordhvahanvasthi, jisamen oopar ke dant rahate hain, doosari se nasaradhrn ke niche milati hai. nasaradhrn ke oopar ki or donon nasasthiyan milati hain. netraguha ke bhitar ke kinare ke pasavali asthi ka nam ashravasthi (laikrimal) hai. ashravasthi aur oordhvahanvasthi ke bich nasikashru nal hoti hai jisake dvara ansoo netr se nasika men ata hai. netraguha ki bagal ka kinara gndasthi hai. yah asthi pichhe ki or shnkhasthi ke oopar ubhar se milakar zaigomaitik chap banati hai. yah chap jue ki bhanti anan aur kapal ki asthiyon ko milata hai.

halasthi (domar)

is patali tribhujakar asthi se nak ki bhittika (septam) ka pichhala bhag banata hai. nasika ki bagal ki bhit men tin kaunka hote hain. inamen se oopar ke do titavasthi ke bhag aur sabase niche ka kaunka prithakh asthi hai. talvasthi kehuni ke akar ki hoti hai. donon talvasthiyon ke samatal bhag milakar talu ka pichhala bhag banate hain. talu ke agale bhag se urdhvahanvasthi banati hai. talvasthi ke khade bhag se nasika ki bagalavali bhit ka pichhala bhag banata hai.

adhohanvasthi

anan ki asthiyon men se keval yahi asthi paryapt roop se gati karati hai. is gati dvara bhojan ka charvan aur dhvaniyon ka uchcharan snbhav hota hai. janm ke samay adhohanvasthi ke do bhag hote hain, jo samane ki or chibuk par ek varsh ki ayu tak avashy mil jate hain. chibuk ka age ki or ubhad manushy jati ki visheshata hai.

adhohanvasthi ke samatal bhag men dant lage rahate hain aur isaka khada bhag kapal ki shnkhasthi se juda rahata hai. isi bhag men charvan peshiyan lagi rahati hain. adhohanvasthi ke ye donon bhag milakar ek kon banate hain. yah kon yuvavastha men lagabhag 1100 ka hota hai.

merudnd

merudnd (vartebral kaaulam) 33 kasherukaon se milakar bana hai. inamen 7 griva, 12 prishth, 5 kati, 5 trik aur 4 anutrik kasherukaen kahalati hain. kasherukaen ek doosare ke oopar sati rahati hain. ye apas men ant: kasherukaon, upasthiyon, snayuon aur peshiyon dvara dridhata se judi rahati hain. griva, prishth aur kati kasherukaen alag-alag gatishil hoti hai. ye mukhy kasherukaen kahalati hai. trik aur adhunik kasherukaen judakar trik aur anutrik banati hain. inako gaun kasheruka kahate hain. yuva purush men merudnd ki lnbaee lagabhag 28 inch hoti hai aur striyon men 3 ya 4 inch kam. kul lnbaee ka lagabhag ek chauthaee bhag ant: kasheruka upasthi banati hai.

merudnd ko sharir ka aksh kahate hain. yah dhad, sir aur oordhv shakha ka bhar vahan karata hai. merudnd men paryapt matra men gati bhi snbhav hai. merudnd us tanav athava dabav ka bhi avarodh karata hai jo adhik gati ya manushy ke adhik bhar uthane ke karan utpann ho jata hai. yah aghat athava dahal se raksha karata hai. isake dvara dhad, sar aur oordhv shakha ka bhar, shronimekhala se hokar, adh:shakhaon men chala jata hai. merudnd vaksh ko dridhata se snbhale rakhata hai. isamen sharir ki badi samarth peshiyan lagi rahati hain. merudnd komal merurajju ki raksha karata hai. is prakar merudnd sharir ka ek bada vilakshan ang hai aur bade upayogi karyo ko poorn karata hai. isake atirikt kasheruka men lal majja hoti hai jo rudhirakanika ke nirman ke lie param avashyak hai.

samast kasherukaon ki samany banavat ek si hi hoti hai. tathapi pratyek bhag men kuchh visheshataen rahati hain. pratyek kasheruka ke do mukhy bhag hote hain; kasheruka-kay age ki or aur isake pichhe kasherukachap. donon ke bich ek bada radhrn hota hai. donon ke bich ek bada radhrn hota hai. sab kasherukaradhrn milakar poore merudnd men ek nal banate hain jisamen merurajju surakshit rahati hai.

kasherukakay

yah vartulakar hota hai aur pradhanataya viral (spaaunji) asthi ka bana hota hai. oopar aur niche ki satahon par chakrakar aviral asthi hoti hai jo asthishir (epiphisis) kahalati hai. donon satahen chipati aur khurakhuri hoti hain jisase ant: kasheruka upasthi bhali bhanti jud sake. oopar se niche ki or kasherukaon ka akar katitrik (lnbo saikral) sndhi tak bada hota jata hai, kyonki merudnd par padane vala bhar bhi niche ki or badhata jata hai. katitrik sndhi se samast bhar shronimekhala dvara hokar adh: shakhaon men chala jata hai, isalie trik aur anutrik ke niche ke sire patale hokar nukile ho jate hain.

kasheruka chap

do pedikal aur do laimina se milakar banata hai. pedikal kasheruka kay se pichhe ki or nikali huee do chhoti chhaden hoti hain. inamen pichhe ki or jati huee do chapati paraten laimina kahalati hain. jis jagah donon laiminaen milati hain vahan se pichhe nikale hue ubhad ko kasherukakntak (spainas proses) kahate hain. pedikal aur laimira ke milane ke sthan se do nikas (artikyular proses) oopar ki or aur do niche ki or nikalate hain jo samipavarti kasheruka ke nikas se sndhit hote hain. isi jagah se do aur ade pravardh (trainsavars proses) bahar ki or nikale rahate hain. samipavarti kasherukaon ke pedikal ke bich ant: karusheka radhrn hote hain jinamen se tntrikaen bahar nikalati hain.

grivakasheruka ke vishesh lakshan

sir ko snbhalane aur isaki gati ke karan pratham aur dvitiy grivakasheruka ki banavat bahut bhinn hoti hai. pratham grivakasheruka, athava shirodhar (aitalas), bina kay ki hoti hai. oopar ki or yah anukapal se juti hoti hai. is sndhi par sir ko age aur pichhe ki or hilane ki gati hoti hai. dvitiy grivakasheruka athava akshakikas (aiksis) ki visheshata ek dntabh pravardh (odntaaued proses) hain, jo isaki kay se oopar utha rahata hai. yah pravardh shirodhar se vivartika sndhi banata hai. is sndhi par sir shirodhar, aitalas ke oopar ghoomata hai.

merudndavakr

janm ke samay merudnd pichhe ki or uttal hota hai, parntu jis samay shishu tin ya char mas ka hota hai aur apani griva ko oopar uthane lagata hai, merudnd ki griva vibhag samane ki or uttal ho jata hai; aur chhah ya nau mas ke bhitar, jis samay shishu baithane lagata hai, kati vibhag bhi samane uttal ho jata hai. vaksh aur trik vibhag ke pichhe ki or ke uttal 'maulik vakr' kahalate hain. ye garbhavastha men hi ban jate hain aur ayuparynt rahate hain. inake karan vaksh aur shroniguhaon ki dharanashakti badh jati hai. griva aur kati ke samanevale uttal 'sahakari vakr' kahalate hain. ye janm ke bad banate hain jisase sharir pralnb asan men sntulan prapt kar sake.

ye vakr kuchh to is karan banate hain ki kasherukaen age aur pichhe ki or ek si moti nahin hotin, parntu ant : kasheruka-upasthiyon ka saman motaee ka n hona inaka mukhy karan hai. vriddhavastha men ant: kasherukaupasthi ka kshay hone lagata hai aur dhire-dhire sahakari vakr bhi kam hone lagate hain. isi karan budhape men kamar jhuk jati hai.

parshukaen

vaksh men ek or barah parshukaen (ribs) hoti hain. oopar ki sat parshukaen mukhy kahalati hain, kyonki ye urosthi se parshukopasthi dvara sndhit hoti hain. shesh panch gaun parshukaen kahalati hain, kyonki ye urosthi se sndhi nahin banatin. inamen se athavin, navin aur 10vin parshukaen lnbi upasthi dvara apane se ooparavali upasthi se milati hain. antim do chalayaman parshukaen kahalati hain. inaki upasthiyon ke nukile sire kisi doosari upasthiyon se nahin milate. sabase oopar aur niche ki parshukaen sabase chhoti hoti hain, isalie vaksh ka akar dhol ki tarah hota hai. sabase adhik chaudaee satavin aur athavin parshuka ke samip hoti hai.

parshuka ek lnbi chapati asthi hoti hai jisaka agala sira upasthi dvara urosthi se milata hai aur pichhala kasheruka se. bich ka bhag muda hota hai. yah mod sabase adhik pichhe ki or hota hai aur parshuka ka kon banata hai. is bich ke bhag ka oopar ka kinara gol aur nichevala tikshn hota hai. niche ke kinare ke pas hi ek avatal men ant: parshuka vahikaen aur tntrikaen rahati hain. do parshukaon ke bich ant: parshuka peshiyan rahati hain.

urosthi

urosthi (starnam) vaksh men samane ki or rahati hai. isaka akar chaude bhale ke saman hota hai. oopar se niche ki or is asthi ke tin bhag hote hain : hastak (mainyubriyam), kay aur agrapatrak (ziphaauyad proses). hastak tribhujakar hota hai. oopar ki or donon taraph akshak katav hote hain, jinamen akshak ka bhitar vala sira sndhit hota hai. oopar ka kinara avatal hota hai. aur ise urosthi ka oopar ka katav (suprastarnal naauch) kahate hain. akshak katav ke thik niche pahali parshukopasthi hastak se sndhi banati hai. niche ki or, hastak, kay se milakar, urosthi kon banate hain. is kon ko luee ka kon bhi kahate hain. ise vaksh men samane ki or badi sugamata se parisparsh kar sakate hain. isi jagah doosari parshukopasthi urosthi se milati hai. is kon ka parisparsh parshuka ginane men sahayak hota hai. urosthi kay lagabhag char inch lnba hota hai. isake donon or katav hote hain jinase doosari se lekar satavin parshukopasthi tak sndhiyan banati hain.

agrapatrak ek chhoti si upasthi urosthi-kay se sndhi banata hai. sharir men is sndhi ke sthan ko ek ubhari huee rekha sadrish parisparsh kar sakate hain. isi jagah satavin parshukopasthi ki sndhi hai. agrapatrak hriday ke nichale bhag ke samane rahata hai. madhy bhag men mathyachchhada agrapatrak se laga rahata hai aur madhyachchhada ke thik niche yakrit rahata hai.

oordhvashakha (apar linb)

ansamekhala–ansamekhala age ki or akshak (knaivikil) aur pichhe ansaphalak (skaipyula) se milakar banati hai.

akshak ek lnbi, patali aur mudi huee asthi hai jo griva ke nichale bhag men rahati hai. isaka bhitar ka sira ur:phalak se sndhi banata hai aur baharavala ansaphalak ke utphalakagr (akromian) se. akshak kndhe ko bahar ki or rakhane men pahie ki tili ki bhanti kam karata hai aur is prakar ansaphalak svatntr roop se ghoom sakata hai.

ansaphalak (skaipyula)

ansaphalak ek chipati trikonakar asthi hai, jisamen kndhe ko gati denevali badi-badi peshiyan lagi rahati hain. skaipyula oopar ki sat parshukaon ke prishthabhag men rahata hai. isake bahar ke sire par ek chhichhali guha hoti hai jise glinaid guha kahate hain. kntak ka bahari sira utphalakagr pravardh se milata hai. yah pravardh uronsya pravardh (kaurakaauyad proses) se milakar kndhe ke oopar ek meharab banata hai. yah meharab pragndika (hyoomaras) ke sir ka sndhibhng hone se rokata hai. is prakar ansamekhala aur akshaknkal ke bich asthisnbndh keval us ek chhoti sndhi dvara hota hai jo akshak ur:phalak se banati hai. isake phalasvaroop oordhvashakha ko badi gati mil jati hai. udaharanarth, jis samay pragnd uthaya jata hai, ansaphalak vaksh ki bhit par ghoomata hai aur is prakar apavartan ki sima bahut badh jati hain; parntu is rachana men oordhvashakha ka sara bhar peshiyon ko snbhalana padata hai aur is karan ve shighr hi thak jati hain.

pragndika

pragndika (hyoomaras) pragnd ki ekamatr asthi hai. isaka oopar ka sira golardh hota hai aur isake pasavale do ubhar bade aur chhote prarbud (tayoobarositi) kahalate hain. golardh sira ans-ulookhal (glinaauid guha) se kndhe ki ulookhal-sndhi banata hai. glinaid ke chhichhale hone ke karan kndhe ki sndhi par jitani gati snbhav hai utani sharir men aur kisi bhi sndhi par nahin hoti hai. pragndika ka niche ka sira phailakar prakoshth ki asthiyon ke sath kehuni ki sndhi banata hai.

bahishprakoshthika (rediyas) aur ant: prakoshthika (alna)

jab hatheli samane ki or athava chit ho tab prakoshth ki donon asthiyan asapas, bahishprakoshthika bahar ki or aur ant: prakoshthika bhitar ki or rahati hai. parntu jis samay bahishprakoshthika ka niche ka sira ant: prakoshthika ke samane se ghoomakar bhitar ki or a jata hai. hatheli ko chit ya pat karane ki gati in donon asthiyon ki oopar aur nichevali sndhiyon par hoti hai. kahuni par ant: prakoshthika ka ek gahara katav pragndika ke nichale sire par ghirani ke akaravale bhag se bahut pusht sndhi banata hai. bahishprakoshthika aur pragndika ki sndhi itani pusht nahin hoti. donon asthiyon ke niche ke sire kalaee par parisparsh kie ja sakate hain.

hath ki asthiyan

manibndh (kalaee) ath chhoti-chhoti asthiyon se milakar bana hai. ye asthiyan oopar aur niche char-char ki do pnktiyon men rahati hain. ooparavali pnkti men bahar se bhitar ki or manibndhasthiyon ke nam is prakar hain : skaiphaauyad (nav ke akar ki), lyoonet (chand ke akar ki); traikvetral (tinon kononvali) aur pisiphaaurm (matar ke dane ke akar ki). skaiphaauyad aur lyoonet bahishprakoshthika ke nichevale sire ke sath sndhi banati hain. traikvetral aur ant: prakoshthika ke bich ek tikoniupasthi rahati hai. is prakar bahishprakoshthika aur upasthi niche ki or skaiphaauyad, lyoonet aur traikvetral asthiyon ke sath kalaee ki sndhi banati hain. pisifaaurm traikvetral ke samane rahati hai. isako kalaee men parisparsh kiya ja sakata hai.

niche ki pnkti men bahar se bhitar ki or asthiyon ke nam is prakar hain : traipiziyam, traipizaauyad, kaipitet aur haimet. inamen sabase badi asthi kaipitet ka gol sir skaiphaauyad aur lyoonet se sndhi banata hai. manibndhasthiyon ki oopar aur nichevali pnktiyon ke bich sndhi par paryapt matra men gati snbhav hai. yah gati kalaee ki gati men vriddhi karati hai. panch karashalakaon se hath ka dhancha bana hai. pahali karashalaka traipiziyam se sndhi banati hai aur is sndhi par gati hone ke karan angootha charon ungaliyon ke samip a sakata hai. shesh char karashalakaen asapas ek doosare se bndhi rahati hain. anguliyon ki asthiyan aur bhi chhoti hoti hain. angoothe men do aur shesh ungaliyon men tin-tin angulyasthiyan hoti hain. angulyasthiyon ke bich sabhi sndhiyon par gati snbhav hai.

adh:shakha (loar linb)

shronimekhala–shronimekhala do nitnbasthiyon aur trik (saikram) se milakar banati hai. trik donon or nitnbasthi ke sheshansh bhag se milakar trik prishthanitnb (saikro-iliak) sndhi banata hai. age ki or donon nitnbasthiyan judakar bhagasthi sndhi banati hain. ye sndhiyan sharir ka bhar vahan karati hain; isalie in sndhiyon ki snayu bahut pusht hoti hain.

nitnbasthi

yah asthi tin asthiyon se milakar bani hai. age bhagasthi (pyoobis), oopar ki or prishthanitnb (iliyam), prishth aur niche ki or asanasthi (iskiyam) hoti hai. jis samay ham baithate hain, sharir ka bhar asanasthi vahan karati hai. ye tinon asthiyan ulookhal men sndhit hoti hain. ulookhal ka akar katori jaisa hota hai. 12 varsh ki ayu tak snpoorn ho jata hai. bhagasthi aur asanasthi ki shakhaen bhagasthi-chap banati hain. in shakhaon ka asthi men parinat hona sat ath varsh men snpoorn hota hai. bhagasthi-chap aur shroni-ulookhal ke bich ek radhrn hota hai.

oorvika

oorvika (fimar) ki tulana pragndika se ki ja sakati hai, parntu oorvika badi aur adhik pusht hoti hai. isaka golakar sir shroni ulookhal ke sath ulookhal sndhi banata hai. lagabhag do inch lnbi pusht griva isake sir ko tane se jodati hai. griva aur sir ke sngam par do oorukoot (trokaintar) ek bada aur doosara chhota, sthit hai. oorvika ka niche ka sira phailakar do sndhiknd (kaaundails) ka roop dharan kar leta hai. ye sndhiknd antarjanghika (tibiya) aur januphalak se milakar janusnghi banate hain. donon oorvikaen, oopar ki or, shroni ki chaudaee ke karan, door rahati hain, parntu unake niche ke sir samip rahate hain. is prakar oorvika sharir men tirachhi rahati hai. striyon men shroni ki adhik chaudaee ke karan oorvika ka tirachhapan adhik hota hai.

janvika

janvika (paitela) chipati aur tribhujakar hai. yah oorvika ke nichale sire ke samane ki or sndhi banati hai aur janusndhi ki samane se raksha karati hai. kabhi-kabhi janvika ka asthibhng hone par isako shalyakriya dvara nikal diya jata hai.

antarjnghika (tibiya) aur bahirjnghika (fibula)

pair men ye donon asthiyan ek jhilli dvara paraspar judi rahati hain. inake oopar aur niche ke sire oordhv aur adh:sndhiyan banate hain. in sndhiyon par gati bahut hi kam matra men snbhav hai. antarjaghika bhitar ki or adhik sthool aur pusht asthi hai. bahirjaghika bahar ki or ek patali kamathi jaisi hoti hai. bahirjaghika ka oopar ka sira janusndhi tak nahin pahunchata. donon asthiyon ke niche ke sire ek chap banate hain. yah chap gulphika (tarsas) ki telas asthi ke sath sndhi banata hai jise takhana kahate hain. barhirjaghika ka niche ka sira antarjaghika ke niche ke sire se lagabhag adha inch nicha rahata hai.

padasthiyan

prapatopasthi men sat asthiyan hoti hain. ye manibndhasthi ki asthiyon se badi hoti hain. ye manibndhasthi ki asthiyan hoti hain. sabase ooparavali asthi ka nam telas hai. telas ke niche pragulphasthi (kailakeniyam) hoti hai, jo prapatopasthi ki sabase badi asthi hai. pragulphasthi ka pichhala sira edi ke niche rahata hai. telas ke age naukakar (naivikyular)asthi hai jo telas ke tirachhi hone ke karan pair ke bhitar ki or rahati hain. naivikular ke age tin sphan (kyoonifaaurm) asthiyan hoti hai. angoothe ki angoothe ki tin padashalakaen tinon sfanasthiyan (kyoonifaaurm) se sadhit hoti hain. pair ke bahar ki or pragulphasthi ke age ghanasthi (kyoobaauyad asthi) rahati hai. ghanasthi chauthi aur panchavin padashalakaon se sndhit hoti hai. talave ke bhitar aur bahar ki o mudane ki gati us sndhi par hoti hai jo telas pragulphasthi aur naukakar asthiyon se milakar banati hai.

pair ke agrabhag men panch padashalakaen rahati hain. pahali padashalaka doosaron ki apeksha adhik pusht hoti hain. yadyapi isaki tulana pahali karabhasthi (maitakarpal) se ki ja sakati hai, tathapi yah doosari padashalakaon se is prakar judi rahati hai ki svatntr roop se isamen kuchh bhi gati shaky nahin hoti hai. do chhoti-chhoti snayujat asthiyan (sesamaauyads) pahali padashalaka ke agale sire ke niche rahati hain.

pair ki agulyasthiyan hath ki bhanti hi hoti hain, paratu akar men pair ke angoothe ki do angulyasthiyan, hath ke agoonthe se badi aur shesh angulyasthiyan, jo pratyek anguli men tin hoti hai, hath ki angulyasthiyon ki apeksha chhoti aur patali hoti hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

knkal (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 8 disambar, 2013.


bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

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