उत्परिवर्तन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

utparivartan jivan ki ikaee koshika hai aur koshikaon ka samuchchay jivit shariri ya prani kaha jata hai. kalpana kijie, is srishti men yadi ek hi akar ke jiv hote, ek hi ritu hoti aur rat athava din men se koee ek hi raha karata to kaisa lagata. ek hi prakar ka bhojan, ek hi prakar ka kary, ek hi prakar ke parivesh ka nivas oob utpann kar deta hai isilie ham usamen kinchith‌ parivartan karate rahate hain. prakriti bhi ekarasata se oobakar parivartan karati rahati hai. jntujagath‌ ki vividhata par ham drishtipat karen to paenge ki, udaharan ke lie, billi jati ke jntuon men hi kitana bhed hai : billi, sher, chita, sinh, sabhi isi varg ke jntu hain. isi prakar, kutton men deshi, shikari, buladag, jhabara, adi kee nasl dikhalaee dete hain.

is vividhata ke mool karan ka gyan sabhi ko nahin hota, aur sabase badi bat to yah hai ki kautoohalavash bhi koee is bhed ko janana nahi chahata. hamen yah vaividhy itana sahaj aur samany pratit hota hai ki hamara dhyan is or kabhi nahin jata. kintu, yadi ham is vaividhy ke karan ki mimansa karen to sachamuch hamen chakit ho jana padega. is vaividhy ka mool karan utparivartan hai.

paribhasha - utparivartan ki paribhasha anek prakar se di gee hai, kintu sabhi ka nishkarsh yahi hai ki yah ek prakar ka anuvnshik parivartan (hereditary change) hai. koshikavigyan (cytology) ke vidyarthi yah janate hain ki koshikaon ke kendrak men pitrayasootr ya gunasootr (chromosomes) ek niyat yugmasnkhya (no. of pairs) men pae jate hain. in sootron par nishchit dooriyon aur sthanon (loci) par matar ki phaliyon ki bhanti jins (genes) lipate rahate hain. jivarasayanik drishti se jins nyookliik aml (nucleic acids) hote hain. inaki ek ullekhaniy visheshata yah hai ki ye, koshika vibhajan (cell divisions) ke samay, svat: atmapratikrit (self replicated) ho jate hain.

diaksiribonyookliik esid (DNA)ke vatsan - krik madelon ka adhyayan karane se gyat hota hai ki jab jab di-en-e-ki duhari kundalini (double helix) pratilipit hoti hai tab tab mool snrachana ki hoobahoo anukriti (replica) taiyar hoti jati hai. is prakriya men birale hi antar padata hai. kintu bhool to sabhi se hoti hai--prakriti bhi isase achhooti nahin hai. pratilipikaran ke samay, kabhi kabhi, nyookliotaidon ke snyojan men dosh utpann ho jata hai. yah dosh durghatanavash hi hota hai; isi ko utparivartan ki sngya pradan ki gee hai.

goldasmith ne utparivartan ki paribhasha dete hue batalaya hai ki utparivartan vah sadhan (means) hai, jisake dvara ne anuvnshik taip (hereditary types) utpann hote hain. da.janski aur unake sahayogiyon ke matanusar utparivartan navin kismon ya naslon ki utpatti karanevale pathabhrasht bindu (point of departure) hai.

udvikas ke anek pramanon men utparivartan ko bhi ek praman mana jata hai. is snbndh men halaind ke vanaspatishastri, hyago divijr (De Vries) ka nam snmanapoorvak liya jata hai. inhonne eenothera laimakiena (eenothera lamarckiana) namak ek paudhe par kee prakar ke prayog kie the. is paudhe men prativarsh kee prakar ke spishiz hote jate the, jinhen unhonne panch samoohon men vargikrit kiya aur apane prayogon ke parinamon ke adhar par nimnalikhit nishkarsh nikale--

1. navin spishiz ki utpatti kramik n hokar tatkalik ek-b-ek hoti hai;

2. arnbh men ye spishiz apane mata pita ki hi bhanti sthir hote hain.

3. ek hi samay men samany taur par ek sath ek jaise bahut se spishiz utpann hote hain.

4. utparivartanon ki koee nishchit disha nahin hoti, ve kisi bhi roop men vikasit ho sakate hain.

5. utparivartan bich bich men kee bar ho sakata hai.

isi prakar ke prayog bidil evn taitam namak do amarikan jiv vaigyanikon ne nyoorospora (neurospora) namak phaphoondi (mold) par kie the. unhonne is rog ke bijanu (spores) ko eks athava altravayalet kiranon dvara abhikarmit (treatment) karake unake badhane ki gati ki janch ki. unhonne paya ki kalchar midiyam men is prakar ke abhikarmit bijanu badh nahin pa rahe hain, at: unhonne kuchh eminoesidon ko mila diya. isake phalasvaroop ve hi paudhe pun: vriddhi ko prapt hone lage. at: unaka mat tha ki vikiran ke karan bijanuon ki samany utpadan kshamata par aghat pahunchata hai aur yah dosh agali pidhiyon men bhi vartaman rahata hai. isi prakar ke akasmik anuvnshik parivartanon ko utparivartan kaha jata hai.

sajiv praniyon ke sabhi prakar ke akar, akriti, rasayanik snrachana, rog adi gunon (characters) ka utparivartan ho sakata hai. isi adhar par utparivartanon ki kee kotiyan bana li gee hain, jaise jin utparivartan, gunasootr utparivartan adi. utparivartan ko tatkalik athava akasmik anuvnshik parivartan kaha gaya hai. yah parivartan doshayukt hi ho, yah koee avashyak nahin hai. sabhi utparivartan dooshit ya hanikarak nahin hote. inase labh bhi hota hai aur is prakritik dosh ka labh uthaya bhi jata raha hai. is par ham yathasthan pun: vichar karenge.

utparivartan ki ghatanaen viral athava yada kada hoti hain. drosophila (drosophila) namak kadali makkhi (fruit fly) ke adhyayanon dvara gyat hua hai ki is prakar ka utparivartan kee lakh samany spishiz men se kisi ek men bahut hi nagany roop men parilakshit hota hai. altenavarg ne res ke ghodon ki adhunik tivr gati ka karan kramik aropit utparivartan batalaya hai. yah ya aisa parivartan sada labhaprad hi ho (alten varg ke matanusar), aisa nahin kah sakate. bahut se udaharanon men, is utparivartan ke karan ghodon ki gati men nyoonata bhi a sakati hai. at: nishkarsh yahi nikalata hai ki utparivartan 'manamana parivartan' (random change)hota hai. yahan darvin ka 'prakritik varan ka siddhant' (theory of natural selection) athava 'yogyatam ka jivan' (survival of the fittest) lagoo hota hai, jisake anusar is akasmik parivartan ko sah sakanevale jiv jivit rah pate hain, anyatha nirbalon ki mrityu ho jati hai. maindel ne matar ki phaliyon par jo prayog kie the, unake parinamon ka karan yahi utparivartan batalaya jata hai.

utparivartan kab hoga, yah koee nishchit roop se nahin kah sakata. koshikavibhajan ke uparant vardhan (development) ki kisi bhi avastha ya charan (stage) men utparivartan ki ghatana ghat sakati hai. yadi utparivartan kisi ek hi bijanu (gamete) ya yugmak men hota hai to bhavi sntati men se keval ek men yah parilakshit hoga. utparivartit pidhi men se adhi sntati men utparivartan ke lakshan vartaman honge aur shesh adha inase aprabhavit rahega. utparivartan ke lakshanon se yukt sntatiyon ki bhavi pidhiyon men bhi ve hi lakshan dikhalaee dete rahenge. kay koshikaon (somatic or body cells) men utparivartan ho jane par use pahachan pana dushkar kary hota hai. kee bar to aisa bhi hota hai ki vah sarvatha adrishy ho jata hai aur usapar kisi bhi drishti bhi nahin ja pati. kintu janan koshikaon (germ or reproduction cells) men hue utparivartan janankikiy (genetically) drishti se mahatvapoorn hote hain.

utparivartan ke karan - utparivartan kyon hote hain, isaka sntoshajanak utar jiv vaigyanikon ke pas upalabdh nahin hai. han, in logon ne kuchh aisi vidhiyan nikali hain, jinake dvara kritrim ya aropit dhng se utparivartan kie ja sakate hain. aropit utparivartan sarvada bahari karanon se hi ho sakata hai, jinhen ham niche di gee kotiyon men vargikrit kar sakate hain:--

1. tapakram-jananakoshikaon men sahanabindu tak tapakram men vriddhi kar di jae to utparivartan ki gati badh jaegi.

2. rasayan-sarason ke tel ka dhuan, pharmaildihaid peraksaid, naitras aml adi ka prayog karane par utparivartan dar men vriddhi ho sakati hai.

3. vikiran-eksakiran, gama, bita, altravayalet kiranon adi ke prayog se bhi utparivartan dar men vriddhi ho jati hai. svargiy prophesar ech.je.mular ne is karak par anek adbhut anusndhan kie hain.

utparivartan ke prakar - hamane oopar padha hai ki jin vinimay ke samay kuchh durghatanaen ho sakati hain. in durghatanaon ko ham tin samoohon men vibhajit kar sakate hain:--(k) nyookliotaid ka atirikt snyog, (kh) nyookliotaid ka viyog (deletion) tatha (g) nyookliotaid ka sthanantaran. inamen se pratham do prakar ke parivartan gnbhir mane ge hain, jinase koshika ki mrityu tak ho sakati hai. tisare prakar ka parivartan itana gnbhir nahin hota. anuvnshiki vaigyanikon ne utparivartan ke nimnalikhit bhed batalae hain:--

1. jin ya bindu utparivartan

2. aropit utparivartan

jin ya bindu utparivartan - utparivartan ki paribhasha karate hue batalaya gaya hai ki utparivartan kisi spishiz ke anuvnshik padarth men utpann gatishil rasayanik parivartan ka nam hai. ye parivartan gunasootron ki snrachana tatha snkhya men utpann hote hain. at: is drishti se kisi jin ki anavik snrachana (molecular structure) parivartan ko 'jin utparivartan' kahenge. kintu, jab is prakar ke parivartan gunasootr ke kisi binduvishesh ya khndavishesh (segment) men dikhalaee denge to unhen 'bindu utparivartan' kahenge. vastut: in donon prakar ke parivartanon men koee vishesh bhed nahin hota, at: in donon padon (terms) ka paryay, roopon men ullekh kiya gaya hai. utparivartan tatkalik (spontaneous) hote hain, at: inhen 'tatkalik utparivartan' bhi kahate hain. bindu utparitarvan ati sookshm hote hain aur unaka prabhav snpoorn jiv parivartan par nahin padata. at: utparivartan shabd ka prayog sadharanataya bindu utparivartan ke lie hi kiya jata hai.

kisi manushy ki janan koshika men jin utparivartan hone par yah usake yugmanaj (zygote) men sthanantarit ho jata hai aur is prakar in kobikaon dvara utpann nee pidhi tak pahunch jata hai. asnkhy bar koshika-vibhajanon ke phalasvaroop utparivartan jin bhi apani pratilipiyan utpann karate karate kisi lakshan ya gun vishesh ke lie prabhavi (dominant) ban jata hai.

prabhavi utparitarvanon ko unaki vahak koshikaon men sthit gunasootron ya jinon men saralatapoorvak dhoondha ja sakata hai. kintu aise utparivartan supt (recessive) utparivartanon ki tulana men kam hi drishtigochar hote hain. parntu jahan tak manushy men hue utparivartanon ka prashn hai, aise utparivartan adhikatar prabhavi ho batalae ge hain. lingasahalagn utparivartan (sex-linked mutation) vishamayugmi (heterogamous) naron men hi adhikatar dikhalaee dete hain kyonki inamen lingasahalagn prabhavi jin pae jate hain. at: nar janakon ke prasupt utparivartan dvitiy pidhi ki nar sntanon men hi dikhalaee dete hain. manushy ke adhikansh lingasahalagn utparivartan prasupt mane ge hain.

alingasootri aprabhavi utparivartan - (autosomal recessive mutation) ubhayayalingashrayi padapon (monoecious plans) men bahudha drishtigochar hote hain. aprabhavi utparivartan yadi jananakoshikaon men utpann hote hain to bhavi sntatiyan avashy hi vishamayugmaji (heterozygous) hongi. alingasootri aprabhavi utparivartan ek bar jab utpann ho jate hain, to kee pidhiyon tak dikhalaee hi nahin dete. kintu yahi utparivartan yadi lingasahalagn hote hain, to agali pidhi men hi prabhavi ho jate hain.

pranaghatak utparivartanon (lethal mutations) ko adhikatar aprabhavi ya prasupt mana jata hai. pranaghatak utparivartan yadi jananakoshika (germ cell) men hi jate hain, to bhavi sntati vishamayugmi hogi. yadi aise utparivartan anda denevale jntuon men ho jaen to vishamayugmaji janakon ke lagabhag 1.4 andon se bachche hi nahin utpann honge. lagabhag itani hi sntatiyan bhraunik parivardhan (embryonic) ki vividh dashaon men, janm ke samay athava janm lene ke tatkal bad mar jaengi. ghatak utparivartani alingasootron men am taur par dikhalaee dete hain aur ye kisi ye gunasootr men ho sakate hain. samayugmaji (homoygous) murgi ke bhrun ke gunasootron men yadi ghatak jin hon to aisi sntati ka knkal kuroop ya tedha medha hoga aur vah janm ke poorv hi mar gee hogi. kintu vishamayugmi bhrunon se bachche utpann hote hain aur jivit bhi rahate hain, bhale hi unake asthipnjar tedhe medhe hon. aise bachchon ki kripar phaulha (creeper fowl) kahate hain, kyonki murgi ke in bachchon ke pair aur kamar thingane hote hain.

pratilom utparivartan - viral udaharanon men pratilomit utparivartan bhi ho jate hain. kabhi kabhi utparivartit jin anek pidhiyon tak vartaman rah jata aur ek hi kul ke sahasron sadasyon men phaila hota hai. kintu, jab sahasa kisi sadasy ki jananakoshika men koee jin samany aprabhavi yugmavikalpi (allele) ko utparivartit kar deta hai to aisi sthiti men ek aur utparivartan ho jata hai. is prakar ke punarutparivartan ko pratilom utparivartan ki sngya pradan ki gee hai. isase yah nishkarsh nikalata hai ki utparivartan ki rogi dasha pun: samany ki or parivartit ho sakati hai. baiktiriya men kuchh utparivartit dashaen aisi bhi hoti hain jinamen ve vitamin banane ki kshamata kho baithate hai. kintu kuchh kal bad ve pun: vitamin utpann karane lagate hain. unake samany avastha men pun: laut ane ko poorvakari utparivartan kahate hain.

kayik utparivartan sadharanataya sharir ke ootakon men hi drishtigochar hote hain. kayik utparivartanon ka prabhav dirghakalik nahin hota. bhraunik avastha ki prathamik dashaon men honevale utparivartanon ke karan sharir men chakatte ban jate hain. vaigyanikon ka mat hai ki kainsar bhi ek prakar ka kayik utparivartan hi hai. drosophila makkhi ki ankhe samanyataya lal hoti hain, kintu shvet dhabbe ya ek ankh men poori tarah ki saphedi bhi dikhalaee pad sakati hai. aisi makkhiyon ko mojek kaha jata hai. is prakar ke utparivartanon ke anek udaharan die ja sakate hain.

aropit utparivartan-vaigyanikon ne prayogon dvara pata lagaya hai ki utparivartanon par parivesh ka prabhav tin prakar se padata hai, tapakram dvara, katipay rasayanon dvara aur kiranan dvara.

tapakram - utparivartan par tapakram ka kya prabhav padata hai, isapar adhikatar prayog kadali makkhi, drosophila, ko hi lekar kie ge hain. ek aise hi prayog men jab lingasahalagn aprabhavi ghatak jinon ka adhyayan kiya gaya to pata chala ki 14° sen.gre. par 0.087 pratishat, 22° sen.gre. par 0.188 pratishat aur 28° sen.gre. par 0.325pratishat ghatak jin utpann hue. isase ek bat yah spasht hoti hai ki tapakram men yadi 10° ki bhi vriddhi ho jati hai to utparivartan ki dar men dooni athava tiguni vriddhi ho jati hai. is prasng men ek manornjak bat yah bhi dhyan dene yogy hai ki tapakram men vriddhi dvara hi nahin, apitu atishay nyoonata dvara bhi utparivartan prabhav pad sakata hai. drosofila milenogaistar ke tin dinon ke dinbhon (larvae) ko -6° tap (shitaghat) par rakhane par dekha gaya ki 25se 40 minat ke bhitar inake eks tatha dvitiy gunasootron men ghatak utparivartan ki dar tinaguni ho gee. astu, yah vichitr bat hai ki shit tatha tap men atishay vriddhi ka lagabhag ek saman hi prabhav padata hai. aisa kyon hota hai, is par abhi adhik prakash nahin pada hai.

utparivartan par rasayanik prabhav ke phalon ka adhyayan anek prakar se kiya gaya hai. rasayanik abhikarmo dvara utparivartan dar men vriddhi ka prayas anek vidhiyon dvara kiya gaya hai. is prasng men ovarabaish aur rabasan (Auerbach and Robson) dvara abhi hal men hi (1949 men) kie ge prayogon dvara gyat hua hai ki sarason ka dhuan atyadhik prabhavakari utparivartak madhyam hai. vayask drosophila men uchit matra men die ge dhuen ke prabhav ko dekhane par gyat hua ki isase utparivartan dar men 10 pratishat se bhi adhik ki vriddhi ho jati hai. sarason ke dhuen ke atirikt anek paraksaiden (peroxides), pharmelin, parmenganet, yoorithen, kaiphin adi bhi utparivartan dar men vriddhi karane vale pramanit hue hain. sarason tatha paraksaidon ke atirikt doosare rasayanon ke prabhav apekshakrit kam hi dekhe ge. doosari kami inamen yah bhi paee gee ki inaka prabhav sootrovibhajan (mitosis) ke vishesh charanon men ya parivartan ki vishesh dishaon men hi drishtigochar hota hai. isi prakar kuchh rasayan keval nar ko har prabhavit kar pate hain, mada ko nahin. isaka karan yah batalaya gaya hai ki jab tak koee rasayan koshika ke kendrak avaran ki bhedakar bhitar tak nahin pahunch jata, tab tak usaka prabhav sndigdh hi hoga; doosare, bahari rasayan ki koshikadravy hi yadi nishprabhavit kar dega, to usaka prabhav to hoga hi nahin.

kiranan (Irradiation)-dvara utparivartan ki snbhavana par ech. je. mular ne sanh‌ 1927 men kuchh prayog kie the. unhonne drosophila par eks-kiranon ka prakshepan karake anek prakar ke utparivartan utpann karane men saphalata prapt ki. tab se ab tak makka, jau, kapas, chuhiya adi par bhi kiranan ke prabhavon ka adhyayan karane ko jis vidhi ko nikala, us si.el.bi (C.L.B.) vidhi kahate hain. is vidhi dvara drosophila ke eks-gunasootron men ne ghatak (lethal) jonon ki khoj ki jati hai.

si.el.bi. ka tatpary hai : si = cross-over suppressor. el = recessive lethal tatha bo = bar eyes . mada drasafila ke ek eks-gunasootr men uparyukt tin visheshataen (ek vinimayaj nirodhak jin, ek aprabhavi ghatak jin aur bar netron ka prabhavi jin) chhantakar alag kar li jati hain aur doosare eks-gunasootr ko samany hi rakha jata hai. nar makkhiyon men eks-kiranen aropit kar unhen si.el.bi. makkhiyon se maithunarat kiya jata hai. inase utpann bar mada bachchon men si.el.bi. gunasootr rahate hain, jo mata se prapt hote hain. pita se unhen abhikarmit eks-gunasootr milate hain. in bar madaon ka kisi bhi nar se snyog karane par jo sntanen utpann hoti hain, unamen adhe putron (dvitiy pidhi) men si.el.bi. gun sootr hote hain; yadi ye eks-sootr ghatak hue to ye bhi sabhi putr mar jate hain. kintu sabhi madasntatiyan jivit rahati hain, kyonki unamen samany eks-sootr rahata hai. is prakar, is vidhi dvara spasht aur aspasht donon prakar ke utparivartanon ka adhyayan kiya jata hai.

eks - kiran ka prabhav usaki matra par nirbhar karata hai. mular ne matra men vriddhi karake utparivartan dar men vriddhi ka prabhav dekha tha. age chalakar unake shishy olivar ne aur bhi prayog kie aur anek prakar ke tathy upasthit kie. eks-kiranon ka prabhav itana adhik isalie padata hai ki ve gunasootron ko bhng kar deti hain, jinase bhanti bhanti ke prabhav drishtigochar hote hain. inake atnrgath‌ sthanantaran pratiloman (inversion), dilishan (delition) dvigunan adi samavisht hain. sach poochhie to kiranan, chahe vah kisi bhi prakar ka ho, tabhi utparivartan karata hai, jab usamen ayan utpann karane ki kshamata ho. udaharan ke lie, rediyam men tin prakar ke vikiran (alpha, bita, gama) utpann hote hain. lainsan ne gama vikiran par kee saphal prayog kie hain.

altravayalet prakash-altenavarg ne altravayalet prakashakiranon ke utparivartit prabhavon ke drosofila par prayog kie hain. unhonne vayask makkhiyon ke sthan par unake andon par kiranan kiya. in kiranon ka prabhav uchchatar jntuon aur manushyon par n padakar keval bahut komal jntuon aur janan koshikaon par hi pad sakata hai. inaki shakti bahut mnd tatha nyoon hoti hai. jab tak inhen vishesh rasayanon se snlagn nahin kiya jata, tab tak inaki karyakshamata hin hi rahati hai. in kiranon ka prabhav eks-kiranon ki hi bhaauti hota hai aur ye bhi jin utparivartan tatha gunasootriy vipathan (aberrations) donon utpann karate hain. ayanakarak vikiran ke phalasvaroop gunasootron men yadi ekal bhng (single break) hota hai, to ootakon ka sookshm adhyayan avashyak hoga. kintu, jab dohara bhng hota hai, aur vah bhi ek hi gunasootr men, jab unase hinata (deficiency) aur pratiloman (inversion) utpann hoga. yahi dohara bhng yadi asamajat (non-homologous) gunasootron men hota hai to sthanantaran utpann hoga.

utparivartanon ka mahatv-oopar hamane utparivartanon ke karanon aur unake prabhavon ka adhyayan kiya hai. ham inake mahatv par bhi thoda vichar karenge. utparivartanon ke mahatv ke nimnalikhit paksh ho sakate hain-

1. udvikasiy mahatv - arnbh men hi hamane dekha hai ki srishti ke jivajagath‌ men vividhata drishtigochar hoti hai. udvikas siddhant (evolution theory) ki manyata hai ki yah sara drishyajagath‌ anu se hi mahanh‌ hua hai. arthath‌ pratyek mahanh‌ ki ikaee koee n koee anu hai. yahi anu ek se do, do se char, ath, solah aur annt tatha akathy aur akalpaniy gunanon ke daur se gujarata gujarata daityakar roop dharan kar leta hai. jivajagath‌ ki vividhata ke snbndh men koee vyavasthit vyakhya upalabdh nahin hai, tathapi is snbndh men ab tak jo kuchh kaha suna gaya hai, usaka saransh is prakar hai-

jivotpatti ki adim avasthaon men prithvi ka vatavaran anishchit aur bhaugolik parivesh aj jaisa nahin tha. bhautik aur rasayanik drishti se tatkalin dharati vishesh prakar ke snkraman kal se hokar gujar rahi thi. vayumndaliy prabhavon se jiv jntuon ki akriti, akar, varn, adi poornaroopen prabhavit the. prakriti jivon ko snrakshan pradan karane ki sthiti men nahin thi. keval ve hi jiv jivit rah pate the, jo sabal the. vayumndaliy prabhav shaktishali hone ke karan komal jivon ke gunasootron men parivartan ho jana samany bat rahi hogi. isase ne ne prakar ke jiv jntuon ka vikas teji se hua hoga. yahi karan hai ki jis teji se ve phaile usi gati se samapt hote ge. unaka chihn, unako satta ka praman, jivashmon (fossils) men simatakar rah ge.

gunasootron men parivartan ke phalasvaroop jntukulon men hi nahin, spishiz tak men vividhata a gee. yah vividhata aj tak vartaman hai aur ab isamen parivartan ki snbhavana (kam se kam, prakritik roop se) kam hi hai. karan yah hai ki aj ka prakritik paryavaran paryapt dooshit ho gaya hai aur bhanti bhanti ke takaniki tatha vaigyaniki avishkaron dvara manushy prakriti ko apani cheri banata ja raha hai. yahi karan hai ki ab utparivartan ke lie kritrim sadhanon ka prayog karana padata hai.

2. samajik mahatv-kritrim sadhanon dvara utparivartan karakar jiv, chikitsa aur krishi vaigyanik naslasudhar, rogamarjan, utpadanavriddhi aur manavakalyan ki anek yojanaon ko kriyanvit kar rahe hain. krishi kshetr men pashuon tatha anajon ka naslasudhar aur utpadanavriddhi utparivartan ka ek mahatvapoorn paksh pramanit huee hai. anuvnshiki ki ek navin shakha sujanan vigyan (eugenics) ko vaigyanik teji se vikasit karane men lage hue hain.

sujanan vigyan ke do paksh hain: (1) sakaratmak tatha (2) nakaratmak. sakaratmak sujanan vigyan ka lakshy achchhi aur manachahi sntati utpann karana hai. isake lie aise nirdosh mata pita (janak) ka chayan karana hoga, jaisa ham chahate hain. inake snyog se jo sntatiyan utpann hongi unaki sookshm evn gnbhiratapoorvak janch kar unhin ka pun: snyog karaya jaega. samajik sanskritik maryadaon ki us samay kya sthiti hogi, yah to samay ki batalaega.

nakaratmak sujanan vigyan - isi yojana ka doosara paksh hai. isake atnrgat aise anuvnshik rogon se grast manushyon ka chunav kiya jaega, jo samajik drishti se avanchhaniy samajhe jaenge. unake doshon ko jin utparivartan ki kritrim vidhiyon dvara nasht karane ka prayas kiya jaega. abhi tak vaigyanik in yojanaon ke saiddhantik paksh par hi dhyan dene men lage hain, inaka vyavaharik prayog abhi bhavishy ke garbh men hain. doosari aur audyogik aur takaniki avishkaron ke prasar ke karan vatavaran nam evn jaladooshit hota chala ja raha hai. anu bamon ke parikshanon, anavashyak yuddhon men ghatak bamon ke prayogon ke karan vikiran prabhav dhire dhire phailate ja rahe hain. yadi in par niyntran nahin rakha gaya to vah din door nahin jab jiv is dharati se lupt ho jaenge aur prithvi bhi chndrama ki bhaauti nirjan ho jaegi. chikitsa ke kshetr men eks-kiranon tatha any kiranon aur prakashon ke prayog ke bhi ghatak evn mnd prabhavon ki or logon ka dhyan jane laga hai. chikitsakon ke man men yah ashnka ghar karati ja rahi hai ki tatkalik labh karanevali chikitsavidhiyan kahin bhayanak aur ghatak n ho jaen.

janasnkhya anuvnshiki ke nam se vigyan ki ek nee shakha teji se vikasit ho rahi hai. isake antargat manavakalyan ki anek samasyaon par gnbhiratapoorvak vichar kiya ja raha hai. aj ka vishv bahut simit evn snkuchit hota ja raha hai. ek mahadvip se doosare mahadvip tak pahoonchane men ab kuchh ghnton ka hi samay lagata hai. atnrarashtriy avagaman, parvraijan, yuddh, sharanarthi jivan adi ke karan manushy atyadhik ghulate milate ja rahe hain. is ghalamel ke parinamon ka adhyayan karana is nee shakha ka mukhy lakshy hai. utparivartan ke lie snkaran (cross-breeding) ki ek aisi vidhi aj vaigyanikon ko sulabh hai, jisaka prayog ve dhadalle se karate ja rahe hain. isaka parinam age kya hoga, yah to abhi bhavishy ke garbh men hai.

manushy ke kalyan ke lie janasnkhya anuvnshiki kya kuchh kar paegi, yah abhi se kuchh nahin kaha ja sakata. vishv ki janasnkhya jis drut gati se badhati ja rahi hai aur bhojan tatha avas ki samasyaen jitani gnbhir banati ja rahi hai, unase ashnka utpann hoti hai ki kahin dainosoron, udanadaityon (flving demons) adi ki bhanti manushy bhi ek n ek din prithvi se lupt (extinct) ho jae. utparivartan, jin vinimay, snkaran, aur angon ke pratiropan, kritrim garbhadhan, kritrim urvarak dvara annotpadanavriddhi shuddh aur asali ghi, doogh, tel adi ke sthan par vanaspati, dugdhachoorn aur kapas, oon, resham, pat adi ke vastron ke sthan par nailan, terilon poliestar, kanch, plastik adi ka prayog jis drut gati se ho raha hai usase bhanti-bhanti ashnkaon ka uthana svabhavik hi hoga. jo bhi ho, manav ka bhavishy andhakar men hai aur usaka vinash yadi shighr nahin to nikat bhavishy men hi asann hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 81-85 |

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