अमोनिया  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

  • (angrezi:Ammonia) amoniya gais sarvapratham 1771 men pristale ne nausadar (amoniya kloraid) ko choone ke sarth garm karake prapt ki thi.
  • yah isake vibhinn lavanon ke roop men jiv-jntuon v ped-paudhon ke sadane v jvalamukhi parvaton se nikali rakh men payi jati hai.
  • audyogik roop se amoniya ka nirman haibar prakriya ke dvara kiya jata hai.
  • yah ek tikshn gndh vali gais hai, v vayu se kuchh halki hoti hai.
  • amoniya ka upayog barf banane ke karakhanon, dhulayi tatha urvarak ke roop men kiya jata hai.
  • amoniya ek kshariy gais hai tatha jal men ghulakar amoniya haidraksaid banati hai.
  • kritrim reshe v ansoo gais banane men bhi amoniya gais ka prayog kiya jata hai.

amoniya tivr tatha vishesh prakar ki tikshn gndhavali gais hai. isake kuchh yaugik, visheshakar nausadar (sal amoniek, ya amoniyam kloraid), bahut pahale hi gyat the. parntu svatntr amoniya gais ke astitv ke bare men thik gyan 1774 ee. men je. pristali dvara ise taiyar kie jane par hua. is gais ka nam unhonne 'elkalain eyar' rakha. 1777 ee. men si. dablyoo. shele ne is gais men naitrojan ki upasthiti bataee; 1785 men si. el. beratole ne vidyuth‌ chinagari dvara ise vighatit kar isamen haidrojan tatha naitrojan ki matraen gyat kin.

amoniya kee vidhiyon se svat: banati hai aur banaee ja sakati hai. alp matra men amoniya hava tatha varsha ke jal men paee jati hai; nadi, talab aur samudr ke jal men bhi (samudrajal men lagabhag 0.1 miligram prati litar ki matra men) yah milati hai. pashuon sharirik bhag evn paudhon ke sadane se (naitrojan yukt karbanik padarthon ke vighatan dvara) amoniya tatha isake lavan banate hain. amaniya ke kuchh yaugik khanijon men, mitti men aur phalon ke ras ya paudhon ke any bhagon men bhi pae jate hain.

amoniya banane ki vidhiyan visheshat: do prakar ki hain - naitrojan aur haidrojan tatv ke sidhe snyog se athava naitrojan ya amoniya ke yaugikon se. naitrojan tatha haidrojan ke gaisiy mishran men vidyuth‌ chinagari, ya discharj, utpann karane se amoniya banati hai, jisaka samikaran yah hai: na2+ 3ha2«2 naha3 (na=naitrojan, ha= haidrojan). yah kriya utprerak (kaitalist) ki anupasthiti men nyoon matra men hoti hai. is pratyavarti kriya ke rasayanik sntulan ke vishesh adhyayan se habar ne gyat kiya ki amoniya ki matra gaisiy mishran ki dab tatha tap par vishesh roop se nirbhar hai.

amoniya ke audyogik utpadan ke lie habar ki tatha kee any snshodhit vidhiyan hain (jaise kaisale, klaud ityadi ki). inamen visheshakar gais ki dab, tap, utprerak ke chunav tatha taiyar amoniya ke alag karane ke dhng men bhinnata hai. sadharanataya 200-1000 vayumndal (aitamaausphiyar) ki dab, 400-6000 sentigred ka tap, loh, asmiyam, molibdinam, yooreniya, taiteniyam, tngstan ityadi jaise utprerak tatha alkalain aksaid (jaise sodiyam ya potaisiyam aksaid) ke sath usake samarthak (promotar), jaise ailyoominiyam, silikan, zirakoniyam adi ke aksaid ka upayog hota hai. haidrojan prapt karane ke srot, naitrojan prapt karane ke lie hava se aksijan alag karane ki vidhi tatha inako shuddh karane ki riti men bhi antar hai.

naitrojan ke aksaid, naitrik aml evn naitret ke avakaran se amoniya prapt ki ja sakati hai. udaharanat:, haidrojan ke sath naitrik aksaid garam plaitinam-spanj athava plaitinaijd-aisbestas par pravahit karane se amoniya prapt hoti hai. isi prakar naitrik aml se bhi amoniya banati hai. isamen garam nali men radhrnmay patthar (jaise pyoomisaston) ki satah ki upasthiti tatha tanba, jasta, ranga ke aksaid ya pherik aksaid adi utprerak ki avashyakata padati hai. naitras tatha naitrik aml par haidrojan salphaid, ranga, loha, ya jasta ki kriya se bhi amoniya milati hai. naitret ya naitrait lavan ke ksharasahit ghol men jasta, jasta tatha plaitinam, ailyoominiyam ya sodiyam amailgam ki kriya se bhi amoniya banati hai (in lavanon ki matra gyat karane ke vichar se yah kriya mahatvapoorn hai). naitret tatha naitrait ka avakaran jivanuon dvara bhi hota hai.

naitrojan ke kuchh yaugik jaise phasphaid, salphaid, ayodaid ya kloraid par aur kuchh dhatuon (jaise lithiyam, kailsiyam, maignishiyam) ke naitrait par pani ki kriya se amoniya banati hai. kee sainaid bhi atitapt (suparahited) bhap dvara amoniya banate hain. kailsiyam sainamaid tatha pani ki kriya dvara hava ka naitrojan amoniya jaise upayogi rasayanik yaugik men parivartit kiya ja sakata hai. yah phraink tatha kairo ki vidhi hai.

naitrojan yukt kuchh karbanik yaugikon se bhi amoniya prapt hoti hai. prarnbh men isaka mool srot mootr tatha pashuon ka sing, khur ityadi tha. sadharan mootr men 20 se 25 gram pratilitar yooriya hoti hai sadane par amoniyam karabonet banata hai. chamada, sing, bal tatha pashuon ke any bhagon ko bnd bartanon men garam karane se amoniya tatha kala tel sa padarth, jise dipel aauyal kahate hain, prapt hota hai aur jantav koyal (ainimal charakol) bach rahata hai. patthar ke koyale ko garam karane par (koyale ke snyukt naitrojan se) amoniya prapt hoti hai. at: kol gais, jalane yogy koyala (kok) banane men prapt gais, prodyoosar gais aur blast pharanes gais se amoniya upajat (baipraaudakt) ke roop men milati hai. prayogashala men sadharanataya nausadar ki tivr ya bujhae sookhe choone ke sath garam karake amoniya gais taiyar ki jati hai.

amoniya ke ghol ke kee bar asavan se, athava drav amoniya se prabhavati asavan (phhऱaikshanal distileshan) dvara prapt gais ko pighalate hue ailkaili haidraksaid men sukhane se shuddh amoniya milati hai. amoniya se kriya karane ke karan is kary ke lie samany sukhanevali vasten, jaise kailisayam kloraid, gndhak ka aml tatha fasforas pentaksaid, prayukt nahin ki ja sakati hain.

gun - amoniya rngahin gais hai. ise sahasa soonghane par ankh men ansoo a jata hai. adhik matra se ghutan utpann hoti hai tatha is gais men bnd karane se janavar ki mrityu ho jati hai. gais ka ghanatv 0.5963 (vayu=1), ya 0.5395 (aksijan=1), ya 0.7710 gram prati litar (0° sentigred, 760 milimitar dab par) hota hai. amoniya gais saralata se rngahin taral tatha barph sadrish thos men parivartit ki ja sakati hai. krantik (kritikal) tap 132.4° sen. dab 115.5 vayumndal tatha taral ka ghanatv 0.235 gram prati ghan sentimitar hai. amoniya ka dravanank-77.7 sen. tatha kvathanank-33.35° sen. hai, sngalan ushma (-75° sen. par) 108.1 tatha vashpayan ushma-33.4°, -20°, -10° tatha 0° sen. par kramanusar 327.1, 317.6, 309.7 aur 301.6 kailari prati gram hai. (is lekh men sarvatr kailori se gram-kailari (15° sen.) samajhana chahie.)

pani, elakohal tatha bahut se any dravon men amoniya ghulanashil hai. pani men isaki ghulanashilata atyadhik hai. 00 sen. tatha 760 milimitar par pani apane ayatan ke hajar gune se bhi adhik amoniya ghol leta hai. is kriya men tap utpann hota hai. thnde ghol ko garam karake amoniya anshat: ya poornat: bahar nikali ja sakati hai. amoniya ka vashp dabav vibhinn tapon par is prakar hai: 1 10 40 100 400 760 mili. mi. -109.1 -91.9 -79.2 -68.4 -45.4 -36.6 sen.-amoniya ka vishisht tap thos ke lie (-103° sen. se-188° sen. tak tap par) 0.502 hai, drav ke lie (-60° sen. par) 1.047 hai, tatha gais ke lie (15° sen. aur 1 vayumndal ki sthir dab par) 0.5232 (kailori/gram/digari sen.) hai; sthir dab tatha sthir ayatan ke vishisht tap ka anupat (arthat l) =1.310 hai. gaies tatha drav amoniya ki nirman ushma (18° sen. tatha 1 vayumndal dab par) kramanusar 10.94 tatha 15.84 kilo-kailori hai.

aksijan men amoniya gais jalati hai, jisase naitrojan, jal evn alp matra men amoniyam naitret aur naitrojan paraksaid banate hai. garam nali men aksijan ke sath amoniya pravahit karane se naitrojan ke aksaid hain. yah kriya utprerak (jaise loha, tanba, nikal aur visheshakar plaitinam) ki upasthiti men bhi hoti hai. amoniya se shore ka aml banane ki aaustavalt vidhi isi par adharit hai.

garam karane athava vidyuth‌ chinagari ya discharj se amoniya svat: naitrojan tatha haidrojan men vighatit hoti hai. is kriya ki gati (athava vighatit amoniya ki matra) tap, sparsh prishth ki prakriti evn utprerak ki upasthiti par nirbhar hai. altravayalet ya rediyam ke ailpha kiran se bhi amoniya ka vighatan hota hai. klorin men gais shighrata se jalati hai. is kriya men amoniyam kloraid tatha naitrojan banate hain. bromin tatha ayodin ke sath bhi yaugik banate hain. vashpiy gndhak ko amoniya ke sath garam nali men pravahit karane par amoniyam mono tatha paauli-salphaid prapt hote hain. garam karban par amoniya ki kriya se sainaid banata hai. kuchh dhatuon ko (jaise maignishiyam, jasta, taiteniyam ityadi ka) amoniya men garam karane par naitraid banate hain. isi tarah garam ailkali dhatu sookhi amoniya se amaid banate hain,:- sodiyam amaid ya sodamaid, potaishamaid ityadi. bahut se lavan amoniya ke snyog se ne yaugik banate hain, jaise kailsiyam, jasta ya chandi ke kloraid se unake amino-kloraid prapt hote hain. is tarah ke kuchh yaugik (jaise mainganiz amino-salphet) hava men rakhane se aur kuchh yaugik (jaise zink amino salphet) garam karane se amoniya dete hain. drav men roopantaran ke lie phairade ne isi vidhi dvara amoniya gais prapt ki thi.

nimn tapakram par adhyayan se gyat hua ki pani ke sath amoniya ke do haidret, naha3. ha2 aur (au=aksijan) (chhote rngahin ravevala) aur naha3, ½ha2 aur (suee ke akar ravevala), banate hain. amoniya ka pani men ghol kshariy hai aur aml ke sath kriya karane par amoniyam lavan banata hai; jaise amoniyam kloraid, amoniyam naitret, amoniyam salphet. amoniya ke ghol men kuchh aksaid, haidraksaid tatha lavan bhi ghul jate hain, jaise silvar aksaid, kapar haidraksaid, silvar kloraid. is prakar ke kapar haidraksaid ka ghol nakali resham (reyan) banane men upayukt hone ke karan audyogik mahatv ki vastu hai.

drav amoniya achchha gholak hai. isamen bahut si dhatuen, lavan aur any yaugik ghul jate hain. kuchh lavan, jo pani men sookshm matra men hi ghul sakate hain, amoniya men achchhi tarah ghul jate hain; jaise sivalar ayodaid. bahut se karbanik yaugik bhi amoniya men ghulate hain. amoniya ke ghol men yaugikon ki sngat (aisosieshan) karane athava gholak ke sath yaugik banane ki pravritti hai.

kuchh aml amoniyam lavan ke roop men drav amoniya men ghul jate hain tath potaisiyam, sodiyam aur maiganishiyam dhatu ki kriya se haidrojan dete hain, jaise aisitamaid, sodiyam amaid tatha potaishiyam aisitamaid. amoniya ke ghol men bhi inase vibhakt ayan kriya karate hain aur aml tatha kshar milakar lavan banate hain.[1]

amoniya ki pahachan usaki vishesh gndh ya gile lal litamas ko nil karane ya haldi ke kagaj ko bhoora lal karane athava nesalar ke riejent men bhoora rng utpann karane se ki jati hai. kisi mnd ksharasoochak, jaise mithail arenj ya mithail red ki upasthiti men pramanik aml se anumapan (taitreshan) karane athava kloroplaitinik aml se prapt avakshep ko taulakar (ya jalane par prapt plaitinam ko taulakar) ghol men amoniya ki matra gyat ki jati hai.[2]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 208-10 |
  2. sn.grn.-je.ef. thaaurp aur em.e. hvaitale: thaaurps dikshanari aauv aiplaid kemistri: je.ar. paratingatan: e tekstabuk aauv anargainik kemistri (1950).

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