अदह  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

adah (aisbestas) kee prakar ke khanij siliketon ke samooh ko kahate hain, jo reshedar tatha adahy hote hain. isake reshe chamakadar hote hain. ikattha rahane par unaka rng safed, hara, bhoora ya nila dikhaee padata hai, parntu pratyek alag reshe ka rng chamakila safed hi hota hai. is padarth men anek gun hote hain, jaise- reshedar banavat, atatan bal, kadapan, vidyut ke prati asim rodhashakti, aml men n ghulana aur adahata. in gunon ke karan yah bahut se udyongon men kam ata hai.

vibhajan

adah ko sadharan roop se nimnalikhit do jatiyon men banta ja sakata hai-

  1. reshedar sarapentain ya kraisotail
  2. ainfibol samooh ke reshedar khanij padarth, jaise- krosidolait, tremolait, aiktinolait tatha ainthophilait adi.

prapti sthan

adah ki sabase adhik upayog hone vali jati kraisotail hai. yah padarth sarapentain ki shilaon ki patali dhamaniyon men paya jata hai aur rasayanik drishti se sadharan maiganishiyam siliket hota hai. in dhamaniyon men safed ya hare rng ka manim reshami resha paya jata hai. is prakar ke adah ka 70 pratishat bhag kanada ki kvibek khadanon se nikala jata hai. kraisotail-yukt chattan men kraisotail-adah ki matra bharanusar 5 se 10 pratishat hoti hai. is mel ke reshe bahut achchhe, majaboot, lachile aur atanan bal vale hote hain. inako asani se soot ki tarah kapadon ke roop men buna ja sakata hai. ainphibol samooh ki apeksha[1] ushmarodhi shakti kam hoti hai tatha aml men ghulanashilata adhik. bharat men uparyukt mel ke adah himachal pradesh men shimala ke pas shali ki pahadiyon men, madhy pradesh ke narasinhapur men, andhr pradesh ke kadap tatha karanoolu men tatha maisoor ke shinagora men pae jate hain.[2]

reshon ko khadan men se khodakar aur adahayukt patthar ko mashin drilon ke dvara nikala jata hai; tatpashchath yantrik vidhiyon se reshon ko alag kar liya jata hai. isake lie patthar ko pahale toda tatha sukhaya jata hai, phir kramanusar ghoomane vali chakkiyon, belanon, kuttakon, pnkhon tatha adhopati kakshon men pahunchaya jata hai aur ant men reshon ko ikattha kar liya jata hai.

ainfibol adah

is prakar ka adah reshon ke punj ke roop men paya jata hai, parntu reshe bahudha aniyamit kram ke hote hain. in dhamaniyon ki lnbaee kabhi-kabhi kee phut tak hoti hai. is prakar ke adah nimnalikhit upajatiyon ke pae jate hain-

ainthophilait

yah lohe aur maignishiyam ka siliket hota hai. isamen atanan bal kam hota hai, parntu yah kraisotail ki apeksha aml men kam ghulata hai aur isaki ushmarodhak shakti adhik hoti hai. yah bahut bhnjanashil hota hai aur isilie isako katana bahut kathin hota hai.

krosodolait

yah lohe aur sodiyam ka siliket hai. yah halke nile rng ka aur resham ki tarah chamakila hota hai. isamen atatan bal paryapt hota hai.

tremolait

yah kailshiyam maignishiyam siliket hota hai.

ekatinolait

yah maignishiyam, kailshiyam aur lohe ka mila hua siliket hai.

pahali donon upajatiyon ke adah ka safed rng se halka hara rng tak hota hai. rng ka gadhapan lohe ki matra ke oopar nirbhar hai. inake reshe men adhik loch nahin hoti, at: ye bunane ke kam men nahin a sakate. ye kathinata se pighalate aur aml men bahut kam ghulate hain. inako aml chhanane aur vidyut ke upakaran banane ke kam men laya jata hai. bharat men adah ki aikatinolait tatha tremolait upajatiyan hi bahutayat se paee jati hain. inake milane ki jagahen hain- uttarakhnd ke kumaoon tatha gadhaval, madhy pradesh ke sagar tatha bhndara, bihar ke munger, baravana tatha bhanapur, udisa ke mayoorabhnj, sarayakela; madras ke nilagiri tatha koynbatoor.[2]

khan se nikalana

adah ki khanen mitti ki satah ke niche milati hain. 500 se 600 phut niche tak pae jane vale adah ko khuli maidan vidhi se nikala jata hai. isase aur adhik gaharaee men pae jane vale adah ke nikalane men ve hi vidhiyan prayukt hoti hain jo any dhatuon ke lie apanaee jati hain. bharatavarsh men adah hath-barami se chhedakar aur visphot padarth tatha hathaudon dvara phodakar nikale jate hain, parntu doosare deshon, jaise- dakshini amarika aur snyukt rashtr (amarika) men, vayuchalit baramon ka prayog kiya jata hai. adah ko chhedate samay jal ka prayog nahin kiya jata, kyonki pani ke sath milane par spnji mishran ban jata hai, jisamen se isako alag nikalana kathin ho jata hai. kachche adah ko chhanane ke pashchath‌ hathaudon se khoob pita jata hai. isase adah ke reshon men lage hue patthar ke tukade tatha any vastuen door ho jati hain. isake bad ise kuchalane vali chakki men dala jata hai. bad men reshon ko hava ke jhonke se alag kar liya jata hai. ant men hilate hue chhanane par dalakar unake dvara shoshak pnpon se hava choosakar dhooli poornataya khinch li jati hai. isake uparant adah ka moolyankan hota hai.

bazar men upalabdhata

adah ke nimnalikhit char mel bazar men bheje jate hai-

  1. ekahara mal[3]
  2. mahin mal[4]
  3. siment men milane yogy[5]
  4. choora[6]

moolyankan

adah ka moolyankan isako jalane ke bad bachi huee rakh ke adhar par kiya jata hai.

adah ka moolyankan
adah ki upajati jalane ke bad bachi huee rakh, pratishat
krosidolait 3.8
tramolait 2.3
enthophilait 2.23
ekatinolait 1.99
kraisotail 14.5
kshetr parikshan

yadi achchhe adah ko ungaliyon ke bich ragada jae to usase reshami dor jaisi vastu ban jati hai, jo khinchane par shighr tootati nahin. ghatiya mel ke adah ke chhote-chhote tukade ho jate hain; vah kathor bhi hota hai. achchhe adah ke patale punj ko yadi angoothe ke nakh se dhire-dhire khincha jae to lachile tatha achchhe atanan vale reshe milate hain athava ve mahin reshon men vibhajit ho jate hain, parntu nimn koti ke adah ke reshe bilakul toot jate hain. uttam koti ke adah ke reshon ko masalane se komal goliyan banaee ja sakati hain, parntu ghatiya adah ke reshe toot jate hain.[2]

upayog

adah ke sabhi prakar ko vidyutarodhak athava ushmarodhak banane ke kam men laya jata hai. isake atirikt inhen aml chhanane, rasayanik udyog tatha rng banane ke karakhanon men istemal kiya jata hai. lnbe reshon ko bun ya batakar kapada tatha rassi adi banaee jati hai. inase agnirakshak parade, vastr aur aisi hi any vastuen banaee jati hain. bharat men adah ka mukhy upayog adahayukt siment tatha tatsnbndhi vastuen, jaise slet, taeel, paip aur chadaren banane men kiya jata hai. 1952 tatha 1953 men bharat men adah ka utpadan kramanusar 865 tatha 718 tan tha. is adah ko keval avarodhak upakaran banane ke kam men hi laya ja saka, kyonki yah bhnjanashil tatha durbal tha. bharat ko any vastuen banane ke lie adah ka ayat karana padata hai. 1955, 1956 tatha 1957 men kramanusar 13,00 tan, 15,160 tan aur 13,922 tan adah bahar se aya tha. bharat ko isake lie prati varsh lagabhag do karod rupaya dena padata hai.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. krosidolait ko chhodakar
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 adah (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 11 pharavari, 2015.
  3. singil staauk
  4. pepar staauk
  5. siment staauk
  6. shaaurts

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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