नाभिक  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

nabhik atynt sookshm akar ka hota hai aur paramanu ke kendr men sthit hota hai. yah dhan aveshit hota hai tatha nabhik men paramanu ka lagabhag samast dravyaman kendrit hota hai.

nabhik ke astittv

nabhik ke astittv aur isake gunon ka pata lagane ka shrey vikhyat vaigyanik radaraford ko jata hai. radaraford ki prayogashala men vighatan se prapt ailpha (α) kanon par vistrit prayog ho rahe the. in prayogon men yah paya gaya ki dhatu ki patali panniyon men se hokar jab ailpha kan jate hain tab ve apane marg se bahut adhik vichalit ho jate hain. us samay tak yah mana jata tha ki paramanu men dhan aur rin avesh samaroop se vitarit hote hain. is dharana ke adhar par taaumasan ne ailpha kanon ke prakirnan ki ganana ki thi, parntu prayogatmak roop se prakirnan ka jo man prapt hota tha vah ganana dvara prapt man se kee koti adhik tha. is vaishamy ko spasht karane ke lie radaraford ne 1911 ee. men naya sidvant pratipadit kiya, jisase nabhik ka astittv spasht hua. radaraford ne yah mana ki paramanu men dhan avesh samaroop se vitarit nahin hota, balki usake kendr par atynt sookshm ayatan men hi simit hota hai. paramanu ke kendr men sthit atynt sookshm aur dhanaveshit bhag ko nabhik kaha jata hai. paramanu ka samast dravyaman usake dhan aveshon men nihit hota hai aur radaraford ke anusar samast dhan avesh nabhik men kendrit hote hain, at: spasht hai ki paramanu ka samast dravyaman usake nabhik men kendrit hota hai. is prakar mote roop men radaraford ne 1911 ee. men nabhik ka astittv siddh kiya.

nabhikiy snrachana

nyootraaun ke avishkar ke bad se yah mana jata hai ki nabhik nyootraaun aur protaaun se milakar bane hain. nabhik men protaaunon ki snkhya Z se vyakt ki jati hai. yah paramanu snkhya ke barabar hoti hai. nabhik men nyootraaunon ki snkhya itani hoti hai ki nyootraaunon aur protaaunon ki snkhya milakar paramanu bhar ke barabar ho jae. is prakar paramanu snkhya Z aur paramanu bhar A vale nabhik men Z protaaun aur AZ nyootraaun yahan hote hain. nabhik ko se vyakt karate hain. X us tatv ka rasayanik snket hai, Z paramanu snkhya tatha A paramanu bhar hai. halke nabhikon men pray: protaaunon aur nyootraaunon kin snkhya barabar hotin hai. jaise-jaise nabhik bhari hota jata hai protaaunon se nyootraaunon ki snkhya adhik hoti jati hai. yooreniyam jaise bhari tatv, ke nabhik men nyootraaunon ki snkhya protaaunon ki snkhya se lagabhag dyodhi hoti hai. kisi nabhik men protaaunon aur nyootraaunon ka anupat aichchhik nahin hota. inaka nishchit anupat hone par hi nabhik sthayi hota hai. pray: ek hi tatv ke vibhinn nabhikon men protaaunon ki snkhya vahi rahane par bhi nyootraaunon ki snkhya men kuchh antar ho jata hai. udaharan ke lie tin (Sn) ke sabhi nabhikon men protaaunon ki snkhya to 50 hi hoti hai, parntu nyootraaun 52 se lekar 74 tak ho sakate hain. aise nabhik, jinamen protaaunon ki snkhya vahi ho parntu nyootraaunan ki snkhya bhinn ho, samasthanik kahalate hain. ise atirikt do bhinn tatvon ke nabhik aise bhi ho sakate hain jinamen se ek ke protaaunon ki snkhya doosare ke nyootraaunon ki snkhya ke barabar hoti hai. inhen pratipanabhik kahate hain. jaise 1H3 aur 2He3 men kramash: ek protaaun, do nyootraaun aur do protaaun tatha ek nyootraaun hain.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

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