भौतिक रसायन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bhautik rasayan (angrezi: Physical Chemistry) rasayan vigyan ki vah shakha hai jo bhautik avadharanaon ke adhar par rasayanik pranaliyon men ghatit hone vali parighatanaon ki vyakhya karati hai. dravy ki avinashita ke niyam ke sath hi sath bhautik rasayan ki ninv padi, yadyapi 19vin shati ke ant tak bhautik rasayan ko rasayan ka prithakh‌ ang nahin mana gaya. vant haph, vilhelm aaustavald aur ariniyas ke karyen ne bhautik rasayan ki rooparekha nirdharit ki. sthir anupat aur gunit anupat evn paraspar anupat ke niyamon ne, aur bad ko avogadro niy, gelusaik niyam adi ne paramanu aur anu ki kalpana ko praray diya. paramanubhar aur anubhar nikalane ki vividh paddhatiyon ka vikas kiya gaya. gais snbndhi baauyal aur charls ke niyamon ne aur graham ke avisaran niyamon ne isamen sahayata di. vilayanon ki prakriti samajhane men parasaran dab snbndhi vicharon ne ek navin yug ko janm diya. pani men ghulakar shakkar ke anu usi prakar alag alag ho jate hain jaise shoony sthan men gais ke anu. rault (Raoult) ka vashpadab snbndhi samikaran vilayanon ke snbndh men bade kam ka siddh hua.

baauyal-charls samikaran

da´a=jh pa [P´V=R T]

yahan da (P)=dab, a (V)= ayatan, pa (T)=param tap tatha jh (R) gais niyatank hai. yah samikaran 1 gram-anu gais ke lie hai. yadi gais ch (n) gram anu ho, to yah samikaran da´a=ch jh pa (P V= n R T) ho jaega.

graham ka samikaran

Chemistry-6.gif Chemistry-7.gif isamen do gaison ke lie kramash: visaran (diffusion) ki gatiyan ga1 (D1) aur ga2 (D2) hain, gaison ke ghanatv gh1 (d1) aur gh2 (d2) hai, unake anubhar a1 (M1) aur a2 (M2) hain, evn kisi chhote se chhed men hokar gais ke nichit ayatan ke visaran ka samay kramash: s1 (t1) aur s2 (t2) hai.

daltan ka anshik dab ka niyam

da=d1+d2+d3+.............

[P=p1+p2+p3+..........]

yahan kisi die hue gaison ke mishran men sab gaison ki samavet dab da (P) hai aur un gaison ki prithakh‌ prithakh‌ dab d1 (p1), d2 (p2), d3 (p3)......adi. ye sab gaisen adarsh hon, inaka param tap pa (T) ho aur sab gaisen a (v) ayatan ke patr men hon to-

Chemistry-8.gif

Chemistry-9.gif

isi prakar

Chemistry-10.gif.... ityadi

Chemistry-11.gif

Chemistry-12.gif

Chemistry-13.gif

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at: gais mishran men kisi ek gais ki anshik dab, d1 ke lie :

Chemistry-16.gif

Chemistry-17.gif

parasaran dab

isaka samikaran bhi gais dab ke samikaran ke saman hai. yadi kisi vilayan ki sndrata s (C) anu prati ikaee ayatan ho aur ayatan a (V) ho (a vah ayatan hai, jisamen vilayashil 1 anu ghula hai), to s (C)=1/a, (1/V). parasaran dab da ke lie samikaran yah hai :

da´a=jh ta, da=jh ta s [P´V=R T, P=R T C]

rault ka niyam

eph.em. rault ne 1887 ee. men, lagabhag tanu vilayan men, vashpadab ke sapeksh avanaman ke snbndh men yah niyam diya :

Chemistry-18.gif

Chemistry-19.gif

isamen vilayak ki vashpadab d (p), vilayan ki vashyadab d0 (p0), vilayak ki vashpadab men kami D d (D p) aur Chemistry-20.gif vilayan ki dab men sapeksh avanaman hai. vilayan men vilayak ke anuon ki snkhya ch2 (n2) hai, aur viley ke anuon ki snkhya ch1 (n1) hai.

agar vilayan men viley ka dravyaman dr (w), viley ka anubhar bh (m) shuddh vilayak ka dravyaman dra (W) aur vilayak ka anubhar bha (M) ho, to

Chemistry-21.gif

Chemistry-22.gif

vilayak men viley ke ghulane par vilayak ki vashpadab men kami a jati hai, aur isi karan shuddh vilayak ke kvathanank se vilayan ka kvathanank adhik, aur shuddh vilayak ke himank se vilayan ka himank kam, hota hai. kvathanank ki vriddhi D pa (D T), vilayan ki sandrata aur viley ke anubhar, bh (M), aur vilayak ke niyatank (ya kvathanank ka anavik utkarsh), kakv (Kb) par nirbhar hai. niche ke samikaran men yah ka kakv 100 gram vilayak ki matra ke lie hai.

Chemistry-23.gif

(k gram viley kh gram vilayak men ghola gaya hai)

isi prakar himank ki kami, D pa (D T) nimn samikaran dvara vyakt hoti hai niyatank, kah (Kf), himank ka anavik avanaman kahalata hai. 100 gram vilayak ke lie yah niyatank hai.

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kakv (Kb) ka snbndh vilayak ke kvathanank pa (T) aur usake vashpikaran gupt ooshma, gu (L), se nimnaprakar hai -

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isi prakar ka samikaran himank ke anavik avanaman niyatank kah (Kf) ke lie bhi hai.

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isamen gu (L), himan ki gupt ushma aur pa (T) himank hai.

dravyaman samanupati kriya ya dravyamatra kriya ka niyam

1894 ee. men guldavarg (Guldberg) aur vage (Waage) ne is niyam ka pratipadan kiya. niyam yah hai : 'rasayanik abhikriya ka veg abhikriya men bhag lenevale padarthon ke sakriy dravyamanon ka samanupati hota hai.' is niyam ka upayog bahudha utkramaniy (reversible) kriyaon ke samy ke snbndh men bhi kiya jata hai. abhikriya vyakt karane vala sarvasamany samikaran nimnalikhit hai :

k ka+kh kha+g ga+...=k¢ ka¢+kh¢ kha¢+g¢ ga¢+...

[a A+b B+c C+. . .=a¢ A¢+b¢ B¢+c¢ C¢+. . . . ]

yahan kriya men bhag lene vale padarth ka, kha, ga, (A, B, C) adi hain aur kriya se utpann padarth ka¢, kha¢, ga¢.... (A¢, B¢, C¢) adi hain.

yah kriya utkramaniy hai. samy sthapit hone par yadi ka, kha, ga,.... (A, B, C....), ka¢, kha¢, ga¢..... (A¢, B¢, C¢....) adi ki sandrataen kramash: (ka), (kha), (ga),.... [(A), (B), (C),....], (ka¢), (kha¢), (ga¢),.... [(A¢), (B¢), (C¢),....] adi hon, to samy niyatank t (K) nimnalikhit hoga :

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yah niyatank t (K) tap par rnibhar hai. ooshmagatiki ke siddhanton ke anusar nimn samikaran dvara t par tap, pa (T), ka prabhav vyakt kiya jata hai-

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is samikaran men D oo(D u) abhikriya ki ooshma hai.

svatntr oorja, pha (F), aur samyaniyatank, t (K), men nimn snbndh hai, jise vantahaph ka samapati vakr (isotherm) kahate hain :

t pha=jh pa laghu t - jh pa Su laghu s

d F=R T log K - R T Su log C

SC is abhikriya men bhag lenevale padarthon ki svaynmany sandrataen hain.

gibj ka kala niyam

yadi kisi nikay (system) se snghatakon (components) ki snkhya s (C) ho, aur kalaon ki snkhya k (P) ho te svatntr char rashiyon ki snkhya, ya svatntr ki matra m (F), samy sthapit hone par nimn samikaran dvara vyakt ki jati hai :

k+m=s+2, (P+F=C+2)

athava m=s-k+2, (F=C-P+2)

yah gibz ka kala niyam kahalata hai. ooshmagatiki snbndhi lekh men is niyam ki pratipatti di huee hai. is niyam ke adhar par anek nikayon (jal, gndhak, miradhatu, vilayak-miran) ke vivaran rekhachitron dvara vyakt kie jate hain.

(9) vidyudvileshan snbndhi niyam

gaikel phairade (Faraday) ne 1883 ee. men vidyudvileshan snbndhi do niyam die :

(k) vidyuth‌ dhara dvara utpann rasayanik kriya vidyut dhara ki matra ki samanupati hoti hai, arthath‌ jitani dhara pravahit hogi usi ke anupat men koee padarth nikshipt ya vilin hoga.

(kh) vidyuth‌ dhara ki ek hi matra dvara yadi kee padarth nikshipt, ya vilin ho rahe hon, to unaki matraen usi anupat men hogi, jisamen unake rasayanik tulyank bhar hain.

in donon niyamon ko ek sammilit samikaran dvara vyakt kiya ja sakata hai. yadi kisi padarth ki nikshipat matra ya vilin matra v (w) gram, dhara ki samarthy i (I) ainpiyar ho, dhara ke pravahit hone ka samay s (t) seknd or tulyank bhar tu (e) ho to

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samen phai (F) ko phairade ikaee kahate hain. phai (phairade) vidyuth‌ ki vah matra hai, jisake pravahit hone par kisi bhi padarth ka ek gram tulyank ya to nikshipt hota hai, ya vilin hota hai :

phe=96,500 koolnb

dhan aur rin vidyudagron par dhanatmak aur rinatmak ayan ek hi tulyamatra men visarjit hote hain, kintu yah smaran rakhana chahie ki ye ayan ek hi gati se kaithod (cathode) ya ainod (anode) ki or agrasar nahin hote. yadi dhanayan (cation) ki gati gagh (wc) aur rinayan (anion) ki gati ga (Ua) ho, to dhanayan ki sthanantaran, ya parivahan (transferenc of transport) snkhya tagh (Tc) aur rinayan ki parivahan snkhya, ta (Ta) nimnalikhit samikaranon dvara vyakt ki jaegi-

Chemistry-34.gif

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hitaaurph (Hittorf) ne 1853 ee. men is parivahan snkhyaon ke nikalane ki vidhi nikali.

arreniyas ki vidyudviyojan ki kalpana

arreniyas (Arrhenius) ne 1883-87 ee. men vidyudviyojan ki kalpana prastut ki. jal men ghulane par vidyudvileshy, jaise namak, tootiya, aml, kshar adi, dhan aur rin ayanon men viyojit ho jate hain. yah avayak nahin hai ki vidyudvileshyon ke samast anu viyojit hote hon. aisitik aml adi ke saman nirbal vidyudvileshy kuchh pratishat hi viyojit hote hain, kintu sodiyam kloraid, haidroklorik aml, kaaustik soda adi ke saman sabal vidyudvileshy lagabhag shat pratishat viyojan, ya ayanan prastut karate hain. ayanan ki matra (degree of ionisation) a (ailpha) vilayan ki tanuta par nirbhar hai. arreniyas ne ayanan ki matra vilayan ki vidyuchchalakata ke adhar par nikali. yadi kisi vilayan ki vishisht chalakata (specific conductivity), arthath‌ vishisht rodhakata (resistance) ka vyutkram ch (K) ho aur vilayan ki sandrata 1 gram tuly prati ayatan a (v) ghan senmi. ho, to usaki tuly chalakata (equivalent conductivity), t, (m), nimn samikaran dvara vyakt ki jaegi-

t=ch´a, [m=K´v]

nirbal vidyuth‌ apaghatyon ki tuly chalakataen vilayan ki tanuta badhane par badhati jati hain, aur jab vidyuth‌ apaghatyon shat pratishat ayanit ho jata hai to yah sthir ho jati hai. is samay ki tuly vidyuchchalakata ko annt tanuta ki vidyuchchalakata (mµ ya tµ) kahate hain. kisi tanuta, a, par vidyuchachalakata ta ho aur annt tanuta par tµ to ayanikaran ki matra, a nimn hogi :

Chemistry-36.gif

annt tanuta par ayanik chalakataen (25° sentigred)

dhanayan chalakata rinayan chalakata
ha+ (H+) 349.82 auha- (OH-) 198.5
pa+ (K+) 73.52 bro- (Br-) 78.4
naha4+ (NH4+) 73.4 a- (I-) 76.8
so+ (Na+) 50.11 klo- (Cl-) 76.34
r+ (Ag+) 61.92 nao3- (NO3-) 71.44

nirbal amlon ke lie aaustavald (Ostwald) ne nimnalikhit tanuta niyam (dilution law) pratipadit kiya- Chemistry-37.gif isamen a (u) litar men yah ayatan hai, jisamen vidyuth‌ apaghaty ka ek gram anu matra ghuli ho. ka (K), ko vidyuth‌ apaghaty ka viyojan niyatank (dissociation constant) kahate hain. sabal vidyuth‌ apaghaty ke lie aaustavald ke is samikaran ka upayog nahin kiya ja sakata. debaee (Debye) aur hookal (Huckel) ne 1923 ee. men aur aaunasaigar (Onsager) ne 1926 ee. men in sabal vidyuth‌ vighatyon ki vidyuchchalakata ke lie doosare samikaran die. potaishiyam kloraid ke lie, jisamen do ekasnyoji ayan, hain, yah samikaran is prakar hai :

Chemistry-38.gif

Chemistry-39.gif

vi (D) vilayak ka paravaidyutank (dielectric constant) hai, ta (T) param tap, y (h) yanata (viscosity) aur s (C) vilayan ki sandrata (anu prati litar, ya gram-tulyank prati litar) hai. snkshep men is samikaran ko is prakar likhenge-

Chemistry-40.gif

isamen ka (A) aur kha (B) die hue vilayak ke lie sthirank hain, jo tap par hi nirbhar hain.

(12) pani nirbal vidyudvileshy hai :

ha2 au = ha+ + au ha

[H2 O = H++ O H]

pani ka ayanan niyatank kam (Kw) = (ha+) (au ha-) [H+] [OH-] = 80.·95 ´ 10-14 (25° sen. tap ke lie). pani ke is ayanan ke karan hi jal-apaghatan hota hai. jal-apaghatan ka niyatank kah (Kh) pani ke ayanan niyatank aur nirbal aml, ya nirbal kshar ke viyojan niyatank, par, kaa (Ka), aml ke lie evn kaksh (Kh) kshar ke lie, nirbhar hai.

jal-apaghatan niyatank, ka kah = Chemistry-41.gif jahan j (h) = jal apaghatan ki matra, a (v) = litar men vah ayatan jitane men ek gram anu yaugik ghula ho.

kah = Chemistry-42.gif (sodiyam aisitet aise nirbal aml ke lavan ke jal-apaghatan ke lie)

kah = Chemistry-43.gif (amoniyam kloraid aise nirbal kshar ke lavan ke lie).

kah = Chemistry-44.gif (amoniyam aisitet aise nirbal kshar aur nirbal amal se bane lavan ke lie).

(13) aml aur ksharak - ayanan par jo padarth protaaun, ya haidrojan ayan, ha+ (H+) dete hain, ve aml hain aur jo haidraauksil ayan, auha- (OH-) dete hain, ve ksharak (base) kahalate hain :

haka = ha+ + ka-

[ HA = H+ + A- ]

aml protaaun

kha au ha = kha+ + auha-

[ B OH = B+ + OH- ]

bransted (Bronsted) aur lauri (Lowry) ki paribhasha ke anusar us padarth ko aml kahate hain jisaki pravritti protaaun de dene ki aur ksharak vah padarth hai jisaki pravritti protaaun le lene ki ho

ka = ha+ + kha

[A = H+ + B]

aml protan ksharak

pani men ghule haidroklorik aml men nimn samy hai (pani ksharak ka kam karata hai)

haklo + ha2au = ha3au + klo

[ HCl + H2O = H3O+ + Cl ]

aml ksharak aml ksharak

(vilayak)

isi prakar pani (vilayak) men ghule amoniya men nimn samy hai (pani aml ka kam karata hai) :

naha3 + ha2au naha4 + auha-

[ NH3 + H2O = NH4+ + OH-

ksharak aml aml ksharak

(vilayak)

(14) haidrojan ayan sandrata evn pi-ech, (pH) ksharak - aisitik aml pani men ghulane par shat pratishat ayanit nahin hota. isi prakar any aml bhi poorn ayanit nahin hote. vilayan ki amlata haidrojan ayan ki sandrata, saha (CH) par nirbhar hai. yah sandrata anek vidhiyon se nikali ja sakati hai : (k) rng soochakon ke rngon ki tulanana karake tatha (kh) vidyudvahakabal (e. m. f.) vidhi ka prayog karake. vilayan ke haidrojan ayan ki sandrata ke anusar anek rngasoochak rngon ka chatakilapan pradarshit karate hain.

hadadrojan ayan ki sandrata saha (CH) vyakt karane ki ek saral pranali pi-ech paddhati kahalati hai. pi-ech aur saha (CH) (si-ech) men nimn snbndh hai :

pi-ech = - laghu saha ya (-laghu si-ech)

[pH = -log CH,] (B) (B)

jis vilayan ka pi-ech sat se kam hota hai, vah amliy hai, sat ke nikat ke pi-ech vala vilayan shithil, ya udasin hai, aur sat se adhik pi-ech vala vilayan kshariy hai.

(15) soochak (Indicators)

bahut se karbanik rng aise hain, jo vilayan ki vishesh pi-ech ki ech sima men rng men parivartan pradarshit karate hain. in upayog aml ksharak anumapanon (titration) men hota hai. ye soochak svayn bahut nirbal aml,ya nirbal kshar, hain.

ha soo = ha+ + soo- ksharak

[ H In = H+ + In-]

is samy ke lie soochak niyatank ka

soo = Chemistry-45.gif

ilektrod vibhav

yadi ham kisi dhatu ko aise vilayan men dubaen, jinamen usi dhatuvale ayan hon, to parasaran dab ke karan ayanon ki kuchh matra dhatu par jama hona chahegi aur vilayan dab ke anusar dhatu ka kuchh ansh vilayan men ghulana chahega. in donon prakriyaon men samy utpann ho jane ki cheshta rahegi. narnst (Nernst) in prakriyaon par vichar karake ekal ilektrod vibhav (Single Electrode Potential) ki kalpana prastut ki.

soochak sarani

pi-kasoo = laghu kasoo [pKIn = logKIn]
soochak pi-kas pi-ech sima rng amliy vilayan se kshariy vilayan men
methil vayalet - 0.2-3.2 pila baingani
thayamol bloo 1.7 1.2-2.8 lal pila
methil aaurenj 3.7 3.1-4.4 lal pila
bromo phinol-bloo 4.0 3.0-4.6 pila nila
methil-red 5.1 4.3-6.1 lal pila
litamas 6.5 5.5-7.5 lal nila
phinol-red 7.8 6.8-8.4 pila lal
phinolfthelin 9.7 8.3-10.0 rngahin lal

agar kisi vilayan ki sandrata, s (C) ho, athava sakriyata k (a), ho, to tap pa (T), par dhatu ilektrod vibhav, vi (E), nimn samikaran dvara vyakt kiya jaega :

vi = vi° + Chemistry-46.gif s = vi° + Chemistry-47.gif

Chemistry-48.gif

vi° (E°) pramanik vibhav hai, jabaki s, ya k (C or a) ka man ikaee hai.

vibhavon ke sapeksh man ke lie manak haidrojan ke ilektrod (Standard Hydrogen Electrode) ka vibhav shoony man liya gaya hai. yah pratyavarti haidrojan-ilektrod ka vibhav hai, jab 1 vayumndal dab ka haidrojan ek ikaee haidrojan ayan sandrata ke vilayan men shanai: shanai: pravahit hota ho. is ilektrod ki apeksha se any ilektrodon ka vibhav, [jaise dh+( M+) ayan ke vilayan ke snpark men dhatu dh (M) ka vibhav] pradarshit kiya jata hai.

Chemistry-49.gif

vi (E)

is sel ka vibhav vi (E) hai.

apachayopachay (redox) tntron ka vibhav - yadi koee abhikriya nimn ho-

apachit sthiti = upachit sthiti + ni (nE)

yahan i (E) = ilektraaunik avesh tatha n (n) = ilektran ki snkhya. aise tntron ke vibhav ke lie nimn samikaran upayogi hai :

vi = vi°ile - Chemistry-50.gif

E = E°el Chemistry-51.gif[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. rasayan vigyan (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 14 pharavari, 2015.

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