ताम्र  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

tamr
lal-narngi chamakili dhatu
sadharan gunadharm
nam, pratik, snkhya tamr, Cu, 29
tatv shreni snkraman dhatu
samooh, avart, kaksha 11, 4, d
manak paramanu bhar 63.546g·mol−1
ilektraaun vinyas 1s2, 2s2 2p6, 3s2 3p6 3d10, 4s1
ilektraaun prati shel 2, 8, 18, 1
bhautik gunadharm
avastha thos
ghanatv (nikat k.ta.) 8.94 g·cm−3
taral ghanatv
(galanank par)
8.02 g·cm−3
galanank 1357.77 K, 1084.62 °C, 1984.32 °F
kvathanank 2835 K, 2562 °C, 4643 °F
snlayan ooshma 13.26 kilo jool-mol
vashpan ooshma 300.4 kilo jool-mol
vishisht ooshmiy
kshamata
24.440

jool-mol−1kilo−1

vashp dab
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1509 1661 1850 2089 2404 2834
paramanvik gunadharm
aauksikaran avastha +1, +2, +3, +4
ilektronegetiviti 1.90 (pailing paimana)
ayanikaran oorjaen
(adhik)
1st: 745.5 ki.jool•mol−1
2nd: 1957.9 ki.jool•mol−1
3rd: 3555 ki.jool•mol−1
paramanvik trijya 128 pm
sahasnyojak trijya 132±4 pm
vaindair vals trijya 140 pm
vividh gunadharm
kristal snrachana kendriy mukh ghanakar
chumbakiy kram pratichumbakiy
vaidyut pratirodhakata (20 °C) 16.78 nΩ·m
ooshmiy chalakata (300 K) 401 W·m−1·K−1
ooshmiy prasar (25 °C) 16.5 µm·m−1·K−1
yng mapank 110–128 GPa
aparoopan mapank 48 GPa
sthool mapank 140 GPa
paauyazan anupat 0.34
mohs kathorata mapank 3.0
vikars kathorata 369 MPa
brainal kathorata 874 MPa
si.e.es pnjikaran
snkhya
7440-50-8
samasthanik
samasthanik pra. prachurata arddh ayu ksharan avastha ksharan oorja
(MeV)
ksharan utpad
63Cu 69.15% 63Cu 34 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
65Cu 30.85% 65Cu 36 nyootraaun ke sath sthir

tamr ya tanba (angrezi:Copper) mukt v snyukt donon avasthaon men paya jata hai. snyukt avastha men yah apane ayaskon ke roop men paya jata hai. tamr ke ayask mukhy roop se sinhabhoomi, sikkim, udisa, nepal, bhootan men paye jate hain. kapar payarait, kaaupar glaaus, kyooprait, maikalait adi isake pramukh ayask hain. tamr gulabi, lal rng ki chamakadar dhatu hai v chandi ke atirikt vidyut ki sabase achchhi suchalak hai. vidyut suchalak hone ke karan isaka vidyut yntr kailorimitar adi banane men kiya jata hai. tamr ka kvathanank 2320 digri sentigret hota hai tatha ubalane par isase hare rng ki vashp nikalati hai. tamr vibhinn prakar ki mishradhatuyen banane ke kam ata hai. bharat men tanbe ka prayog kafi lambe samay se kiya jata raha hai. vaidik kal men isaka prathamat: prayog kiya gaya tha.

prapti sthan

bharat men tanbe ki prapti agney, avasadi evn kayantarit tinon prakar ki chattanon men nason ke roop men hoti hai, jisamen kee prakar ke padarth mile rahate hain. isake pramukh khanij hain- salphaid[1], aauksaid[2] tatha karbonet.[3] lal evn bhoore rng ka khanij tanba atyadhik tanya evn vidyut ka uttam suchalak hone ke karan vidyut karyo men adhik upayog men laya jata hai. bharat men milane vali tanba khanij ki chattanon se shuddh dhatu ka ansh matr 1 pratishat se 3 pratishat tak hi paya jata hai. bharat men nikale ja sakane yogy tanbe ka 41.68 karod tan ka bhndar he. isamen 43 lakh 70 hazar tan dhatu upalabdh hai. poore bharat men pratibndhit kshetr men tanbe ka bhndar 67.41 karod tan hai[4] aur snbhavit snsadhanon ke roop men 76 karod 99 lakh tan tanba ayask ka bhndar hai. desh men jharakhand, madhy pradesh tatha rajasthan men tanba ka pramukh kshetr vidyaman hai jabaki kuchh matra men isaki prapti karnatak, tamilanadu evn uttar pradesh men bhi hoti hai.

jharakhand rajy ka sinhabhoomi zila tanba utkhanan ki drishti se sarvadhik mahattvapoorn hai. yahan se udisa rajy tak lagabhag 140 kimi lambi patti men tanba khanij milata hai. is kshetr men prasiddh tanba khane hain- sinhabhoomi zile men mosabani, rakha, patharagoda, surada, kaindadih, dhovani tatha hajaribag zile ke hasatu, baramajada, jaradih adi. jharakhnd men sinhabhoomi ke atirikt hazaribag, snthal paragana tatha manasoon zilon men bhi tanba ka simit matra men utkhanan kiya jata hai.

rajasthan ka khetadi tanba kshetr sindhu ghati sabhyata kal se hi tanba utkhanan ka pramukh kshetr raha hai. yahan ki tanba jhunjhunoo zile ke singhana se lekar sikar zile ke raghunathagadh tak lagabhag 80 kimi ki lambaee men payi jati hai. yahan ki prasiddh khane hain - kolihan, khetadi, mandal tatha kudhan. isake atirikt bhilavada, udayapur, bansavada tatha jhunjhunoo zilon men bhi tanbe ka utkhanan kiya jata hai.

andhr pradesh ke guntoor zile men agnigunthal tatha nellor zile men gani-kalava kshetr men tanben ke navin bhandar ka pata lagaya gaya hai. kurnool tatha anantapur zilon men bhi kuchh tanba nikala jata hai. in pramukh rajyon ke atirikt sikkim[5] uttarakhand[6], jammoo kashmir[7], himachal pradesh[8], pashchim bngal[9], karnatak[10], tamilanadu[11], madhy pradesh[12] tatha chhattisagadh[13] men bhi tanba nikala jata hai. desh men abhi bhi avashyakata se kam tanba utkhanit kiya jata hai, atah inaki poorti ke lie snyukt rajy amarika, kanada, japan tatha jambiya se isaka ayat karana padata hai. 2006-07 ke dauran kul 115 hazar tan tanba khanij ka utpadan hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. chelkopairait, chelkosait, bornait
  2. kyooprait
  3. mainchelait evn ejoorait
  4. isamen 1.89 tan dhatu hai
  5. bhontang, rotok, sirabong, gisanon adi)
  6. gadhaval zile men dhanapur tatha pokhari, almoda se devalatham tatha bageshvar evn deharadoon zile kalsi khanen
  7. kashmir ghati
  8. kangadahila tatha kulloo ghati
  9. darjiling tatha jalapaeegudi zile
  10. chitradurg, chandrapur
  11. dakshini arkat zile ke yamanadoor kshetr
  12. jabalapur, balaghat hoshngabad adi
  13. bastar

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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