अयस्क प्रसाधन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ayask prasadhan adhikansh khanij jinase dhatu nissarit ki jati hai, rasayanik yaugik, jaise aksaid, salphaid, karabonait, salphet aur siliket ke roop men hote hain. khanij men mishrit anupayogi padarth ko vidhatu (gaig) kahate hain. us khanij ko jisamen dhatu ki matra labhadayak hoti hai ayask (or) kahate hain. khanij se dhatunistar ke poorv

-hastachalit jig

isase halke aur bhari padarth alag kie jate hain; k. jal ki satah; kh. halaka padarth; g. bhari padarth; gh. chalani. anek kriyaen anivary hoti hai jinhen samoohik roop se ayask prasadhan (or dresing) kahate hain. isake dvara ayask men dhatu ki matra ka samriddhikaran karate hain. isamen dalana, pisana aur sandran ki kriyaen sammilit hain. ayask ka samriddhikaran usamen nihit dhatuon ke bhinn-bhinn bhautik gunon, jaise rng aur dyuti, apekshit ghanatv, taloorja (sarfes enarji), atibedhyata (parmiebiliti) aur vidyuchchalakata, ki sahayata se kiya jata hai. hath se chunana-ayask ki bhinn-bhinn ikaiyon ko unake rng ya dyuti ki sahayata se chun lete hain. is kriya dvara ayask ke ve tukade prithakh‌ ho jate hain jo tatkshan dhatukarm ke yogy hote hain, udaharanarth gelina aur kailako-pairait men se bhinn khanij isi riti se alag kie jate hain.

harz jik

is mashin se halke aur bhari padarth alag kie jate hain. k. jal andar jane ka sthan; kh. halke dravy; g. bhari dravy; gh. chalin; ch. vichalak (pani ko hilane vala) gurutv sandran-yah kriya salphait rahit ayaskon, jaise kesiterit, kromait aur voolaphremait ke lie vyavahar men laee jati hai. yah kriya khanijon aur vidhatuon ke apekshik ghanatvon men antar hone ke phalasvaroop karyanvit hoti hai. patradhavan (paining) gurutvasandran ki sabase saral vidhi hai. isamen choorn ko pani men jhakajhorakar nitharane diya jata hai. is prakar k. padarth ko dalane ka sthan; kh. dhone ka pani; g. sire ki gati; gh. pattiyon se bani nali; ch. halaka padarth; chh. madhyam padarth; j. bhari padarth. sthool, halke kanon se bahumooly dhatu ke bhari kan alag ho jate hain. yah riti ab bhi jalodh mitti (alooviyam) se sone ke kan nikalane ke kam men laee jati hai. jiging vastut: staran (straitiphikeshan) ki ek vidhi hai jisase kramanusar oopar niche shighr chalate pani men kanon ko unake apekshik ghanatvanusar vistrit kiya jata hai. purane jig 1. vidyuchchunbak; 2. girata hua ayask; 3. chunbakiy ayask; 4. achunbakiy ayask.

prithakkarak hastachalit hote the (chitr 1). is sadharan jigaprithakkarak ke vikas se doosare yantrik prithakkarak bane hen jo ya to chalayaman chalaniyukt hote hain jisamen ayask pani men dubaya jata hai ya sthir chalaniyukt (chitr 2), jisamen pani dulata hai aur ayask chalani men rakha rahata hai. tebling padarthon ko apekshik ghanatvanusar prithak karane ki uttam vidhi hai. yah vidhi sookshm padarthon ke lie upayogi hai. isamen padarth ke bahut gadhe ghol ka nirntar mnthan hota rahata hai aur oopar se pani bahata rahata hai, jisase halke kan pani men milakar bah jate hain tatha bhari kan kuchh door par ekatr ho jate hain. vilphale tebul (chitr 3) men padarth ek aise tebul par rakha jata hai jo ek or chauda aur doosari or snkara rahata hai aur ek chhor se doosare chhor ki or jhuka rahata hai. unche sir ki or ayask ka gadha ghol jhiridar baks men giraya jata hai. mashin se mej ka idharavala sira jhatake se oopar niche chalata hai. mej par pattiyan jadi rahati hain. jhataka lagane par aur mej ke dhaloo rahane ke karan bhari mal ruk-rukakar age badhata hai aur ant men ek bade bartan men ekatrit ho jata hai. oopar se bahe pani ka ek bar phir ne ayask par chhodate hain. is prakar bacha khucha mal bhi nikal ata hai. k. ayask se bhara bartan; kh. chunbak; g. lauh chunbakiy ayask; gh. ayask ka achunbakiy bhag. chunbakiy prithakkaran-jab khanij ka ek ansh lauhachunbakiy hota hai aur pray: poorn roop se prithakh‌ kiya ja sakata hai, to vidyuchchunbakiy prithakkaran ki riti prayukt ki jati hai. is vidhi ki upayogita mukhyat: maiganetait samriddhikaran men aur samudrarenu ke rutail se ilmenait prithakh‌ karane men hai. in prithakkarakon ka saral siddhant chitr 4 aur 5 men dikhaya gaya hai. chunbakiy kshetr ko prabal ya durbal banakar chunbakiy padarth ko achunbakiy se ya mnd chunbakiy ko prabal chunbakiy padarth se prithakh‌ kiya ja sakata hai.

sthaitik vidyuth‌ (ilektrostaitik) prithakkaran-kisi khanij ka paradyutik (dai-ilektrik) sthirank usaki kisi satah ke vaidyuth‌ avesh ke visarjan ki dar ko niyntrit karata hai aur yahi sthaitik vidyuth‌ prithakkaran ka mool siddhant hai. is vidhi men khanij ke kan uchch vibhav ke samip bheje jate hain, jisase khanij ke vibhinn avayav bhinnh-bhinn matra men apane marg se vichalit hote hain aur is prakar bhinn-bhinn sthanon par girate hain. ajakal samudrarenu se uchch koti ka stail namak khanij prapt karane men chunbakiy aur sthaitik vidyuth‌ donon vidhiyon ke sahayog se kam hota hai.

plavan (phloteshan)-ayaskaprasadhan ke itihas men plavanapaddhati ka prarnbh ek svarnim avasar tha, kyonki is paddhati ne karodo tan nimn shreni ke aur mishr ayaskon ko, jinake prasadhan ke lie gurutvakarshan ritiyan anupayukt thin, prasadhan yogy bana diya hai. ayask ke utplavan (utarane) ka karan yah hai ki oopar utha phen vishesh khanijon ko lekar oopar uthata hai aur shesh padarth niche baithe rah jate hain. is riti men khanij ki prishthataliy shaktiyon ka upayog kiya jata hai. sadharanat: dhatu ki tarah chamakanevale khanij (visheshat: salphaid) bhigate nahin, aur isalie tairate rahate hain, jab ki adhatu dyutivale khanij phen men nahin phnsate aur doob jate hain. upayukt rasayanik padarthon ke gholon ke prayog se khanijon ke vibhinn avayavon ki utpalavita men is prakar antar dala ja sakata hai ki ek avayav doosare ki apeksha shighr plavit ho sake (tairane lage) ya ek ke plavit hone ke bad doosara plavit ho aur tisara niche hi baitha rah jae. vividh prakar ke rasayanik padarthon ko unake kary ke anusar vargikrit kiya jata hai, jaise phenak (phhऱthars), ekatrak (kalektars), pravasadak (dipresaints), karmanyak (aiktivetars) aur niyamak (reguletars).

phenak khanij men mishrit jal ka tal tanav (sarfes tenashan) ghata dete hain aur khanij ke plavan ke lie phen banane yogy vayu ke bulabulon ka sthayikaran kar dete hain. pain ka tel aur kresilik aml sadharan phenak hain. ekatrak khanij ko jalapratyapasari (ripelent) banakar utplavan badha dete hain. salphaid khanijon ke lie dai-thapo-karbenet (zaithets) aur dai-thayo-phasphets (eyarophlots) sadharan ekatrak hain. pravasadak ekatrakon ke prabhav ko rokane ka kary karate hain. tamraloh-salphaid ayaskon men choone ke snyojan se lauh ayask doob jata hai aur tamr ayask (kailkopairait) tairata rahata hai.

karmanyak ka kary pravasad ke viparit hota hai. ve un khanijon ko utplavit karate hain jinaka utplavan ya to asthayi roop se daba diya gaya ho, ya jo bina karmanyak ki sahayata se utplavit n hon. udaharanarth, sayanaid se yadi zink salphaid ka avasad kar diya gaya ho jisase vah doobane lage, to kapar salphet ke prayog se use phir tairane yogy bana sakate hain. ayask ko pani men pisakar aur uchit rasayanik padarth milakar is mashin ki tnki gh men dal diya jata hai. charkhi ch men nali kh se hava ati rahati hai. charakhi ke nachane ke bahut phen (k) uthata hai jise ek ghoomati huee patari kachhakar munh g se bahar nikal deti hai.

niyamak kshariyata aur amliyata arthath‌ ayask ke pi.ech. men parivartan kar dete hain jisase utplavan ke pratikarmakon ke kary par bada prabhav padata hai. vyavahar men utplavan pratikarmak bahut thode pariman men upayog kie jate hain, jaise prati tan ayask men phenak tatha ekatrak 0.03 se 0.2 paund tak aur pravasadak tatha karmanyak 0.3 se 1 paund tak prayukt kie jate hain . ye sab rasayanik padarth utplavanavale bartanon men hi sadharanat: utplavan ke samay ya thoda pahale dale jate hain. kuchh padarthon ko apana kam karane men paryapt samay lagata hai. isalie aise padarthon ko alag taink men khanij aur pani ke sath milakar niyat samay tak chhod dete hain.

snkshep men, utplavan ki kriya men pani ke sath pise ayask ko, vishesh roop se isi kam ke lie bani mashin men, vayu ke sath phetate hain (chitr 6). pise ayask ke uchit rasayanik padarthon ke sath milane ke pashchath‌ mishran utplavanakoshthon men jata hai or vahan ghoomati huee charakhi par girata hai. charakhi ki dhuri ko charon or se ghire hue ek nali rahati hai jisamen se hava ati rahati hai. isase bahut phen banata hai or vanchhit khanij phen men lipatakar oopar uth ata hai (chitr 6). is phen ko ghoomati huee patariyan kachh leti hain. tab is khanijamay phen ko gadha kiya jata hai aur chhanakar pani se alag kar liya jata hai. khanijarahit avashesh utplavanakaksh ke niche bane ek chhed se baha diya jata hai.[1]

chandi aur sona ke atirikt any dhatuon ke khanijon ko ajakal adhikatar utplavan ki riti se hi alag kiy jata hai. chayanamay utplavan (silektiv phloteshan) dvara, jisamen uchit pravasadakon aur karmanyakon ka prayog kiya jata hai, sisa, jasta aur tanba ke mishrit khanijon se in tinon ko badi saphalata se alag alag kiya jata hai. sodiyam salphaid ko karmanyak ki tarah prayog karake sise ke aksijanamay khanijon ko din par din adhik matra men utplavan vidhi se nikala jata hai, kyonki is prakar khanij par salphaid ki patali parat jam jati hai aur khanij oopar utarane lagata hai. (yoo.va.bh.)


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 213-15 |

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