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tin
chamakili dhatu
sadharan gunadharm
nam, pratik, snkhya tin, Sn, 50
tatv shreni paravarti snkraman dhatu
samooh, avart, kaksha 14, 5, p
manak paramanu bhar 118.710g·mol−1
ilektraaun vinyas 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p2
ilektraaun prati shel 2, 8, 18, 18, 4
bhautik gunadharm
avastha thos
ghanatv (nikat k.ta.) (safed) 7.365 g·cm−3
ghanatv (nikat k.ta.) (dhundhala) 5.769 g·cm−3
taral ghanatv
(galanank par)
6.99 g·cm−3
galanank 505.08 K, 231.93 °C, 449.47 °F
kvathanank 2875 K, 2602 °C, 4716 °F
snlayan ooshma (safed) 7.03 kilo jool-mol
vashpan ooshma (safed) 296.1 kilo jool-mol
vishisht ooshmiy
kshamata
(safed) 27.112

jool-mol−1kilo−1

vashp dab
P (Pa) 1 10 100 1 k 10 k 100 k
at T (K) 1497 1657 1855 2107 2438 2893
paramanvik gunadharm
aauksikaran avastha 4, 2, -4 (ubhayadharmi aauksaid)
ilektronegetiviti 1.96 (pailing paimana)
ayanikaran oorjaen 1st: 708.6 ki.jool•mol−1
2nd: 1411.8 ki.jool•mol−1
3rd: 2943.0 ki.jool•mol−1
paramanvik trijya 140 pm
sahasnyojak trijya 139±4 pm
vaindair vals trijya 217 pm
vividh gunadharm
kristal snrachana note chaturbhujiy (safed), hira ghan (dhundhala)
chumbakiy kram (dhundhala) pratichumbakiy, (safed) parachumbakiy
vaidyut pratirodhakata (0 °C) 115 nΩ·m
ooshmiy chalakata (300 K) 66.8 W·m−1·K−1
ooshmiy prasar (25 °C) 22.0 µm·m−1·K−1
yng mapank 50 GPa
aparoopan mapank 18 GPa
sthool mapank 58 GPa
paauyazan anupat 0.36
mohs kathorata mapank 1.5
brainal kathorata 51 MPa
si.e.es pnjikaran
snkhya
7440-31-5
samasthanik
samasthanik pra. prachurata arddh ayu ksharan avastha ksharan oorja
(MeV)
ksharan utpad
112Sn 0.97% 112Sn 62 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
114Sn 0.66% 114Sn 64 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
115Sn 0.34% 115Sn 65 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
116Sn 14.54% 116Sn 66 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
117Sn 7.68% 117Sn 67 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
118Sn 24.22% 118Sn 68 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
119Sn 8.59% 119Sn 69 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
120Sn 32.58% 120Sn 70 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
122Sn 4.63% 122Sn 72 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
124Sn 5.79% 124Sn 74 nyootraaun ke sath sthir
126Sn trace 2.3×105 y β 0.380 126Sb


tin (angrezi:Tin) avart sarani ka ek tatv hai, jisaka sthan chaudahaven samooh men hain. ise 'vng' (trapu) ya 'ranga' bhi kaha jata hai. ti ka pratik Sn, paramanu kramank 50, paramanu bhar 118.710, galanank 231.93° sen., kvathanank 2602° sen. hota hai. isaka ilektraaunik vinyas 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 3d10 4s2 4p6 4d10 5s2 5p2 hota hai. isake 10 samasthanik 112, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 122, 124 hote hai. inake atirikt char any rediyoaiktiv samasthanik (dravyaman snkhya 113, 121, 123 aur 125) bhi nirmit hue hain.

itihas

tin ki mishr dhatu ka upayog aj se 5,000 varsh poorv bhi hota tha. is dhatu ki bani sabase prachin botal misr sthit ek samadhi men paee gee, jo lagabhag eesa se 1,500 varsh poorvakal ki hai. tin ke ayask misr men nahin milate. is karan vahan yah dhatu avashy hi bahar se ayi hogi. eesa se lagabhag 300 varsh poorv inglaind men tin ke dhatukarm ke namoone milate hain. yahan tin ki khanen thin. us samay yah dhatu rom jati thi. dakshini amarika ke adivasiyon ko tin ki mishr dhatuon ka gyan tha.

bharat men sindhu ghati ki sabhyata ke kal ke prapt dhatu padarthon men tin paya gaya hai. aisa anuman hai ki us samay tin eeran se ata tha. eesa se panch shatabdi poorv ayurved kal men sushrut men tin tatha vagbhatt ke 'ashtangahridayamh' men bhi isake yaugik ka varnan aya hai. 'rasaratnasamuchchay' men tin dhatu tatha vaig bhasm donon ke gunon ki vivechana ki gee hai.[1]

prapti sthan

tin mukt avastha men prapt nahin hai. prithvi ki satah par isaki matra lagabhag 40 gram prati tan hai. isake pramukh ayask hain- kaisiterait (SnO2) aur salphaid. maleshiya, thailaind, indoneshiya, kango, naijiriya tatha boliviya men tin ki mukhy khanen hain.

dhatukarm

tin ke ayask men pray: 1 se 5 pratishat tin aauksaid (SnO2) upasthit rahata hai. is karan ise sandrit karana avashyak hai. uchch ghanattv tatha achunbakiy gunon ke dvara hi kaisiterait ka sandran karate hain. sandrit ayask ko koyale se mishrit kar paravartani[2] athava vatya[3] bhatthi men rakhakar apachayan[4] karane se tin dhatu prapt hoti hai. ashuddh tin ke vishuddh karane ki anek vidhiyan hain.

gunadharm

tin safed rng ki komal tany[5] dhatu hai. isake tar saralata se khinche ja sakate hain, parntu tin ki chadar modane par katakatane ki dhvani hoti hai, jise "tin ki chillahat" kahate hain. dhatu ke do apararoopi roopantaran[6] hain. samany avastha men yah shvet rng ki dhatu hai, parntu yadi tin ko adhik kal tak 13° sen. tap se niche rakha jae, to yah bhurabhura evn bhoore rng ke choorn men parivartit hokar tin ka doosara apararoop banata hai, jo nimn tap par sthayi hai.

samany tap par tin vayu dvara prabhavit nahin hota, parntu uchch tap par us par aauksaid ki parat jam jati hai. shvet tap par tin vayu men jalakar daiaauksaid (SnO2) banata hai. yah tapt avastha men pile rng ka aur samany tap par shvet rng ka padarth hai. tin tanu amlon men dhire-dhire ghulakar tin++ (Sn++) yaugik banata hai aur haidrojan mukt karata hai. dhatu par sandr naitrik aml ki abhikriya dvara jalayukt stainik aauksaid athava metastainik aml[7] banata hai. tin kshariy vilayan men ghulakar stainet banata hai, jisake phalasvaroop haidrojan mukt ho jata hai.[1]

yaugik

tin ke do prakar ke yaugik gyat hain-

  1. 'stainnas', jisamen tin ki snyojakata 2 hai.
  2. 'stainik', jisamen tin ki snyojakata 4 rahati hai.

isake do aauksaid, stainas aauksai (SnO) aur stainik aauksai (SnO2) hote hain. gndhak ke sath tin ko garam karane se stainas salphaid (SnS) prapt hota hai. stainik salfaid (SnS2) bhi banata hai.

helojan ke sath kriya

helojan ke sath tin stains hailaid aur stainik hailaid banata hai. tin ke kloraid rngabndhak ke roop men resham rngane men kam ate hain. yah naitrojan, haidrojan aur phaausphoras ke sath bhi yaugik banata hai. isake naitret aur phaausphet asthayi hote hain. klorostainik aml ka amoniyam lavan [( N H4)2 SnCl6] resham rngane men kam ata hai. tin anek upasahasnyojakata[8] yaugik banata hai.

upayog

tin mulamma karane aur mishr dhatuon ke nirman men kam ata hai. lohe par tin se kalee karane par us par n muracha hi lagata hai aur n hi amlon ka jaldi asar padata hai. kansa isaki mahattv ki mishradhatu hai. khady padarthon ke dibbon men tin ki kalee karane se ve jald akrant nahin hote. isake anek yaugik vastr udyog, rngaee, kanch evn chini mitti ke patr ke udyogon men kam ate hain.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 tin (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 16 joon, 2015.
  2. reverberatory
  3. blast
  4. reduction
  5. ductile
  6. allotropic modifications
  7. metastannie acid
  8. coordinate

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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