अकार्बनिक रसायन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

akarbanik rasayan 'rasayan vigyan' ki tin shakhaon men se ek shakha hai. karban ko chhodakar shesh sabhi tattvon aur anek yaugikon ki 'mimansa'[1] karana 'akarbanik rasayan' ka kshetr hai. boron, silikaaun, jarmeniyam adi tattv bhi lagabhag usi prakar ke vividh yaugik banate hain, jaise karban. kintu is parthik srishti men unaka utana mahattv nahin hain, jitana karban yaugikon ka. isaliye karbanik rasayan ka any tattvon se prithakh rasayanik kshetr man liya gaya hai. manushy evn vanaspatiyon ka jivan karban yaugikon ke chakr par nirbhar hai. atah karbanik yaugikon ko ek alag upang men rakhana kuchh anuchit nahin hai. yah karban hi hai, jo prithvi par pae jane vale samany tap (00 se 400) par anek sthayi samavayavi yaugik de sakata hai.

pramukh tattv

akarbanik rasayan men jin tattvon ka ullekh hai, unamen se kuchh dhatu hain aur kuchh adhatu. adhatu tatvon men kuchh mukhy nam nimnalikhit hain-

gais

haidrojan, hiliyam, naitrojan, aauksijan, phlorin, niaaun, klorin, argan, kriptan tatha zenaaun.

thos

boron, karban, silikaaun, phaausphoras, gndhak, jarmeniyam, arsenik, molibdenam, teluriyam tatha ayodin.

drav

bromin

dhatuon men keval padar aisa hai, jo sadharan tap par drav hai. prachin gyat dhatuen sona, chandi, loha, tanba, sisa, jasta aur para hain. lagabhag sabhi sabhy deshon ka in dhatuon se purana parichay hai. sona aur chandi svatntr roop men prakriti men pae jate hain. shesh dhatuen prakriti men salphaid, salphet ya aauksaid ke roop men milati hain. inase shuddh dhatuen prapt karana saral tha. dhatuon ke un yaugikon ko, jinamen se dhatuen asani se alag ki ja sakati thin. inase dhatu shuddh roop men mukt ho jati hai.

vidyut ka upayog

phairade aur devi ke samay se vidyut dhara ka upayog atyadhik badh gaya aur vaise-vaise dayanemo ki bijali adhik sasti prapt hone lagi. usaka upayog vidyut dvishleshan men badhane laga. usaki sahayata se lavanon men se[2] anek dhatuen prithakh ki ja sakin. tanbe ka ek yaugik 'tootiya'[3] hai. jal men bane isake vilayan men se vidyut dhara dvara tanba prithakh kiya ja sakata hai. vidyut dhara ke prayog se maignishiyam, sodiyam, lithiyam, potaishiyam, kailsiyam, beriyam adi dhatuen, unake lavan ko galakar, prithakh ki geen.

yaugik banane ke prayas

akarbanik rasayan ke prarnbhik yug men dhatuon ke jin yaugikon ko banane ka vishesh prayas kiya jata tha, ve nimnalikhit the-

aauksaid, haidraauksaid, phloraid, kloraid, bromaid, ayodaid, salphaid, salphet, thayosalphet, aisitet, aauksalet, naitraid, naitret, sayanaid, karbaid, karbonet, baikarbonet, phaausphet, arsenik, tngstan, malibdet, yoorenet. in yaugikon ka taiyar karana sadharanataya saral hai. aauksaid ya karbonet par upayukt amlon ki abhikriya se ye banae ja sakate hain. viley lavanon ke vilayanon men rin ayan[4] milakar inamen se kuchh ke avakshep lae ja sakate hain, yadi ye avakshepy lavan pani men aviley hon.

akarbanik rasayan ka vibhajan

akarbanik rasayan ki anek abhikriyaen char vargon men vibhajit ki jati hain-

  1. shithilikaran ya udasinikaran
  2. avakshepan
  3. apachayan ya avakaran
  4. upachayan ya aauksikaran

antim do ka ek snyukt nam apachayopachay ya ridaauks (redox) abhikriya bhi diya gaya hai.

snkul, ya snkirn lavan

kabhi kabhi aisa dekha jata hai ki avakshepak ki adhik matra chhodane par avakshep ghul jata hai. yah viley vastut: snkul ayan banane ke karan hota hai. rajat naitret ke vilayan men potaishiyam saianaid ka vilayan chhodane par rajat saianaid ka avakshep ata hai, par yah avakshep potaishiyam saianaid aur milane par ghul jata hai. tamr salphet ke vilayan men amoniya chhodane par pahale to tamr haidraauksaid ka avakshep avega, jo amoniya ke adhiky men ghulakar chatak nila vilayan dega. isamen [ta (na ha3)4]++ [Cu (N H3)4]++ snkul ayan banata hai.

kilet, ya prakhar yaugik

bahut se dhatvik ayan karbanik abhikarmakon ke sath vichitr yaugik banate hain, jinamen snyojakataen nakhar, ya chil ke pnjon, ke saman anuon ko thame rahati hain. inhen kilet (Chelate) ya nakhar yaugik kahate hain.

akarbanik padarthon ke audyogik upayog

kuchh akarbanik yaugik itani adhik vyaparik matra men taiyar kie jate hain ki inaka nam 'haivi kemikals' pad gaya hai. salaphyoorik aml, haidroklorik aml, naitrik aml, kaaustik soda, sodiyam karbonet, amoniyam lavan adi ki ginati is varg men hai. pratyek varsh ek karod tan gndhak salaphyoorik aml ke roop men, 30 lakh tan naitrojan amoniya aur naitrik aml ke roop men, aur 20 lakh tan klorin haidroklorik aml, bliching paudar (virnjan choorn) aur klorin ke roop men vyavasay men kharch hota hai.

hava ke naitrojan ka upayog naitrojan yaugikon ke banane men hota hai. naitrojan ko aauksijan ke sath snyukt karake naitrik aauksaid banate hain, par amoniya ke aksikaran dvara naitrik aauksaid banana achchhi vidhi hai. aaustavald (Ostwald) ne yah bataya ki plaitinam jali ke prishth par, 800° par amoniya ka aauksikaran hota hai. is naitrik aauksaid se naitrojan paraauksaid aur naitrik aml evn naitret taiyar kar lete hain. yah saphal vyavasayik vidhi hai.

havar (Haber) ne hava ke naitrojan se amoniya taiyar karane ki vyaparik vidhi 1913 ee men pratham yooropiy mahayuddh ke samay nikali. 250 vayumndal dab par aur 500°C - 550°C tap par lauh dhatu se utprerit hokar, lagabhag 10% abhikriya naitrojan aur haidrojan ke snyog ki hoti hai. ab to lagabhag sabhi deshon men amoniya aur amoniya lavan is vidhi se taiyar kie jate hain, jinaka vishesh upayog khad ke roop men hota hai. naitrojan ka vyavasayik upayog visphotakon men bhi hota hai.

  • salaphyoorik aml ka vyavasay snsar ke pramukhatam vyavasayon men mana jata hai.
  • salaphyoorik adi amlon ke saman hi ksharon ke nirman ki bhi upayogita hai.
  • akarbanik vyavasayon men virnjak choorn ka vyavasay bhi bade mahatv ka hai.

siliketon ka upayog ab badhata ja raha hai. kanch ka vyavasay to prasiddh hi hai. silikan aur karbanik yaugikon se bane kuchh yaugikon ka nam silikon hai. ye mom se milakar bahut achchha snehak (lubricant) aur paaulish banate hain. ye soot ke dhagon ko achchhi chamak dete hain. inase bane rezin vidyuth‌ avarodhak hote hain. silikon se rabar ke saman lachile padarth bhi banate hain. abhrak namak prakritik siliket apane vividh gunon ke lie prasiddh hai.[5]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. gambhir vivechan
  2. unake vilayanon ke vidyudvishleshan se athava oonche tap par galit lavanon ke vidyut vidyutadvishleshan se
  3. kaaupar salphet
  4. ainayan
  5. rasayan vigyan (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 14 pharavari, 2015.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

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