अतिसूक्ष्म रसायन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

atisookshm rasayan (altra-maikrokemistri) un rasayanik vidhiyon ko kahate hain jinake dvara rasayanik vishleshan tatha any kriyaen padarthon ki atisookshm matra men snpann ki ja sakati hain. sadharan rasayanik vishleshan 1/10 gram matra paryapt mani jati thi, sookshm rasayan men drav ke 1/1000 gram se kam chal jata hai aur atisookshm rasayan ka avalnban tab karana padata hai jab padarth ka keval maikrogram (1,10,00,000 gram) upalabdh rahata hai.

atisookshm rasayan ka prarnbh sanh‌ 1930 men kopenahegen ko karlsaburg prayogashala men hua; vahan ke lindarastraaum-laing tatha sahayogiyon ne isaka upayog enajaimon, jiv prerakon aur paudhon tatha pashuon se prapt padarthon ki ati sookshm matra ke vishleshan men kiya. san 1933 se kailiforniya men paaul el. kark ne in vishleshan vidhiyon ko adhik unnat kiya aur sath hi sath unhonne any sab prakar ki bhautik tatha rasayanik kriyaon ka adhyayan bhi atisookshm matraon men arnbh kiya. jiv tatha vanaspati rasayan ke atirikt tivr rediyo sakriy padarthon ke adhyayan men ye vidhiyan vishesh roop se upayogi siddh huee hain. in rediyo sakriy padarthon ke adhyayan men sadharanataya atisookshm matraon ka hi upayog kiya jata hai. isaka karan inaki kam matra men upalabdhi ke atirikt yah bhi hai ki kam matra se nikalane vali hanikarak rediyo kiranon ki tivrata kam rahati hai, jisase kary snpann karane men suvidha rahati hai.

atisookshm rasayan men mukhyat nimnalikhit vidhiyon ka upayog kiya jata hai:

(k) dravon ki anumapan vidhi

atisookshm rasayan men sarvapratham ayatanon ke mapan par adharit vidhiyon ka hi upayog hua. in kriyaon men prayukt sabhi upakaran, jaise parikshan naliyan, bikar, pipet tatha byooret, kesh nalikaon (kapilaroz) se hi banae jate hain aur inaki sahayata se 10-4 se 18-8 litar tak ke ayatan sugamata se nape ja sakate hain. in vidhiyon ka sarvapratham upayog jivan rasayan men hua. udaharanarth, pray rogagrast balakon ke rakt ke sookshm ayatan ko napane, usamen protin prithakh‌ karake ubalane tatha akarbanik tatvon ko prithakh‌ karane ki samast paddhatiyon ko atisookshm pariman men hi karana hota hai.


(kh) gaisamitiy vidhiyan

in vidhiyon ka upayog atisookshm rasayan men mukhyat jivakoshon ya sookshm jivon ki shvasagati ya usase snbndhit kriyaon ke adhyayan men hota hai. kark aur kaningham ke bad dvitiy mahayuddh ke samay sholendar tatha usake sahayogiyon ne is vidhi ko itana unnat kiya ki ab gaisiy mishranon ke maikrolitar ayatanon ko bhi poornataya vishleshit karana snbhav ho gaya hai.

(g) bhar mapan vidhiyan

yadyapi 20vin shatabdi men bahut achchhi bhar-tulaon ka nirman hua hai, tathapi 1942 men kark, rodarik kreg tatha gulabarg namak vaigyanikon dvara kvarth‌j tula ki khoj se is or vishesh pragati huee hai. is nee tula ki sahayata se .005 maikro gram ke antar sugamata se nape ja sakate hain.

(gh) any vividh vidhiyan

atinyoon matraon ke sath kary karane ke lie any sabhi kary vidhiyon men parivartan avashyak ho jata hai. udaharanarth, chhanane ke sthan par apakendran (sentriphyoogeshan) vidhi ka upayog kiya jata hai. pray snpoorn rasayanik kriya sookshmadarshi ke hi niche sampann ki jati hai, jisase sookshm se sookshm parivartan bhi dekha ja sake. in sookshm matraon ke lie upayogi vishleshan paddhatiyon men varnakramiy (spektraauskopik) paddhatiyan visheshataya ullekhaniy hain aur adhunik rediyo rasayan ki paddhatiyon ne to vishleshan ki is charam sima ko sahasron guna sookshm kar diya hai. aj prayogashala men snshleshit navin tatvon ke kuchh ine-gine paramanuon ko inake dvara pahachanana hi nahin varanh‌ unake tatha unake yaugikon ke gunon ka adhyayan bhi in sookshm matraon se, chahe kul upalabdh matra lagabhag 10-20 gram hi ho, snbhav ho raha hai.[1]



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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 92 |

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