रसायन विज्ञान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

rasayan vigyan (angrezi:Chemistry) vigyan ki ek pramukh shakha hai, jisake antargat padarthon ke gun, snghatan, snrachana tatha unamen hone vale parivartanon ka adhyayan kiya jata hai. aisa mana jata hai ki rasayan vigyan ka vikas sarvapratham misr desh men hua tha. prachin kal men misravasi kanch, sabun, rng tatha any rasayanik padarthon ke banane ki vidhiyan janate the tatha is kal men misr ko kemiya kaha jata tha. rasayan vigyan, jise angrezi men 'kemistri' kahate hai ki utpatti misr men payi jane vali kali mitti se huee. ise vahan ke log kemi kahate the. prarambh men rasayan vigyan ke adhyayan ko kemiteking kaha jata tha. rasayan vigyan ke antargat dravy ke snghatan tatha usake ati sookshm kanon ki snrachana ka adhyayan kiya jata hai. isake atirikt dravy ke gun, dravyon men paraspar snyog ke niyam, ooshma adi oorjaon ka dravy par prabhav, yaugikon ka snshleshan, jatil v mishrit padarthon se saral v shuddh padarth alag karana adi ka adhyayan bhi rasayan vigyan ke antargat kiya jata hai. avart sarani men sat kshaituj pnktiyan hoti hain jinhen avart kahate hain. pristale, shile, v levayasiye ne rasayan vigyan ke vikas men atyadhik yogadan diya. lovayasiye ko to adhunik rasayan vigyan ka janmadata bhi kaha jata hai. karbanik rasayan, jisamen mukhyatah karban v usase banane vale padarthon ka adhyayan kiya jata hai, ke vikas men kolve, volhar v pashtur adi ke nam ullekhaniy hain.

rasayan vigyan ki mukhyatah do shakhaen hai-
  1. akarbanik rasayan vigyan: isake antargat sabhi akarbanik tattvon evn unake yaugikon ka adhyayan kiya jata hai.
  2. karbanik rasayan vigyan: isake antargat karban ke yaugikon ka adhyayan kiya jata hai.
rasayan vigyan ke adhyayan ko saral banane ke lie use kee shakhaon men banta gaya hai, jinamen nimnalikhit pramukh hain-
  • bhautik rasayan: isake antargat rasayanik abhikriya ke niyamon tatha siddhanton ka adhyayan kiya jata hai.
  • audyogik rasayan: isamen padarthon ka vrihath pariman men nirman karane se snbndhit niyamon, abhikriyaon, vidhiyon adi ka adhyayan kiya jata hai.
  • jaiv rasayan: isake antargat jivadhariyon men hone vale rasayanik abhikriya tatha jantuon evn vanaspatiyon se prapt padarthon ka adhyayan kiya jata hai.
  • krishi rasayan: isake antargat krishi se snbndhit rasayan jaise jivanunashak, mrida ke snghatan adi ka adhyayan kiya jata hai.
  • aushadhi rasayan: isake antargat manushy ke prayog men ane vali aushadhiyan, unake snghatan tatha banane ki vidhiyon ka adhyayan kiya jata hai.
  • vishleshik rasayan: isamen vibhinn padarthon ki pahachan, ayatan v matra ka anuman kiya jata hai.

itihas

pndrahavin-solahavin shati tak yoorop aur bharat donon men ek hi paddhati par rasayan shastr ka vikas hua. sabhi deshon men alakimiya ka yug tha. par is samay ke bad se yoorop men[1] rasayan shastr ka adhyayan prayogon ke adhar par hua. prayog men utpann sabhi padarthon ko taulane ki parnpara prarnbh huee. koyala jalata hai, dhatuen bhi hava men jalati hain. jalana kya hai, isaki mimansa huee. maloom hua ki padarth ka hava ke ek vishesh tatv aauksijan se snyog karana hi jalana hai. lohe men jng lagata hai. is kriya men bhi loha aauksijan ke sath snyog karata hai. rasayanik tula ke upayog ne rasayanik parivartanon ke adhyayan men sahayata di. pani ke jal-apaghatan se henari kaivendish (1731-1810 ee.) ne 1781 ee. men haidrojan prapt kiya. jozeph blaik (1728-1799ee.) ne karban daiaauksaid aur karboneton ka prayog kie (1754 ee.). jozeph pristali (1733-1804 ee.) shele aur lavvazye (1743-1794 ee.) ne 1772 ee. ke lagabhag aauksijan taiyar kiya, rabart baauyal ne tatvon ki paribhasha di, jaaun daltan (1766-1844 ee.) ne paramanuvad ki spasht kalpana samane rakhi, avogadro 1776-1856 ee.), kainizaro (1826-1910 ee.) adi ne anu aur paramanu ka bhed bataya. dhire-dhire tatvon ki snkhya badhane lagi. anek dhatu aur adhatu tatv is soochi men snmilit kie ge. bikhare hue tatvon ka vargikaran nyoolainds (1963 ee.) lotharameyar (1830-1895 ee.) aur visheshataya mendeliph ne anek aprapt tatvon ke snbndh men bhavishyavani bhi ki. bad men ve tatv bilakul thik vaise hi mile, jaisa kaha gaya tha. devi (1778-1829 ee.) aur phairade 1791-1867 ee.) ne gaison aur gaison ke dravikaran par kam kiya. is prakar rasayan shastr ka sarvatomukhi vikas hone laga.

rasayan vigyan ka vikas

jaise-jaise samaj ka vikas hua, rasayan vigyan ka vikas bhi usi ke sath hua. prakriti men paee payi jane vali agadh snpatti aur usaka upabhog kaise kiya jae, is adhar par isaki ninv padi. ghar, bhojan, vastr, nirog rahane ki akanksha aur age chalakar vilas ki samagri taiyar karane ki pravritti ne is shastr ke vyavaharik roop ko prashray diya. artharvangiras ne is desh men kashth aur shilaon ke mnthan se agni utpann ki. agni sabhyata aur snskriti ki kendr bani. grik nivasiyon ki kalpana men promithiyas pahali bar agni ko devataon se chhinakar manav ke upayog ke liye dharati par laya. bharat men aur bharat se bahar lagabhag sabhi prachin deshon, chin, arab, yoonan men bhi manushy ki do chir akankshaen thin.

  1. kis prakar rog, jara aur mrityu par vijay prapt ki jay arthat snjivani ki khoj ya amaraphal ki prapti
  2. lohe ke saman adham dhatuon ko kaise svarn ke saman moolyavan dhatuon ko kaise svarg ke saman moolyavan dhatuon men parigat kiya jae.

manushy ne dekha ki bahut se pashu prakriti men prapt bahut si jadi-bootiyan khakar apana rog door kar lete hain. manushy ne bhi apane charon or ugane vali vanaspatiyon ki mimansa ki aur unase apane rogon ka nivaran karane ki paddhati ka vikas kiya. maharshi bharadvaj ke netritv men himalay ki talahati men vanaspatiyon ke gunadharm janane ke lie aj se 2,5 00 varsh poorv ek mahanh snmelan hua, jisaka vivaran charak snhita men milata hai. pippali, punarnava, apamarg adi vanaspatiyon ka ullekh atharvaved men hai. yajurved men svarn, tamr, loh, apu ya vnsh tatha sis dhatuon ki or snket hai. in dhatuon ke karan dhatukarm vidya ka vikas lagabhag sabhi deshon men hua. dhire-dhire is desh men barah se aya aur makshik tatha abhrak is desh men the hi, jisase dhire-dhire rasashastr ka vikas hua. sushrut ke samay shalyakarm ka vikas hua aur vargon ke upachar ke nimitt ksharon ka upayog prarnbh hua aur lavanon ka upayog charak kal se bhi purana hai. sushrut men kaaustik ya tikshn ksharon ko sudha-sharkara (choone ke patthar) ke yog se taiyar karane ka ullekh hai. isase purana ullekh anyatr kahin nahin milata hai. mayoor tutth (tritiya), kasis, lohakitt sauvarchal (shora), tnkan (suhaga), rasak darad shilajit, gairik aur vad ko gndhak ke prayog ne rasashastr men ek ne yug ko janm diya. nagarjun parad-gndhak-yug ka sabase mahanh rasavetta hai. rasaratnakar aur (rasarnav) grnth usaki parnpara ke mukhy grnth hain. is samay anek prakar ki mooshaen, anek prakar ke patan yntr, svedani yntr, balukayntr, koshthi yntr aur parad ke anek snskaron ka upayog prarnbh ho gaya tha. dhatuon ke bhasm aur unake satv prapt karane ki anek vidhiyan nikali gee aur rogopachar men inaka prayog hua. samast bhojy samagri ka bhi vat, kaph, pitt nivaran ki drishti se parikshan hua. asav, kanchi, aml, avaleh, adi ne rasashastr men yog diya.
bharat men vaisheshik darshan ke achary karanad ne dravy ke gunadharmon ki mimansa ki. prithvi, jal, agni, vayu aur akash in pnchatatvon ne vicharadhara ko itana prabhavit kiya ki ajatak ye lokapriy hain. pnchgyanendriyon ke panch vishay the. gndh, ras, roop, sparsh tatha shabd aur inase kramashah snbndh rakhane vale ye panch tatv 'prithivya-pastejovayurakash'[2] the. (kanad) bharatiy paramanuvad ke janmadata hain. dravy paramanuon se milakar bana hai. pratyek dravy ke paramanu bhinn-bhinn hain. ye paramanu gol aur avibhajy hain. do paramanu milakar dvayaraguk aur phir inase trayataguk adi banate hain. pak ya agni ke yog se parivartan hote hain. rasayanik parivartan kis kram men hote hain, isaki vistrit mimansa kanad darshan ke paravarti acharyon ne ki.

rasayan vigyan ke ang

is pashchimi rasayan ke do upang the: akarbanik[3] aur karbanik.[4] sharkara, vasa, mom, phalon me pae jane vale aml, protin, rng adi sab sajiv rasayan ke ang the. logon ka vishvas tha ki ye padarth prakriti svayn apani prayogashala men sajiv chetana ke yog se taiyar karati hai aur ye prayogashala men sajiv chetana ke yog se taiyar karati hai aur ye prayogashala men snshleshit nahin ho sakate. rasayangyon ne in padarthon ka vishleshan prarnbh kiya. karban, haidrojan, naitrojan aur aauksijan, in char tatvon ke yog se bane hue sahastron yaugikon se rasayangyon ka parichay hua. pata chala ki kisi yaugikon ko samajhane ke liye keval itana hi avashyak nahin hai ki is yaugikon men kaun-kaun se tatv kis anupat men hain, yah bhi janana avashyak hai ki yaugikon ke anu men in tatvon ke paramanu kis kram men sajjit hain. inaka rachanavinyas janana avashyak ho gaya. phrainkalaind (1825-1897 ee.) zherar libikh, dyooma, barziliyas adi rasayangyon ne in yaugikon men pae jane vale moolakon ki khoj ki jaise methil, ethil, methilin, karboksil ityadi. is prakar sajiv padarthon ke adhar ki eeton ka pata chal gaya, jinake rachanavinyas dvara vibhinn yaugikon ki vidyamanata snbhav huee. kekoole ne (1865 ee.) men khuli shrinkhala ke yaugikon ke sath-sath bnd shrinkhala ke yaugikon ne karbanik rasayan men ek naye yug ka pravartan kiya. nephthalin, kvinolin, ainthrasin adi yaugikon men ek se adhik valayon ka samavesh hua. karbanik rasayan ka ek mahattvapoorn yug valar ki yooriya- snshleshan- vidhi se arnbh hota hai. 1828 ee. men unhonne akarbanik ya ajaiv rasayan ke dhng ki vidhi se amoniyam sayanet, (NH4 CNO) banana chaha. usane dekha ki amoniyam sayanet tap ke bhed se anukool paristhitiyon men yooriya (H2 N. CO. NH2) men svatah parinat ho jata hai. ab tak yooriya keval jaiv jagath ka sadasy mana jata tha. valar ne apane is snshleshan se yah siddh kar diya ki jaiv rasayan men jin yaugikon ka pratipadan kiya jata hai, unaka bhi snshleshan rasayanik vidhiyon se prayogashalaon men ho sakata hai. is navin kalpana ne jaiv rasayan ko ek naya roop diya. jaiv rasayan matrarah gaya aur isalie ajaiv rasayan ko ham log akarbanik rasayan kahane lage. vaise to karbanik aur akarbanik donon rasayanon ke bich ka bhed ab sarvatha mit chuka hai.

Chemistry.jpg

rasayan vigyan ka kshetr doosare vigyanon ke samnvay se prati din vistrit hota ja raha hai. phalatah aj ham bhautik evn rasayan bhautiki, jiv rasayan, sharir-kriya-rasayan, samany rasayan, krishi rasayan adi anek navin upangon ke nam bhi sunate hain. vigyan ka koee aisa kshetr nahin hai jisamen rasayan ki vishisht navinataon ka prasphutan n hua ho.

dravy nirman ke mool tatv

snsar men itane vibhinn padarth itani vibhinn vidhiyon se vibhinn paristhiyon men taiyar hote rahate hain ki ashchary hota hai. jo bhojan ham grahan karate hain, vah sharir men rudhir, mans, vasa vividh grnthiras, asthi, majja, malamootr adi men parinat hota hai. bhojy padarth vanaspatiyon ke sharir men taiyar hote hain. bhojan ke srijan aur vibhajan ka chakr nirntar chalata rahata hai. yah sab batata hai ki prakriti kitani mitavyayi hai. rasayanik abhikriyaon ka adhar dravy ki avinashita ka niyam hai. rasayangy is astha par apane rasayanik samikaranon ka nirman karata hai ki dravy n to banaya ja sakata hai aur n isaka vidhvns ho sakata hai. dravy ka gunadharm un agunon ka gun dharm hai jinase dravy bana hai. ve anu svayn paramanuon se bane hain. prakriti men 100 se oopar tatv hain. pratyek tatv ke paramanu paraspar bhinn hain, par bhinnata bhi akasmik nahin hai. ek tatv doosare tatv se uttarottar kuchh bhinn hota jata hai. daltan ne paramanuvad ki ninv dali. baauyal ne tatv ki kalpana di. mozali ne (1913-14 ee.) men paramanu snkhya ka mahattv bataya. pratyek tatv ka ek kramank ya paramanu snkhya hai tatha yah paramanu snkhya poornank hai. mendeliph ki avart sarani men tatvon ka vargikaran paramanu snkhya ki apeksha se kiya gaya tha. mozali ke bad paramanu snkhya ko mahattv mila aur is snkhya ke hisab se tatvon ka avart vargikaran kiya gaya. yah niyam bada mahatv poorn tha ki tatvon ke gunadharm unaki paramanu snkhya ke avarti phalan hain.

rasayanik samikaranon ki paddhati

dravy ki avinashita ke niyam ne rasayanik samikaranon ki paddhati ko janm diya. barjiliyas (1779-1848 ee.) ne tatvon ki snket paddhati ko janm diya. rasayangyon ne samikaranon dvara ek nee bhasha nirdharit ki. rasayan ke samikaran rasayan-vigyan ki bhasha hain. aguon ke sootr aur in sootron ke adhar par bane hue samikaranon dvara rasayangy durooh rasayanik parivartanon ko vyakt karane ka prayatn karata hai. jitana mahattv dravy ki avinashita ke is niyam ka tha, utana hi mahattv sabhi oopar batae ge avarti niyam ka bhi hua. tatvon aur unase bane hue yaugikon ke gunadharm akasmik nahin hain. ye paramanu snkhya par nirbhar hain. yah paramanu snkhya keval niradhar ank nahin hai. yah paramanu ki rachana ki dyotak hai. daltan ka paramanu avibhajy tha, par 19vin shati ke ant men pata chala ki yah avibhajan nahin hai. paramanu svayn mili-juli ek satta hai. paramanu ke kendr men ek nabhik hai, jisamen paramanu ka lagabhag samast bhar nihit hai aur jis par dhanatmak avesh rahata hai. is nabhik ke charon or ilektraaun chakkar lagate hain. yah chakkar vrittakar paridhiyon par lagata hai. aisi kalpana nils bor (1913 ee.) men di. arnald somarapheld (1868-1951 ee.) ne kaha ki in paridhiyon men kuchh paridhiyan dirghavritt ya andakar bhi ho sakati hain. shredingar (janm 1887 ee.) ne bataya ki paramanu aur ilektraaun sabhi tarngamay hain, aur usane inaki sthitiyon ko tarng samikaranon dvara vyakt kiya. paramanu ke nabhik par kitana dhan avesh hai aur amuk tatv ke paramanu men kitane ilektraaun hain, yah bat tatv ki paramanu snkhya se vyakt hoti hai.

paramanu vibhajan

bisavin shati men paramanu ke vibhajan par kary hua arthat paramanu ke nabhik ka vikhndan kiya gaya. anek prakar ke sookshm khnd mile, jinaka adhyayan is yug men rasayan aur bhautiki ka svatntr upang ban gaya. is vikhndan men dravy ka kabhi-kabhi lop, ya tirobhav dekha gaya. ainstain ne apana prasiddh samikaran bisavin shati ke pratham dashak (1905 ee.) men hi diya tha. oorja (oo)= dravy bhar X (prakash ka veg)2, athava oo=mapr2, (m =dravy bhar, pr= prakash ka veg). atah pata chal gaya ki dravy ka vilop hone par kitani oorja prapt ho sakati hai. aj ka yug is nabhik oorja ke upayog ka yug hai. isaka dhvnsakari roop paramanu bam visphot men hua. paramanu nabhikon ke vikhndan se hamen nimnalikhit khnd mile:

ilektraaun

is par 4.8'10-10 sthi.vai.ma. (e.s.u.) arthath‌ ek ikaee rin avesh hai. isaka bhar 9.1 '10-28 gram (haidrojan paramanu ka 1/1837) hai.

paauzitraaun

aindarasan ne 1932 ee. men isaki khoj ki. is par ek ikaee dhanatmak avesh hai. shesh baton men yah ilektraaun ke saman hai. hamare vishv men ye paauzitraaun kshanabhngur hain. ilektraaunon se abhikriya kar donon vilupt ho jate hain, aur inase vidyuchchnbakiy vikiran milate hai.

protaaun

is par ek ikaee, arthat dhan avesh rahata hai. isaka bhar gram (1’00813 paramanubhar ikaee) hai. yah haidrojan paramanu ka nabhik hai.

ny़ootraaun

1932 ee. men chaidavik ne isaki khoj ki. is par shoony avesh hai. isaka (1’00893) paramanu bhar ikaee hai. beriliyam aur ailpha kanon ke snghat se yah utpann hota hai. isaki antah bhedakata bahut adhik hai.

nyootrino

is ka bhar bhi lagabhag shoony hai aur avesh bhi shoony hai. isaki kalpana pauli ne prastut ki, jisake adhar par usane bita kanon ke avahras ke kaniy aveg samnvay ki vyakhya ki.

mesaaun

1935 ee. men yookava ne inaki kalpana prastut ki. mesaaunon ka bhar ilektraaunon aur protraaunon ke bich ka hai. kaausmik ya antariksh kiranon men inaki vidyamanata paee gee. mesaaun kee prakar ke hain, jaise paee mesaaun (π+-,π°) aur myoo mesaaun (μ+, μ-). dhanatmak paee mesaaun (π+) dhan nabhik se utani shighr kiya nahin karega. jitana ki rinatmak paee mesaaun (π-). paee mesaaun ilektraaun se 285 guna bhari hote hain aur myoo mesaaun 216 guna.

nabhik rasayan ka yug

in paramanu vikhndon dvara aise anek ne tatvon ka snshleshan bhi hua hai, jo prakriti men pae nahin jate, par jinake astitv ki snbhavana ho sakati thi. snshleshit tatv nimn hain. koshthak men inake paramanubhar die hain.

mendeliph ke samay men usaki avart sarani men kuchh sthan rikt the. ab n keval ve sab bhar ge hain, balki yooreniyam ke bad bhi 10 kritrim tatvon ka is sarani men aur samavesh kiya gaya hai. aistan ne 1919 ee. men samasthanikon ko prithakh kar praut ki us kalpana ka samarthan kiya, jisamen unhonne kaha tha ki pratyek tatv haidrojan tatv ke snghanan se bana hai aur isaliye usaka paramanubhar poornasnkhya honi chahie. aistan ke in prayogon ke phalasvaroop n keval samasthanikon ko prithakh karane ka hi prayas kiya gaya, balki unake gunadharmon ka adhyayan bhi kiya. yoori ke prayogon ke phalasvaroop sadharan haidrojan se bane hue pani ke bhitar hi bhari haidrojan ke bhi astitv ka pata chala 1929 ee.. haidrojan ke tin samasthanik, jinako kramash: haidrojan dyootiriyam, aur traitiyam (T) kahate hain, kramash: 1,2, aur 3, paramanu bhar ke hain, par un sab ki paramanusnkhya 1 hi hai (arthat nabhik par ek ikaee dhanatmak avesh hai, 1H1, 1D2, 1T3) bhari haidrojan aur bhari pani ka mahattv is paramanu yug men bahut badh gaya hain, kyonki inaki sahayata se nyootraaunon ki gati men samnjasy laya ja sakata hai. nyootraaunon ki sahayata se anek ne samasthanikon ka srijan bhi kritrim vidhiyon se kiya gaya hai. kritrim rediyoaiktiv tatv bhi taiyar kie ge hain, jaise rediyoaiktiv phaausphoras, rediyoaiktiv ayodin, karban14 adi, jinaka upayog chikitsakary men evn rasayanik abhikriyaon ke adhyayan men badh raha hai. karban14 ki sahayata se bhoovaigyanik yugon ki tithiyon ka nirdharan karane men sahayata milati hai. sadharan yooreniyam 238 men thodi si matra yooreniyam-235 ki bhi milati hai, jo yooreniyam ka hi ek samasthanik hai. is samasthanik ka upayog paramanu bam men kiya gaya. nyootraaunon ke snghat se yah samasthanik beriyam- 139 aur kriptraaun-94 men vikhndit hua, kuchh nyootraaun nabhik men se bahar nikale aur kuchh dravy ka lop hua, jisaki oorja bani.
ek-ek vikhndan kriya men 180-200 mili ilektraaun bolt, arthat (1. 8-20)X10 8 ilektraaun volt, oorja prapt hoti hai. sadharan yooreniyam men se yooreniyam-235 ka prithakh karana saral kary n tha, par atul snpatti ka vyay karake dvitiy mahayuddh ke samay yah shramasadhy kary bhi saphalapoorvak snpann kiya gaya. nabhikon ke vikhndan ka kary jitane mahattv ka hai, nabhikon ke snghanan ka kary usase kam nahin hai. halke tatvon ke paramanu paraspar snyukt hokar kuchh bhari tatv bhi de sakate hain. in prakriyaon ko snlayan prakriya, ya snghanan prakriya kahate hain. in prakriyaon lakhon, karodon digari tap ki avashyakata hoti hai, par ek bar prakriya ka arnbh hone par prakriya men svatah uchch tap ki ooshma prapt hone lagati hai. inhin prakriyaon ke karan soory ooshma ka bhndar hai. karban dvara utprerit hokar soory men haidrojan se hiliyam banata rahata hai. jin haidrojan bamon ke antak ki is yug men itani charcha hai, vah bhi lagabhag isi prakar ki nabhik snghanan ya nabhik snlayan prakriyaon dvara banate hain, jinamen bhari haidrojan, 1ha2, (1H2) ke nabhik bhag lete hain. haidrojan bam paramanu vikhndan se prapt bamon ki apeksha kahin adhik prabal aur dhvnsakari hain.

akarbanik, ya samany rasayan

karban ka chhodakar shesh sabhi tatvon aur unake yogikon ki mimansa karana akarbanik rasayan ka kshetr hai. boraaun, silikan, jarmeniyam adi tatv bhi lagabhag usi prakar ke vividh yaugik banate hain, jaise karban. par is parthiv srishti men unaka utana mahatv nahin hai jitana karban yaugikon ka, isalie karbanik rasayan ka any tatvon se prithakh‌ rasayanik kshetr man liya gaya hai. manushy evn vanaspatiyon ka jivan karban yaugikon ke chakr par nirbhar hai, at: karbanik yaugikon ko ek alag upang men rakhana kuchh anuchit nahin hai. yah karban hi hai jo prithvi par pae jane vale samany tap (0° se 40°) par anek sthayi samavayavi yaugik de sakata hai. akarbanik rasayan men jin tatvon ka ullekh hai, unamen se kuchh dhatu hain, aur kuchh adhatu. adhatu tatvon men kuchh mukhy ye hain :

gais

haidrojan, hiliyam, naitrojan, aauksijan, phlorin, niaaun, klorin, argan, kriptaaun tatha zenaaun.

thos

boron, karban, silikan, phasphoras, gndhak, jarmeniyam, arsenik, molibdenam, telyooriyam tatha ayodin.

drav

bromin

karbanik rasayan

snyojakataen (jinake dvara anu men paramanu ek doosare ke sath snbaddh hote hain) do prakar ki hoti hain-

  1. vaidyuth‌ snyojakata (Electrovalency)
  2. sahasnyojakata (Covalency)

akarbanik lavanon men anu men paramanu, ya moolak, bahudha vidyuth‌ snyojakata dvara snbaddh rahate hain aur ye anu n keval vilayanon men hi ayanon men vibhakt ho jate hain, balki thos kristalon men bhi inake ayan vishesh sthiti men vidyamanh‌ rahate hain. karban paramanu ki bahyatam paridhi par char ilektraaun (.) hain. yah apane charon or char aur ilektraaun lekar apana ashtak poora kar sakata hai. ek karban paramanu is prakar char haidrojanon se bhi snyukt ho sakata hai, ya klorin ke char paramanuon se. yah snyojan vidyuth‌ snyojan se bhinn hai. n to karban tetrakloraid vilayanon men vibhajit hokar kloraid ayan deta hai aur methen vibhajit hokar haidrojan ayan. do do ilektraaunon ke bhagidar banane par ek ek bndh banata hai. at: karban ki sahasnyojakata 4 hai. kee karban paramanu bhi sahasnyojakataon dvara apas men uttarottar kram se snyukt ho sakate hain. isi prakar saiklopenten, ka5ha10 (C5H10), men 5 karbanon ka bnd valay, aur saikloheksen, ka6ha12 (C6H12), men 6 karbanon ka bnd valay hai. kabhi kabhi anuon men asntript snyojakataen hoti hain. yadi do karban paramanuon ke bich men 4 ilektraaunon ki bhagidari ho, to kaha jaega ki inake bich men ek dvibndh hai, aur 6 ilektraaunon ki bhagidari ho to kahenge ki inake bich men tribndh hain. ekabndh (:) dvibndh (::) ki apeksha aur dvibndh tribndh (:::) ki apeksha adhik prabal hai. jin yaugikon men dvibndh hain, ve adhik asthayi aur adhik asntript hain. benzin, ka6ha6 (C6H6), bad valay ka ek yaugik hai. isamen tin dvibndh bhi mane ja sakate hain, par yah vishesh roop se sthayi hai. isake pratyek do karbanon ke bich ka ek bndh anunadi mana jata hai, jisake karan benzin valay ko vishesh sthayitv prapt hota hai. is prakar ke anunadi gunon ke karan airomaitik nabhik (jaisa benzin men hai) ailiphaitik ki apeksha bhinn samajhe jate hain. karbanik yaugikon ki visheshata unaki vistrit samavayata ke karan hai. ek hi anu ke vibhinn gunavale anek yaugik hote hain. saiklopropen aur propilin donon ka ek hi anu sootr ka3ha6 (C3H6) hai. digvinyas samavayata ke karanh bhi karbanik yaugikon men bahut bhinnata paee jati hai. maleik aml (sis roop) aur phoomairik aml (trans roop) men isi karan antar hai. donon amlan ke bhautik aur rasayanik gunon men antar hai.

bhautik rasayan

dravy ki avinashita ke niyam ke sath hi sath bhautik rasayan ki ninv padi, yadyapi 19vin shati ke ant tak bhautik rasayan ko rasayan ka prithakh‌ ang nahin mana gaya. vant haph, vilhelm aaustavald aur ariniyas ke karyen ne bhautik rasayan ki rooparekha nirdharit ki. sthir anupat aur gunit anupat evn paraspar anupat ke niyamon ne, aur bad ko avogadro niy, gelusaik niyam adi ne paramanu aur anu ki kalpana ko praray diya. paramanubhar aur anubhar nikalane ki vividh paddhatiyon ka vikas kiya gaya. gais snbndhi baauyal aur charls ke niyamon ne aur graham ke avisaran niyamon ne isamen sahayata di. vilayanon ki prakriti samajhane men parasaran dab snbndhi vicharon ne ek navin yug ko janm diya. pani men ghulakar shakkar ke anu usi prakar alag alag ho jate hain jaise shoony sthan men gais ke anu. rault (Raoult) ka vashpadab snbndhi samikaran vilayanon ke snbndh men bade kam ka siddh hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. visheshataya inglaind, jarmani, phrans aur itali men
  2. 'kshiti, jal, pavak gagan samira' tulasidas ke shabdon men
  3. ajaiv padarthon se snbndhit
  4. sajiv padarthon se snbndhit

snbndhit lekh

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