ऊष्मा  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ooshma ek prakar ki oorja hai, jo do vastuon ke bich unake tapantar ke karan ek vastu se doosari vastu men sthanantarit hoti hai. sthanantaran ke samay hi oorja ooshma kahalati hai. vastu ka tap, vastu men ooshma ki matra tatha vastu ke padarth ki prakriti par nirbhar karata hai, jabaki kisi vastu men nihit ooshma us vastu ke dravyaman v tap par nirbhar karati hai. ooshma ek prakar ki oorja hai, jise kary men badala ja sakata hai. isaka pratyaksh praman sabase pahale ramaphord ne diya. bad men devi ne do barf ke tukade ko apas men ghisakar pighala diya. chunki barf ko pighalane ke lie ooshma ka aur koee srot nahin tha, atah yah mana gaya ki barf ko ghisane men kiya kary barf pighalane ke lie li gee avashyak ooshma men badal gaya. bad men jool ne apane prayogon se is bat ki pushti ki ki "ooshma oorja ka hi ek roop hai." jool ne bataya ki jab kabhi kary ooshma men badalati hai, ya ooshma kary men badalati hai, to kie ge kary v utpann ooshma ka anupat ek sthirank hota hai, ya ooshma ka yantrik tulyank kahate hain tatha isako se soochit karate hain. ushma (angreji men hit) ki prakriti ka adhyayan tatha padarthon par usaka prabhav jitana manav hit se snbndhit hai utana kadachith‌ aur koee vaigyanik vishay nahin. ushma se pranimatr ka bhojan banata hai. vasnt ritu ke agaman par ushma ke prabhav se hi kali khilakar phool ho jati hai tatha vanaspati kshetr men ek ne jivan ka snchar hota hai. isi ke prabhav se ande se bachcha banata hai. in karanon se yah koee ashchary ki bat nahin ki puratan kal men is balavanh‌, prabhavashil tatha upayogi abhikarta se manav prabhavit hua tatha usaki pooja aur archana karane laga. kadachith‌ isi karan manav ne soory ki pooja ki. prithvi par ushma ke lagabhag snpoorn mahatvapoorn prabhavon ka srot soory hai. koyala, tel, petrol, jinase hamen ushma prapt hoti hai, prachin yugon se snchit dhoop ka pratinidhitv karate hain.

itihas-ushma ke samany prabhavon ka spashtikaran karane ke hetu agni-paramanuon ka avishkar kiya gaya, jo padarth ke radhraenn ke bich prachnd gati se daudate hue tatha usake anuon ko titar-bitar karate hue mane ge the. vichar tha ki isake phalasvaroop thos padarth drav men tatha drav vashp men parivartit hote hain.

vigyan ke arnbhik yug se lekar varmaman shatabdi ke prarnbh tak ushma ki prakriti ke snbndh men do pratidvndvi parikalpanen sadharanataya chali aee hain. ek to hai ushik siddhant (kailorik thyori) jisake anusar ushma ko ek ati sookshm lachila drav mana gaya tha jo padartho ke radhraenn men pravesh karake unake anuon ke bich ke sthan ko bhar leta hai. doosara hai prachin yoonaniyon dvara chalaya gaya siddhant jisamen ushma ke adhunik siddhant ka ankur paya jata hai. isake anusar ushma padarth ke kanon ke drut knpan ke karan hoti hain; at: is mat ke anusar ushma ka karan gati hai. is siddhant ke poshak bahut dinon tak alp mat men rahe.

prekshan par adharit siddhant ki rachana men pratham prayatn lard bekan ne kiya tatha ve is parinam par pahunche ki ushma gati hain. inglaind men unake anuyayiyon ke mat se yah 'gati' padarth ke anuon ki thi. parntu yoorop ke adhikatar vaigyanikon ke matanusar yah ek atisookshm tatha lachile drav ke kanon ki mani gee jo padarth ke radhraenn men ant: pravisht hokar usake kanon ke bich sthit mana gaya tha.

ushik siddhant-ushik siddhant ke anusar ushma ka karan ek ati lachile svapratikarshak tatha sarvavyapi drav ki kriya tha. is drav ke gun ye mane ge : yah ati lachila tha tatha isake kan paraspar pratikarshan karate the. is drav ko 'kailarik' nam diya gaya. pratikarshan gun ke karan jalane par yah drav ushma tatha prakash utpann karata hua mana gaya. 'kailarik' ke kan paraspar to pratikarshak the parntu sadharan padarth ke kanon se akarshit hote mane ge. vibhinn padartho ke kan use vibhinn bal se akarshit karate the. yah drav anashy tathashh ajanma mana gaya.

ushik siddhant ke anusar padarth 'kailarik' ki vriddhi se ushn hota tha tatha usake hhras se shital. padarth par ushma ke bhinn bhinn prabhavon ko kailarik siddhant ke anusar spashtikaran ke prayatn hote rahe. kuchh ka to spashtikaran saralata se ho gaya parntu kuchh ke lie any anek kalpanen karani padin.

gharshan dvara ushmajanan ki ghatana manav ko adikal se gyat hai. kailarik siddhant ke anusar isake spashtikaran ke prayatn kie ge, parntu ve sntoshaprad n ho sake.

ushmagatiki-gharshan dvara ushma ke udbhav men ek visheshata yah hai ki padarthon ka jitana adhik gharshan kiya jata hai utani adhik matra men ushma nikalati hai, at: is riti se annt matra men ushma mil sakati hai. isaka spashtikaran kailarik mat se nahin ho sakata jisake anusar pratyek padarth men simit matra men ushma-drav rahata hai. vastut: yah kary tatha usase utpann ushma ke vishay men jool ne mahatvapoorn prayog kie tatha vah yah siddh karane men saphal hua ki kary tatha ushma men tulyata hai. jab kary kiya jata hai tab ushma ki utpatti hoti hai. yadi kary tatha ushma ka man kramanusar ka (W) tatha u (H) hai to ka=joo un (W=JH) yahan joo (J) sthir hai tatha ise ushma ka yantrik tulyank kahate hain. at: joo (J) kary ki vahu matra hai jisase ek kailari ushma utpann ho. isaka man 4.18´107 arg prati kailari hai.

kaunt roomaphord ne is vishay men yah sujhav diya tha ki kary se ushmajanan ka karan gati hai. ab prashn uthata hai, 'kisaki gati?'

gatij siddhant-padarth ki rachana anuon tatha paramanuon se huee hai. padarth ke tin roop hote hain : thos, drav tatha gais. yadi koee thos padarth ushn kiya jae to usake tap men vriddhi hoti hai. ek nishchit tap par pahunchakar yah galane lagata hai tatha drav roop men parivartit ho jata hai. aur adhik ushn karane se drav ki tapavriddhi hoti hai tatha ek doosare nishchit tap par isaka vashpikaran arnbh ho jata hai. jab snpoorn drav vashp men parivartit ho jata hai tab ise gais kahate hain.

gatij siddhant ke anusar padarth ke anu shashvat gati ki avastha men rahate hain. anu ki gati padarth ke tap par nirbhar rahati hai. padarth jitana adhik ushn hota hai utani hi adhik prachnd gati usake anuon men hoti hai. thos padarth men anu ek madhyak sthiti ke charon or pradolan karata hai. tapavriddhi se anupradolan men vriddhi hoti hai tatha ant men pradolan itana prachnd ho jata hai ki anu apane sthan se prithak-prithak hokar idhar udhar any anuon ke sthanon par chala jata hai tatha apani navin sthiti men prachndata se pradolan karane lagata hai. is avastha men anuon ki paraspar akarshan shakti, jo unako apane sthanon par rakhati hai, itani mnd ho jati hai ki tanik-si thes lagane se padarth ka roop parivartit ho jata hai. is avastha ko padarth ki taral avastha kahate hain. atev taral avastha men anuon men dolan ke sath-sath raikhik gati bhi hoti hai. thos avastha ke anuon men dolan kriya ko prachnd karane men tatha unamen raikhik gati utpann karane men ushma ki avashyakata hogi. yah ushma galan kishh gupt ushma ke tuly hoti hai.

ab yadi ham drav padarth ka kramash: tapan karen to anavik oorja men vriddhi hogi tatha dravaprishth ke nikat ate hue kisi anu ki gati itani tivr ho sakati hai ki vah asapas ke any anuon ke akarshan ka nirakaran karake drav ko chhodakar usake oopar ke sthan men chala jae. is prakar prakshipt anuon ka ek antat: jab snpoorn anu drav ko chhod dete hain to vah gais men parivartit ho jata hai.

gais avastha men anu saral rekhaon men chalate hain tatha paraspar takarate par unaki gati tatha disha men parivartan hota hai. do anugami takkaron ke bich ka mukt path saral rekhiy tatha ati nyoon hota hai. is path par chalatu hue drav avastha se gais avastha men parivartan hone ke lie anuon ko apane parasparik akarshan ke viruddh prithak hona padata hai. isake lie kary ki avashyakata hoti hai tatha yah kary vashpikaran ki gupt ushma ke tuly hota hai.

vikiran-ushma ka tarngavad-gharshan tatha snghattan (takarane) se vastuon ki indriyagrahy shakti ka lop ho jata hai tatha ushma ka janan hota hai. yah kalpana hai ki in ghatanaon men gati ka kshay nahin hota varanh‌ vah keval snpoorn vastu se usake pratyek kan men sthanantarit hoti hai. at: jab ek gatishil vastu gharshan athava snghattan dvara roki jati hai to vastu ki maulik drishy gati ka ant nahin hota; parntu vah us vastu ke adrishy anuon tatha paramanuon men chali jati hai.

kisi tapt vastu se kuchh doori par hamen ushnata ka abhas hota hai. yah ushma vastu se ham tak kaise aee? soory prithvi ke samast ushmik prabhavon ka srot hai. soory se prakash tatha ushma donon hi ate hain. prakash vyom (eethar) men tarngagati ke karan hota hai, aisi kalpana hai. is kalpana ki pushti men praman hain. isi prakar ushma bhi vyom men tarngagati ke karan hoti hai. vikiran ushma, udaharanataya dhatu ke ek tapt khnd se utsarjit ushma tatha prakash ke acharan yatharthat: ek saman hote hain. in donon men vastavik antar, jisaka upalnbhan ho sakata hai, yah hai, ki prakash men vikirn ushma ke samast lakshanon ke atirikt drishti ki anubhooti ko prabhavit karane ka lakshan bhi hota hai.

at: prakash ke saman vikirn ushma bhi vyom men tarngagati ke karan mani jati hai. ek tapt padarth ke anu tivr gati ki avastha men hote hain athava kisi drut-avarti vikshobh ke kendr hote hain tatha ve vyom men tarngen pradipt karate hain jo hamare tatha tapt vastu ke madhy prakashagati se chalati hain. jab ve hamare oopar girati hain to sharir dvara shoshit ho jati hain tatha hamare sharir ke anuon men tadanuroop gati ka karan hoti hain. is prakar hamen ushnata ka bodh hota hai. at: ushnata ka bodh tapt padarth se apasarit vyomatarngon ke karan usi prakar hota hai, jis prakar dipt padarth se chakshu tatha ek dhvanit vastu se vayutarngon dvara kan prabhavit hota hai.

kisi sthan par sthit padarth vyom ke satat kshobh ka srot mana jata hai. padarth ka pratyek kan knpan karate hue vyom men tarngon ka janan karata hai. at: ham sadaiv charon or se ati huee vikiranatarngon men doobe rahate hain. in tarngon dvara hamen drishti tatha ushma ka bodh hota hai. yadi yah tarng nishchit avrittisimaon ke bich ki hai to usase chakshu prabhavit hota hai tatha ise ham prakashatarng kahate hain. yah tarng hamare sharir ke anuon men vikshobh bhi utpann kar sakati hai aur is karan hamen ushnata ka bodh karati hai. mnd knpan ki tarngen chakshuon ko prabhavit nahin karatin, ve keval sharir ko ushn karati hain. inhen avarakt kiranen (inaphra-red rez) kahate hain. drut knpan ki tarngen chakshu ko prabhavit kar prakash ka bodh deti hain, unase ushnata ka bodh nahin ke saman hota hai. inhen ham drishy prakashatarng kahate hain.

is snbndh men agralikhit lekh bhi dekhen : ushmagatiki, ushmamiti, ushmayan, oorja, kvantam yantriki, kvantam sankhyiki, tapamapan, tapavidyuth‌, vashpayan, vikiran.


1. mapani-shitoshnata ka anubhav praniyon ki sparshedriy ka svabhavik gun hai. is anubhav ko matratmak roop men vyakt karane ke lie ek paimane ki avashyakata padati hai jisako tapakram (skel aauv tenparechar) kahate hain. apekshakrit adhik garam pratit honevali vastu ke vishay men kaha jata hai ki usaka tap (tenparechar) adhik hai. padarthon men tapavriddhi ka karan yah hota hai ki unamen oorja (enarji) ke ek vishesh roop, ushma ki vriddhi ho jati hai. ushma sadaivashh oonche tapavale padarthon se nimn tapavale padarthon ki or pravahit hoti hai aur usaki matra padarth ke dravyaman (mas) tatha tap par nirbhar rahati hai.

2. tapakram-chhoone se tap ka jo gyan prapt hota hai vah matratmak aur vishvasaniy nahin hota. isi karan is kary ke lie yantrik upakaran prayukt hote hain jinako tapamapi athava tharmamitar kahate hain. sarvasadharan men jin tharmamitaron ka prachar hai unamen shishe ki ek chhoti khokhali ghundi (balb) hoti hai jisamen para ya any drav bhara rahata hai. balb ke sath ek patali nali judi rahati hai. tapiy prasaran (tharmal ekspainshan) ke karan drav nali men chadh jata hai aur usake yatharth sthan se tap ki digri ka bodh hota hai. is prakar ke tharmamitar 1654 ee. ke lagabhag florens men taskani ke graind dayook fardinaind ne prachalit kie the. tapakram nishchit karane ke lie in tharmamitaron ko sarvapratham pighalate hue shuddh him (baraph) men rakhakar nali men drav ki sthiti par chihn bana dete hain. sentigred paimane men himank ko shoony manate hain tatha isake aur kvathanank ke bich ki doori ko 100 barabar bhagon men bant dete hain jinamen se pratyek ko digri kahate hain. ajakal is paimane ko selasiyas paimana kahate hain. pharenahait mapakram men poorvokt himank ko32° aur romar men shoony digri manate hain kintu pharenahait men poorvokt himank aur jal ke kvathnnak ki doori 180 bhagon men aur romar men 80 bhagon men vibhakt ki jati hai.

yadi do bhinn dravon se tharmamitar banakar uparyukt vidhi se ankit kie jaen to himank aur kvathanank ko chhodakar any tapon par samanyat: unake pathayankon men bhed paya jaega. at: keval ushmagatiki (dr.) ankon ko usi ke anusar shuddh kar lete hain. is paimane ko param tap (aibsolyoot tenparechar) athava kelvin mapakram bhi kaha jata hai aur isake pathayank angreji men T se vyakt kie jate hain. yahan tatha ushmagatikishh shirshak lekh men param tap ko pa ya T se soochit kiya gaya hai. yah karno chakr par adharit hai aur isaka shoony paramashh shoony hota hai jisaka man-273.2°shh sen. hai aur jisase nyoonatar tap snbhav nahin ho sakata.

poorvokt shishe-ke-bhitar-dravavale tapamapiyon ki upayogita simit hi hoti hai.300° sen.se oopar pray: vidyutiy pratirodh aur tap vidyutiy (tharmoilektrik) tharmamitar prayukt hote hain. ati uchch tap ke mapanarth keval vikiran siddhanton par adharit uttapamapiyon (payaromitaron) ka prayog hota hai. shoony digri sentigred se niche gais tharmamitar, vidyutiy pratirodh tharmamitar, hiliyam-vashp-dab tharmamitar, aur param shoony ke nikat chunbakiy pravritti (maiganetik saseptibiliti) par adharit tharmamitar prayukt hote hain. in sab tapamapiyon ke ank ya to adarsh gais tharmamitaron se milakar shuddh kie jate hain athava inake shodhan ke lie ushmagatiki ke siddhanton ka ashray liya jata hai. (vishesh vivaran ke lie tapamapan shirshak lekh dr..)

3. avasthaparivartan ushma ke prabhav se padarthon men parivartan kiya ja sakata hai aur kuchh asthayi yaugikon ko chhodakar sab ka astitv gais, drav aur thos, in tinon roopon men snbhav hai. samany vayumndaliy dab par drav ka thos athava vashp men parivartan nishchit tapon par hota hai jinako himank aur kvathanank kahate hain. uparyukt dab par yadi ek gram padarth ka avasthaparivartan kiya jae to ushma ki ek nishchit matra ya to utpann athava shoshit hoti hai. isako gupt ushma (letent hit) kahate hain. tap ki uchit vriddhi hone par sab thos drav men badal jate hain aur isi prakar gaison ko nimnalikhit vidhiyon se dravon men aur usake uparant thnda karane par thoson men badala ja sakata hai. thos ke roop men badali janevali antim gais hiliyam hai jisako thos banane ke lie drav ko thnda karane ke sath hi usapar atyadhik dab bhi lagana padata hai.

pratyek gais ka apana ek krantik tap (kritikal tenparechar) hota hai. yadi gais ka tap isase kam ho to keval dab badhane se hi use drav banana snbhav hota hai, anyatha sarvapratham thnda karake usaka tap krantik tap se niche le ate hain. drav ke roop men badali janevali antim gaisen vayu, haidrojan aur hiliyam hain. vayu ko krantik tap ke niche thnda karane ke lie jool-tamasan-prabhav ka upayog karate hain. yadi koee uchch dab ki gais mahin chhedon men se hokar kam dab vale bhag men nikali jae to vah pray: thndi ho jati hai. isi ko jool-tamasan-prabhav kahate hain. isaki matra bahut kam hoti hai. udaharanarth yadi chhed ke donon aur dab ki matra kramanusar 50 vayumndal aur 1 vayumndal ho to sadharan tap hi hava keval 11.7° sen. thndi hoti hai. kintu ek bar thndi honevali gais oopar uthakar anevali gais ko thndi kar deti hai. jab gais ke is thnde ansh par jool-tamasan-prabhav padata hai to yah aur adhik thndi ho jati hai ki usaka tap krantik tap se niche chala jata hai aur vah keval dab ke prabhav se hi drav men badal jati hai. vayu ke dravan (likvifaikshan) ki do mashinen linde aur klaaud-haeelaind ke nam se prasiddh hain. pratham upakaran men keval uparyukt vidhi ka hi prayog hota hai, kintu doosare men is vidhi ke atirikt gais ka kuchh ansh ek injin ke pistan ko chalata hai. at: kam karane ke karan yah ansh svat: thnda ho jata hai.

sadharan tap par haidrojan aur hiliyam ye donon gaisen jool-tamasan-prabhav ke karan garam ho jati hai, parntu tap uchit matra men kam hone par samany gaison ki tarah hi thndi hoti hain. at: in gaison ko pahale hi itana thnda kar lena avashyak hai ki is prabhav ka labh uthaya ja sake. debar ne 1898 men haidrojan ko dravit vayu se thnda karane ke pashchath‌ linde ki uparyukt vidhi se drav men parinat kiya. ons ne isi vidhi se 1908 men antim gais hiliyam ka dravan kiya, kintu jool-tamasan-prabhav ka upayog karane se poorv isako drav haidrojan se thnda kar liya gaya tha.

vayumndaliy dab par hiliyam ka kvathanank 4° pa (T) hai. dab ghatakar vashpan karane se 0.7° pa (T) tak pahuncha ja sakata hai. isase bhi kam tap ki utpatti sthiroshm vichunbakan (aidiyabaitik dimaiganetizeshan) dvara ki ja sakati hai. is vidhi men vishesh samachunbakiy (pairamaiganetik) lavan prayukt hote hain. aise ek lavan ko chunbakiy dhruvon ke bich hiliyam gais se bhari nali men latakaya jata hai. yah nali sthir tap ke hiliyam drav se ghiri rahati hai. chunbakiy kshetr sthapit karane par chunbakan-ushma (hit aauv maiganetizeshan) ko hiliyam drav khinch leta hai, at: tap sthir rahata hai. ab nali ki hiliyam gais nikal li jati hai jisase lavan ka hiliyam drav se ushmik prithakkaran (inasuleshan) ho jata hai. isake uparant chunbakiy kshetr hata lete hain. lavan ka vichunbakan ho jata hai aur is kary men ushma vyay hone se yah svat: thndha ho jata hai. is prakar tap ko lagabhag 0.001° pa tak ghataya ja sakata hai. nabhikiy vichunbakan (nyookliyar dimaignetizeshan) dvara isase bhi nimn tap kishh prapti ho sakati hai.

4 tapiy prasaran-tapavriddhi hone par pray: sab vastuon ke akar men vriddhi hoti hai jisako tapiy prasaran kahate hain. yadi shoony tap par ayatan a0 (V0) ho to p° (t°) par snnikatat: ayatan nikalane ke lie nimnalikhit sootr lagoo hota hai:

ap =a0 (1+prap).

vt =V° (1+bt).

pra (b) ko prasaran gunank kahate hain. tap men adhik vriddhi hone par is sootr men p (t) ke uchch ghat (pavar) bhi ate hain. thoson men poorvokt prakar ka sootr lnbaee ke prasaran ke lie bhi hota hai jisake gunank ko pr (a) se vyakt karate hain aur rekhiy prasaran gunank kahate hain. yah pra (b) ka 1/3 hota hai.

gaison aur dravon ka prasaran gunank bahut bada hota hai, at: usaka mapan apekshakrit saral hai. gaison men dab aur ayatan donon ka prasaran hota hai. yadi dab sthir ho to poorvokt sootr ayatan par poorn roop se lagoo hota hai. ayatan sthir hone par isi sootr men a (V) ke sthan par da (P) likhakar dab da ka sootr ban jata hai. pra (b) donon sootron men ek hi hai aur isaka man sab adarsh gaisonshh men 1.273 ke lagabhag hota hai. sab gaisen krantik tap se bahut oonche tap par adarsh gaisen hoti hain, kintu yadi inaka kvathnnak nikat n ho aur dab adhik n ho to samanyat: aksijan, naitrojan haidrojan or hiliyam ko adarsh gaisen kahate hain. sab adarsh gaison par nimnalikhit sootr lagoo hota hai :

da a = jh pa,

P V = R T,

jisamen da (P)dab aur a (V) ayatan hai. pa (T) param tap hai jisaki matra sentigred tap men 273 jodane par prapt hoti hai. jh (R) ko gais niyatank kahate hain. ek gram-anu (gram-maaulikyool) gais ke lie isaki matra lagabhag do kalarishh athava 8.3 jool hoti hai.

thoson ka prasaran gunank bahut kam hota hai, at: isake mapan me vishesh vidhiyan prayukt hoti hain. manibh (kristal) bahut chhote hote hain, at: unake prasaran ka mapan aur bhi dushkar hota hai. ek udaharan men kristal pattika aur silika ki pattika ke bich men prakashiy vyatikaran dhariyan (aauptikal intarafiyarens phrnjez) utpann ki jati hain. tapavriddhi se dhariyan sthanantarit ho jati hain jisake mapan se gunank nikala ja sakata hai. uchch sammiti (simetri) ke kristalon ko chhodakar any kristalon ke prasaranagunank disha ke anusar bhinn hote hain. thoson ke snbndh men grinaizan ka yah niyam hai ki pratyek dhatu ka prasaran gunank usaki sthir dabavali vishisht ushma ka samanupati hota hai.

5. kalarimiti-ek gram pani ka tap 14.5°shh sen. se 15.5°shh sen. tak badhane men jitani ushma ki avashyakata hoti hai use ek kalari kahate hain. any tap par pani ki 1° shtapavriddhi ke lie isase kuchh bhinn matra ki avashyakata hoti hai, par donon ka antar kabhi bhi 1/2 pratishat se adhik nahin hota. kisi 1 gram vastu men 1° sen. tapaparivartan karanevali ushma ko usaki vishisht ushma (spesifik hit) kahate hain. vishisht ushma vi (S) ki kisi vastu ke dravyaman dr (m) gram ka tap p (t) digri sen. badhane men dr vi p (mSt ) kalariyan vyay hoti hain. kisi vastu ki vishisht ushma gyat karane ke lie sarvapratham usako oonche tap tak garam karate hain aur phir usako ek anshik roop se pani bhare baratan (kalarimapi) men dal dete hain. vastu ke thndi hone men jitani kalariyan milin unako kalarimapi aur pani dvara prapt kalariyon ke barabar rakhakar vishisht ushma ki ganana kar lete hain.

vishisht ushma nikalane ki ek any vidhi yah bhi hai ki padarth ke oopar itani bhap ko pravahit karen ki usaka tap badhakar bhap ke tap ke barabar ho jae. yadi is vidhi men dr (m) gram bhap snghanit (kanadens) hoti hai to usake pani banane men d gu (m´L) kalari prapt hoti hain (gu (L)=gupt tap). isako padarth dvara shoshit ushma ke barabar rakhakar vishisht ushma ki ganana kar lete hain.

tapavriddhi ke samay bahy sthiti ke anusar padarthon ki vishisht ushma ke anek man hote hain. ek to sthir ayatanavali vishisht ushma hoti hai jo usaki antarik oorja se snbndhit rahati hai. mapan kriya ke samay ayatan men parivartan hone ke karan ayatanavriddhi ke lie kam (karm) karana padata hai aur tapavriddhi ke sath sath kuchh ushma ki is kam ke lie bhi avashyakata hoti hai. kam ki matra dab ke ashrit hai aur yadi yah dab sthir n ho to yah matra bhi parivartit hogi. isilie sthitiyon men bhed hone ke karan vishisht ushma ke anek man hote hain, kintu suvidha ke lie keval do par hi vichar kiya jata hai. ek ka snbndh sthir ayatan aur doosare ka sthir dab se hai aur inako kramanusar via 1 (Cv) aur vid 1 (Cp)likha jata hai thoson aur dravon men tapiy prasaran apekshakrit kam hota hai, at: vishisht ushma ke anek man lagabhag barabar hote hain kintu gaison men inamen bahut antar hota hai. bahuparamanviy anuon men vishisht ushma ko anubhar se guna karane par unaki anav ushma (maaulikyular hit) aur ek paramanuk anuon men vishisht ushma ko paramanubhar se guna karane par unaki paramanviy ushma (aitaaumik hit) prapt hoti hai. in donon ko angreji men C aur men vi se vyakt karate hain. vaigyanik sahity men inako keval vishisht ushma bhi likha gaya hai. is snbndh men adarsh gaison men yah sootr lagoo hota hai:

vida - via 1 =jh

Cp -Cv = R

yahan par jh (R) purvavarnit gais niyatank hai.

6. vishisht ushma ke siddhant-1819 men dayoolang aur petit ne yah niyam pratipadit kiya ki sab thos tatvon ki sthir ayatanavali paramanviy ushma ek hi hoti hai aur usaka man 5.94 kalari/gram paramanu ´ digri sen. hota hai. shighr hi prayogon dvara yah siddh hua ki halke tatv-karban, boran aur silikan-is niyam ke apavad hain. poorvavarnit narnsh‌t ke prayogon se yah gyat hua ki tap kam hone par yah niyam kisi bhi thos par lagoo nahin hota aur tap ghatane par sab tatvon ki paramanviy ushma ghatati jati hai, yahan tak ki param shoony ke nikat lagabhag shoony ho jati hai.

kisi samuday ki oorja ke vynjak men jitane varg (skveyar) pad ate hain unaki snkhya us samuday ki svatntrata snkhya (digriz aauv phridam) kahalati hai. ekaparamanuk adarsh gaison men yah snkhya3 prati anu aur thos tatvon men yah 6 prati paramanu hoti hai. maiksavel-bolzaman ki sankhyiki ke anusar thos padarthon ki ausat ushmik oorja

shh(jh/ai)pashh shbo pa. = = kT

prati svatntrata snkhya hoti hai. yahan ai (N) evegaidro snkhya hai aur yah gram-paramanu men paramanuon ki snkhya ke barabar hoti hai. bo (K) bolzaman niyatank hai. at: ai (N) paramanuon ki oorja

oo = 6´½ jh pa =3 jh pa [E= 6´ RT = 3RT]

aur via= taoo/tapa =3jh =3´1.98=5.94 kalari.

Cv= de/dt=3 R= 3 ´ 1.98= 5.94 Calories

is prakar dayoolaaun aur petit ka siddhant siddh ho jata hai.

nimn tap par poorvokt niyam ki viphalata ko ainstain ne 1907 men plank ke kvantam siddhant ke adhar par samajhane ka prayas kiya. is siddhant ke anusar koee bhi s (v) avrittivala dolak oorja ka shoshan athava utsarjan keval pl s (hv) bndalon arthath‌ kvantamon men hi karata hai. pl (h) ko plank niyatank kahate hain aur isaka man 6.6´10-27 arg seknd hota hai. is siddhant se yah siddh hota hai ki paramanviy dolakon ki ushmik oorja

pl s/ (ee pl s/ bo pa -1) [hv/ (e hv/kt-1)]

prati svatntrata snkhya athava

pl s/ (ee pl s/bo pa-1)[hv/ (e hv/kt-1)]

pratidolak hoti hai. ainstain ne sab paramanuon ki avrittiyan ek hi manakar paramanviy ushma ki ganana ki aur prayogik parinamon ko mote roop se samajhaya.

ainstain ne svayn hi svikar kiya tha ki usaka sab paramanu ki ek hi avritti manana uchit nahin tha. dibaee ne snpoorn thos ko avirat (kntinuas) manakar ganana ki ki yah thos kul kitane prakar se dolan kar sakata hai. avirat thos men yah snkhya annt hoti hai aur is karan paramanviy ushma bhi annt hi honi chahie. isase bachane ke lie dibaee ne yah niradhar kalpana ki ki ek vishisht avritti se oopar kisi dolan ki snbhavana nahin. yah avritti aisi hoti hai ki usase nichevali samast avrittiyon ki kul snkhya3 ai (3N) hoti hai. prati avriti ki ausat oorja

pl s/ee pl s/bo pa-1 [hv/e hv/kT-1]

lene aur sab avrittiyon ki oorja ko jodane par tatv ki paramanviy oorja nikal ati hai. isase avakalan (difarensieshan) dvara paramanviy ushma ki ganana kar lete hain.

bahut samay tak dibaee ka siddhant prayogik parinamon ko samajhane men saphal raha, kintu kuchh samay pashchath‌ usaki yarthathata kam ho gee. baaurn ne thos ke manibh svaroop ko dhyan men rakha aur dolan varnakram (spektram) ko aisi avritti par samapt kiya jisake tarngadairghy ka snbndh manibh ki banavat se hai. yah samapti manibh ki banavat par adharit hone ke karan dibaee ki avritti samapti se shreshth hai. baaurn ke siddhant ka blaikamain, kailaramain ityadi ne vikas kiya aur isake dvara prayogik parinamon ki saphalatapoorvak vyakhya ki.

bharatiy vaigyanik chndrashekhar raman ne yah siddhant pratipadit kiya ki kisi bhi ushmik dolan ko snpoorn thos ka dolan manana trutipoorn hai. unake anusar koee bhi ushmik dolan keval kuchh paramanu samuday ka dolan hota hai aur pratyek dolan ka yah roop hota hai ki unamen nikatasth manibh koshikaon (kistral selon) men oorja ki matra barabar hoti hai. vishveshvaradayal ne raman ke siddhant dvara anek thoson ki paramanviy ushma ki ganana ki aur unaka prayogik phalon se mel siddh kiya. siddhantat: bhinn hone par bhi raman aur baaurn ke siddhanton dvara ganana ki huee paramanviy ushma ke man men vishesh antar nahin paya jata.

gaison ki anav ushma ki ganana karane ke lie usako tin bhagon men vibhakt kiya jata hai jinaka snbndh kramanusar saral gati, ghoornan aur dolan se hota hai. yadi kisi gais anu men s (n) paramanu hon to usaki kul svatntrata snkhya3 s (3n) hoti hai jisamen tin saral gati se, do ya tin ghoornan se aur shesh dolan se snbndhit hain. saral gati se utpann anav ushma prati svntatrata snkhya 1/2bo (1/2k) hoti hai. yadi anubhar aur tap bahut kam n hon to yahi prabhav ghoornan ka bhi hota hai, parntu inake kam hone par ghoornan ke prabhav ki kvantam sankhyiki dvara ganana ki jati hai. dolanaka prabhav thoson ke snbndh men varnit ainstain ke siddhant ke anusar kiya jata hai. is snbndh men prayukt dolan avrittiyon ki ganana raman prabhav aur avarakt (inaphra-red) avrittiyon ke adhyayan dvara ki jati hai.

7. ushma ka sthanantaran-padarthon men tin vidhiyon se ushma ka sthanantaran hota hai jinako (1) chalan (kndakshan), (2) snvahan (kanvekshan) aur (3) vikiran (rediyeshan) kahate hain. vikiran men vidyuchchunbakiy tarngon ke roop men ushma ek padarth se doosare ki or yatra karati hai. ye tarngen prakash ki tarngon ke hi saman hoti hain, kintu inaka tarngadairghy bada hota hai. inaka vivaran vikiran shirshak lekh men anyatr diya gaya hai. snvahan men drav athava gais ke garam ansh gatishil hokar ushma ka anyatr vahan karate hain. is vidhi ka upayog pani athava bhap dvara makanon ke garam rakhane men kiya gaya hai. chalan men padarthon ke bhinn khndon men apekshik gati (riletiv moshan) nahin hoti; keval ushma ek kan se doosare men sthanantarit hoti rahati hai.

chalan ke snbndh men yah niyam hai ki ushmasncharan ki dar tapapravanatashh (tenparechar gredient) ki samanupati hoti hai. yadi kisi pattika ki motaee sarvatrashh y (x) sentimitar ho aur usake amane samanevali satahon ka kshetraphal ksh (A) varg sentimitar or unake tap kramanusar p1 aur p2 (t1 and t2) digri sen. hon to unake bich ek seknd men sncharit honevali ushma ki matra ma (Q) nimnalikhit sootr se milegi:

ma = shcha ksh .shshshshshh

shh is sootr ke niyatank cha (K) ko padarth ki ushma chalakata kahate hain. yah sootr usi samay lagoo hota hai jab ushmasncharan dhir (stedi) aur satahon ke abhilnbavath‌ ho. aisi avastha men satahon ke samantar bich ki tahon men ushma ke pravah ki dar ek hi hoti hai. aisa n hone par kuchh ushma tapavriddhi men bhi vyay hoti hai jisaki dar ek any visaranata (difiziviti) namak gunank par nirbhar rahati hai jo cha/gh vi (K/pS) ke barabar hoti hai. gh (p) ghanatv aur vi (S) vishisht ushma hai.

dhatuon ki ushmik chalakata bahut adhik hoti hai. inake snbndh men bidamain-phraij ka niyam bahut mahatvapoorn hai. isake anusar ek hi tap par sab dhatuon ki ushmik aur vidyutiy chalakata ka anupat ek hi hota hai.

8. ushmagatiki-jool ke prayogon ne yah siddh kiya ki ushma oorja ka hi ek roop hai aur vah apani matra ke anupat men hi kam kar sakati hai. isishh ko ushmagati ka pratham niyam kahate hain. isake anusar bina lagatar eedhnn jalae kisi ushmik injan se nirntar kam nahin liya ja sakata. kintu ushma ki matra to charon or annt hai aur isalie yah snbhavana ho sakati hai ki ham charon or ke padarthon ki ushma nikalakar usako kam men parivartit karate rahen aur is prakar bina vyay ke injan chala saken. anubhav yah batalaya hai ki aisa hona snbhav nahin aur yahi doosare niyam ka vishay hai.

yah niyam un parivartanon par lagoo hota hai jinamen ek chakr (saikil) ke uparant samuday pun: apane mool roop men a jata hai. isaka yah arth hai ki ham keval aise parivartanon par vichar karenge jinamen ushma karm men parivartit hoti hai aur isake atirikt koee any parivartan nahin hota. is niyam ke anusar yadi koee padarth aur usake pariparshv sab ek hi tap par hon to unaki ushma ko kam men nahin badala ja sakata. aisa karane ke lie kam se kam do bhinn tapavale padarthon ki avashyakata hoti hai aur unase tap ke antar ke karan hi kam karane ke lie ushma prapt ho sakati hai. is niyam ke mool men yah tathy hai ki anuon ki ushmik gati aniyamit hoti hai aur injan ke pistan ki suniyamit. jaise tash ke patton ko barnbar phentakar unaka niyamit vinyas karana asnbhav sa hi hai, aise hi anuon ki aniyamit ushmik gati ka bhi svat: pistan ki niyamit gati men parivartit hona atidushkar hai. injan jo bhi ushma kam men parivartit karate hain usaka karan yah hai ki isake sath hi sath unamen karm karanevale padarth kuchh ushma bhatthi se snghanitr (kndensar) men sthanantaritashh kar dete hain. is karan isaki anavik gati ki aniyamitata badh jati hai aur kul samuday ki aniyamitata ka hhras nahin hota.

acharyon ne ushmagatiki ke doosare niyam ke anek roop die hain jo moolat: ek hi hain, jaise:

aise ushmik injan ka nirman karana snbhav nahin jo poore chakr men kam karate hue keval ek hi pind se ushma grahan kare aur kam karanevale samuday men bina parivartan lae us snpoorn ushma ko kam men badal de (plank-kelvin).

bina bahari sahayata ke koee bhi svat: kam karanevali mashin ushma ko nimnatapiy pind se uchchatapiy men nahin le ja sakati, arthath‌ ushma thnde pind se garam men svat: nahin ja sakati (klazius).

karno ne, jo ushma ke asali svaroop se anabhigy tha, ek adarsh injan ki kalpana karake usaki dakshata (efishensi) ki ganana ki. isaka injan poornaroopen utkramaniy (rivarsibil) hai. isaka yah abhipray hai ki kisi samuday ki karyapranali ulat dene par usake samast karyon ki disha bhi ulat jati hai, arthath‌ yadi sidhi vidhi men ushma shoshit hoti hai to viparit vidhi men utani hi matra utsarjit hogi aur yadi sidhi vidhi men utsarjit huee to viparit vidhi men utani hi shoshit hoti hai. utkramaniy parivartan ve hi hote hain jinamen nirntar samyavastha (eekvilibriyam) rahati hai.

karno ke injan ka vivaran dene se poorv yah batalana avashyak hai ki jin parivartanon men bahari ushma ka avagaman nahin hota unako sthiroshm (aidiyabaitik) kahate hain. inake karan yadi ayatan men vriddhi hoti hai to dab ke viparit kam karane ke karan samuday thnda ho jata hai aur isake viparit ayatan men kami hone se samuday garam ho jata hai. yadi bahari ushma ke snpark se samuday ka tap sthir rahe to parivartan ko samatapiy (aisotharmal) kahate hain.

karno ke injan men aise silindar ki kalpana ki gee hain jisamen koee adarsh gais bhari hoti hai aur jisaki divaron aur pistan men se ushma ka

Karno-enginepart.jpg


chalan nahin ho sakata. kintu usaki pendi poornataya chalak hoti hai. isake sath ek topi bhi hoti hai jo pendi par thik baith sakati hai aur divaron ki tarah poornataya prithakkari (inasuletar) hoti hai. ek tap pa1 (T1) ki bhatthi aur tap pa2 (T2) ke snghanitr ki bhi vyavastha rahati hai. ye avayav chitr 1 men pradarshit hain.

kanon ka chakr nimnalikhit kriyaon dvara poora kiya jata hai:

(k) silindar ko bhatthi 5 par baitha diya jata hai aur pistan ko dhire dhire bahar khinchate jate hain jisase gais aur bhatthi ka tap nirntar barabar pa1 (T1) rahata hain. yah kriya samatapiy hai. gais ki prarnbhik sthiti chitr (2) ke bindu k (A) se prakat hai aur vah samataparekha k kh (AB) se hoti huee ant men sthiti kh (B) men pahunch jati hai. is kriya men tap sthir rakhane ke lie gais bhatthi se ushma ma1 (Q1) leti hai aur chitr ke kshetraphal k kh kh¢k¢ (A B B¢ A¢) ke barabar pistan par kam karati hai.

2Karno-engine-part.jpg

chitr 2. karno injan ka soochak chitr

(kh) ab silindar ka bhatthi se snpark todakar usaki pendi par topi baitha di jati hai. pistan ab bhi dhire-dhire bahar khinchata jata hai. ushmaprithakkaran (hit insuleshan) hone ke karan yah kriya sthiroshm hai aur gais kh (B) se sthiroshm rekha kh g (B C) par hoti huee sthiti g (C) par pahunch jati hai. ab tap pa1 (T1) se girakar pa2 (T2) ho jata hai aur gais pistan par kh g g¢ kh¢ (B C C¢ B¢) kam karati hai.

(g) ab topi hatakar silindar ko snghanitr tap pa2 (T2) par baitha diya jata hai. pistan dhire-dhire bhitar ki or jata hai. aur gais samatapiy-rekha g gh (C D) se hokar bindu gh (D) par pahunch jati hai. is vidhi men gaisashh ma2 (Q2) ushma snghanitr ko deti hai aur pistan usapar g g¢ gh¢ gh (C C¢D¢D) kam karata hai.

(gh) snghanitr se silindar ko hatakar usapar pun: topi baitha di jati hai. pistan dhire-dhire andar ki or jata hai aur gais sthiroshm marg gh k (DA) seshh hokar adi sthan shk (A) pahunchati hai. pistan gais par kary gh gh¢ k¢ k (D D¢A¢A) karata hai aur gais ka tap badhakar pun: pa1 (T1) ho jata hai. is prakar karno ka chakr poorn hota hai. isake parinam ye hote hain:

(1) gais dvara kie hue kam men se usapar hue kam ko ghatakar kul chakr men k kh g gh (A B C D) ke barabar kam hota hai.

(2) bhatthi gais ko ushma ma1(Q1) deti hai jisamen se vah snghanitr ko ushma ma2 (Q2) dekar shesh ko shk kh g gh (A B C D) kary karane men vyay karati hai.

is chakr ki samast kriyaen samyavastha men hone ke karan utkramaniy (rivarsibil) hain. isaki

shh shshshshshshshshshh

shshshshshh shshshshshshshshshshshshshh shdakshata = prapt kam shshshshh shshshshh

bhatthi se prapt ushmashh shshshshshh

karno ne siddh kiya ki kisi bhi injan ki dakshata utkramaniy injan se adhik nahin ho sakati aur silindar ke bhitar koee bhi padarth kyon n kam kare, samast utkramaniy injanon ki dakshata ek hi hoti hai. isi ko karno pramey kahate hain. karno ke praman ka adhar yah hai ki yadi koee any injan utkramaniy injan se adhik daksh ho to in donon ko uchit roop se jodakar kam tapavale snghanitr se bina any parivartan kie ushma nikalakar kam karana snbhav ho sakata hai. yah ushmagatiki ke dvitiy niyam ke anusar snbhav nahin.[1]

9. param tapakram-(aibsolyoot skel aauv tenparechar)-karno injan ki dakshata usake silindar men bhare hue padarth aur usaki avastha par ashrit nahin hoti aur keval bhatthi tatha snghanitr ke tapon par nirbhar rahati hai. is karan lard kelvin ne sujhav diya ki isi ko tapamapan ka adhar banana uchit hoga. is navin mapakram men bhatthi se karno injan dvara shoshit ushma ma1 (Q1)aur snghanitr ko di huee ushma ma2 (Q2) in donon ka anupat unake tap th1 (q1) aur th2 (q2) ke anutap ke barabar hota hai. arthath‌

ma1/ma2 th/1 th3

Q1 Q2 q1/q2

yadi bhatthi shuddh pani ke kvathanank par aur snghanitr himank par ho to un donon ke tapon ka antar 1000 param mana jata hai, arthath‌

ma1(kvathanank)shshshshshshshshh th0Q+100shshshshshshh Q1 (kvathanank)shshshshshshshshshh q0+ 100


shshshshshshh =shshshshshshh ----------------.shshshshshshshshshshshshshh --------------------shshshshshh =shshshshshshshshshshshshshh ----------

ma2 (himank)shshshshshshshshshshshshshh thashshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshshh Q2 (himank)shshshshshshshshshshshshshh q0

yahan par th0 (q0) param mapakram men himank ka man hai. yadi ma2 (Q2)shoony ho to th0 (q0) bhi shoony hota hai. isi ko param shoony (aibsolyoot ziro) kahate hain. tap par snghanitr ko rakhane se bhatthi ki snpoorn ushma kam karane men vyay hogi at: yah spasht hai ki isase nimn tap snbhav nahin ho sakata. antarrashtriy nishchay ke anusar ab keval himank ko 273.160° manakar hi param digri ka man nirdharit kiya jata hai.

karno ka injan adarsh matr hai, vyavaharik nahin. at: yah mapakram bhi vyavaharik nahin ho sakata. parntu siddhantanusar adarsh gaison ke mapakram ka tap poorvokt ushmagatiki athava param paimane ke tap ke barabar hota hai, at: adarsh gais mapakram ko kam men laya jata hai. kintu isaki pramanikata ushmagatiki mapakram par hi adharit hai.

adhik janakari ke lie ushmagatiki shirshak lekh dekhen.[2]




panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 150-56 |
  2. sn.grn.-je.si.maiksavel : thyori aauv hit, 11van snskaran, 1894; pi.es. epstain : tharmodayanamiks (1937); ar.ech. faular aur ee.e. gugenahaim : staitistikal tharmodayanamiks (1937); je. jins : d dayanaimikal thyori aauv gaisez (1921); saha aur shrivastav : hit. is snbndh men agralikhit lekh bhi is vishvakosh men dr. : ushmagatiki, ushmamiti, ushmayan, oorja, kvantam yantriki, kvantam sankhyiki, tapaman, tapavidyuth‌, vashpayan, vikiran.

snbndhit lekh

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