अतिचालकता  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

atichalakata se abhipray hai ki "kuchh vishisht dashaon men dhatuon ki vaidyut chalakata itani adhik badh jati hai ki vah samany vidyutiy niyamon ka palan nahin karati. is chalakata ko hi atichalakata kahate hain."

kemaraling ons ki khoj

jab koee dhatu kisi upayukt akar men, jaise- belan athava tar ke roop men li jati hai, tab vah vidyut ke pravah men kuchh n kuchh pratirodh avashy utpann karati hai. kintu sarvapratham san 1911 men kemaraling ons ne ek sanasanipoorn khoj ki ki yadi pare ko 4 digri (param tap) ke niche thndha kar diya jae to usaka vidyutiy pratirodh akasmath‌ nasht hokar vah poorn soochalak ban jata hai. lagabhag 20 dhatuon men, jinamen ranga, para, sisa ityadi pramukh hain, yah gun paya jata hai. jis tap ke niche yah dasha prapt hoti hai, us tap ko snkraman tap kahate hain aur is dasha ki chalakata ko atichalakata. snkraman tap n keval bhinn-bhinn dhatuon ke lie prithak-prithakh hote hain, apitu ek hi dhatu ke vibhinn samasthanikon ke lie bhi vibhinn hote hain. pailediyam aintimani jaise kee mishr dhatuon men bhi atichalakata gun paya jata hai. snkraman tap ko sadharanat tas se soochit kiya jata hai.[1]

maisanar prabhav

paramanu men ilektraaun andakar path men parikrama karate hain aur is drishti se ve chunbak jaisa kary karate hain. bahari chunbakiy kshetr se in chunbakon ka achoorn kam ho jata hai. doosare shabdon men, paramanu visham chunbakiy prabhav dikhate hain. yadi tap tas kisi padarth ko upayukt chunbakiy kshetr men rakha jae to us suchalak ka antarik chunbakiy kshetr nasht ho jata hai, arthath‌ vah ek visham chunbakiy padarth jaisa kary karane lagata hai. talaprishth par bahane vali vidyut dharaon ke karan antarik kshetr ka man shoony hi rahata hai. ise 'maisanar ka prabhav' kahate hain. yadi atichalak padarth ko dhire-dhire badhane vale chunbakiy kshetr men rakha jae to kshetr ke ek vishesh man par, jise 'dehali man'[2] kahate hain, isaka pratirodh pun apane poorv man ke barabar ho jata hai.

atichalak padarth

atichalak padarth chunbakiy parilakshan ka bhi prabhav pradarshit karate hain. in sabaka tap-vaidyut-bal shoony hota hai aur tamasan-gunank barabar hota hai. snkraman tap par inaki vishisht ushma men bhi akasmath‌ parivartan ho jata hai. yah vishesh ullekhaniy hai ki jin paramanuon men bahh‌y ilektraaunon ki snkhya 5 athava 7 hai, unamen snkraman tap uchchatam hota hai aur atichalakata ka gun bhi utkrisht hota hai.[1]

siddhant

atichalakata ke siddhant ko samajhane ke lie kee sujhav die ge hain. kintu inamen se adhikansh ko keval anshik saphalata hi prapt huee hai. vartaman kal men bardin, koopar tatha shriphar dvara diya gaya siddhant paryapt sntoshaprad hai. isaka snkshipt nam vi.si.es. siddhant hai. isake anusar atichalakata chalak ilektraaunon ke yugman se utpann hoti hai. yah yugman ilektraaunon ke bich akarshak bal utpann ho jane se paida hota hai. akarshak bal utpann hone ka mukhy karan phonan ya jalak kapanon[3] ka abhasi vinimay[4] hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 atichalakata (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 17 march, 2015.
  2. throshold vailyoo
  3. laitis vaibreshan
  4. varachual eksachenj

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