तुला और मान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

paramparik tarajoo

tula aur man dravyaman mapane ka upakaran hai. bhar ki sadrishata ka gyan karane vale upakaran ko tula kahate hain. mahatvapoorn vyaparik upakaran ke roop men isaka vyavahar pragaitihasik sindh men eesa poorv tin sahasrabdi ke pahale se hi prachalit tha. prachin tula ke jo bhi udaharan yahan se milate hain, unase yahi gyat hota hai, ki us samay tula ka upayog kimati vastuon ke taulane men hi hota tha. palade pray: do hote the, jinamen tin chhed banakar aj hi ki tarah doriyan nikal kar dndi se bandh die jate the. jis dndi men palade jhulae jate the, vah kanse ki hoti thi, tatha palade pray: tanbe ke hote the. snbhavat: rigved ki richaon men tula shabd ka prayog nahin hai. vajasaneyi snhita [1] men 'hiranyakar tula' ka nirdesh hai. shatapath brahman [2] men bhi tula ke prasng hain. is grnth men tula ka 'divy praman' ke roop men bhi ullekh hain. vasishth dharmasootr [3]men tula ko grihasthi ka pramukh ang mana gaya hai. apastnb dharmasootr [4] men dandi marana samajik aparadh mana gaya hai. dighanikay (lakkhan sutt) men dandi marana 'mithya jiv' ki koti men kaha gaya hai. apramanik tula ko koot tula kahate the. kautily ki vyavastha ke anusar rajy ki or se vyapariyon ke tula aur man ki janch prati chauthe mas honi chahie, [5]. manu ke anusar yah parikshan-avadhi chhah mas honi chahie [6]. yagyvalky ke mat se dandi marana bhari aparadh tha jisake liye uttam sahas dnd (pranadnd) dena chahie [7].[8]

tula ke prakar

kautily ne arthashastr men 16 prakar ki tulaon ka ullekh kiya hai [9]. in shodash tula prakaron men das prakar ki tulaen aisi thin, jinaka upayog sadharan bhar ki vastuon ke taulane men hota tha. in sabhi tulaon men aj ki hi tarah do palade hote the. sabase chhoti tula chhah angul tatha ek pal vajan ki hoti thi. taduparant any nau prakar ki tulaon ki dndiyon ki lnbaee kramash: ath angul aur vajan ek-ek pal badhata jata tha. shesh chhah prakar ki tulaon ka upayog bhari vajan ki vastuon ke taulane men hota tha, jinhen samavritt, parimani, vyavahariki, bhajani aur ant:purabhajani tula kahate the.

prachin 'man' athava 'tulaman' batakharon ke bodhak hain. sindhu ghati se bahut se batakhare prapt hue hain. in batakharon ka akar aur bhar paddhati mesopotamiya aur misr se prapt batakharon se milati julati hai, kintu inake adhar par yah nahin kaha ja sakata ki bharatiy batakharon ki utpatti abharatiy hai.

akar

prarnbh men batakharon ke akar chaukor hote the, kintu kalantar men gol hone lage. sindhu ghati yug men batakharon ke liye patthar rajasthan se prapt kie jate the. kautily ke anusar batakharon ke banane ke liye lohe ka upayog karana chahie. patthar ke magadh ya mekal desh ke hon [10]. chhote manon ke liye raktika, gunja ya mnjith ka bhi upayog hota tha, jinhen 'tulabij' kahate the.[8]

man-paddhatiyan

prachin bharat men man ki kee paddhatiyan prachalit thin. pragaitihasik yug ke batakharon ka anupatik snbndh dahaee paddhati par tha. isaka anupat (kuchh apavadon ko chhodakar) 1, 2, 1/3, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 160, 320, 640, 1600, 3200, 8000, 128000 ka tha. in baton ki sabase chhoti ikaee 0.2565 gram siddh huee hai.

manu aur yagyvalky ne prachin bharat men prachalit jin man-paddhatiyon ka varnan diya hai usaki rooparekha is prakar hai:

8 trisarenu = 1 liksha; 3 liksha = 1 rajasarshap;

4 rajasarshap = 1 gaur sarshap; 2 gaur sarshap = 1 yavamadhy

3 yavamadhy = 1 krishnal; 5 krishnal = 1 suvarnamash

16 suvarnamash = 1 suvarn; 4 suvarn = 1 pal

trisarenu aur liksha snbhavat: kalpanik man the. rajasarshap, gaurasarshap, yav aur krishnal vastavik man the, jinaka vyavahar suvarn jaisi kimati chijon ko taulane men hota tha. manu ke anusar 10 pal ka ek dharan hota tha. chandi ke liye ek bhinn man bhi tha, jisaka vivaran is prakar hai:[8]

2 krishnal = raupyamash

16 raupyamash = 1 dharan

10 dharan = 1 pal

jaise 4 suvarn ka 1 pal hota tha, usi prakar 4 karsh ka bhi ek pal mana gaya hai. manu ke hisab se 1 karsh 80 ratti ka hota tha. charakasnhita men karsh ke adhar par baton ka viran is prakar diya hai --

4 karsh = 1 pal; 2 pal = 1 prasriti

2 prasriti = 1 kudav; 4 kudav = 1 prasth

4 prasth = 1 adhak; 4 adhak = 1 dron

charak ki manapaddhati men dronabhar 1024 tole athava 12 4/5 ser hota tha. kintu arthashastr ke anusar dron 800 tole athava 10 ser ka hi hota tha. vaise charak aur arthashastr ki manapaddhati ek hi hai. antar keval kudav ke vajan ke karan tha. arthashastr ka kudav 50 tole ka aur charak ka kudav 256 tole ka tha.[8]

kautily ne dron se bhari baton ka bhi ullekh kiya hai. inaka vivaran is prakar hai--

16 dron = 1 khari = 4 man

20 dron = 1 kunbh = 5 man

10 kunbh = 1 vatt = 50 man

hiron ki taul men tnddul aur vajradharan manon ka upayog hota tha. 20 tnddal ka 1 vajradharan hota tha.

bhoomimap ke liye athava doori aur lnbaee napane ke liye sabase chhoti ikaee angul thi. shastron men, visheshataya arthashastr [11] men, angul se bhi niche ke pariman die hain.[8]

mapan yntr

8 paramanu = 1 ratharenu; 8 ratharenu = 1 liksha;

8 liksha = 1 yookamadhy; 8 yookamadhy = 1 yavamadhy;

8 yavamadhy = 1 angul;

angul ke bad ki ikaiyon ka vivaran is prakar hai --

4 angul = 1 dhanurgrah

8 angul = 1 dhanurmushti

12 angul = 1 vitasti athava 1 chhayapurush

14 angul = 1 sham ya shal ya 1 parirath ya 1 pad

2 vitasti athava 24 angul = 1 araratni ya 1 prajapaty hast (is prajapaty hast ka vyavahar mukhyataya bhoomi napane men hota tha) 192 = 1 dnd; 10 dnd = 1 rajju

2 rajju = 1 paridesh; 3 rajju = 1 nivartan

1000 dhanush = 1 gorut, 4 gorut = 1 yojan

prachin bharat ke in manon ka prachalan tatha prabhav poorvamadhyakalin aur madhyakalin arthik jivan par bhi prachur raha, yadyapi anupatik snbndhon aur namon par pradesh aur shasan bhed ka bhi prabhav pada. shridhar ke 'ganitasar' men poorvamadhyakalin man paddhati ka vivaran is prakar hai-- [8] 4 pavala = 1 pali; 4 pali = 1 mada (mana)

4 mada = 1 seee; 12 mada = 1 padak

4 padak = 1 hari; 4 hari = 1 mani

madhyakal men taul ke snbndh men ratti, masha, tola, chhatank, ser tatha man ka ullekh milata hai. isaki man paddhati is prakar thi--

8 ratti = 1 masha; 12 masha = 1 tola

5 tola = 1 chhatank; 4 chhatank = 1 pav

4 pav athava 16 chhatank = 1 ser; 40 ser = 1 man

samanyataya 1 man = 40 ser hota tha. 1 ser ki taul abulaphajal ke anusar 18 dam thi. damavala ser prachin 1 prasth se tulaniy hai. akabar ne ser ka man 28 dam kar diya tha. akabar ka ilahi dam lagabh 322.7 gren ke barabar tha. is prakar usake 28 damavala man 51.63 paund lagabhag 25.. ser ke barabar tha. jahangir ka man (man e jahangiri) 36 dam arthath‌ 66.38 paund tha. shahajahan ne ser ke moolabhoot man men parivartan kiya. usaka ser (sere shahajahani) 1 dam ke barabar hota tha. isi sere shahajahani ka nam aurngazeb ke kal men 'alamagiri' pada. is kal men 1 man 43 ya 44 dam athava 'alamagiri' ka hota tha.[8]

bhoomi napane ke liye akabar ke kal men bigha-e-ilahi prachalit tha, jo 3/4 ekad ke barabar tha. shahajahan tatha aurngajeb ke kal men bigha-u-daphtari prachalit hua jo bigh-e-ilahi ka 3/5 arthath‌ 0.59 ekad hota tha.

rooparekha

snprati bharat men dashamalaviy man paddhati prachalit hai jisaki rooparekha is prakar hai --

lnbaee napane ke liye

10 milimitar = 1 senti mitar; 10 senti mitar = 1 desi mitar;

10 desi mitar = 1 mitar (39.37 inch); 10 mitar = 1 deka mitar;

10 deka mitar = 1 hekto mitar; 10 hekto mitar (= 5/8 mil) = 1 kilo mitar;

bhar ke liye

10 miligram = 1 senti gram; 10 senti gram = 1 desi gram;

10 desi gram = 1 gram; 10 gram = 1 deka gram;

10 deka gram = 1 hekto gram; 10 hekto gram = 1 kilogram (lagabhag 1 ser 7 tola);

100 kilogram = 1 kvintal; 10 + kvintal athava 1000 kilogram = 1 mitariy tan

ghanatv ke liye

10 mili litar = 1 senti litar; 10 senti litar = 1 desi litar;

10 desi litar = 1 litar; 10 litar = 1 deka litar

10 deka litar = 1 hektalitar; 10 hektolitar = 1 kilo litar;


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. (30.17)
  2. (11.2.7.33)
  3. (11..23)
  4. (2.6.19)
  5. (arthashastr 2.19.51)
  6. (manusmriti 8.403)
  7. (2.240)
  8. 8.0 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 8.6 tula aur man (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 07 agast, 2015.
  9. (2.37.12)
  10. (arthashastr 2.19.11)
  11. (2.20.2-6)

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