अंतरिक्ष किरणें  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

antariksh kiranen prithvi ke vayumndal ke bahar (antariksh) se ati hain. in kiranon ke adhikansh bhagon men atyadhik oorja vale protaaun hote hain. isake atirikt kuchh alpha kan hote hain. ukt kiranen antariksh men utpann hoti hain, isalie inaka nam antariksh kiran rakh diya gaya.[1]

vibhajan

antariksh kiranen prithvi ke vayumndal men vibhinn gaison ke nabhikon (nyookliyas) se takarati hain, jisase any aveshit kanikaen[2] tatha bahut adhik oorja vali gama kiranen utpann hoti hain. is prakar antariksh kiranen do bhagon men banti ja sakati hain-

  1. prathamik antariksh kiranen
  2. dvitiyak antariksh kiranen

prathamik antariksh kiranen

prathamik antariksh kiranen bahar se prithvi ke vayumndal tak ati hain. jaisa pahale bataya gaya hai, ye kiranen protaaun aur alpha kan hoti hain.

dvitiyak antariksh kiranen

dvitiyak antariksh kiranen prathamik antariksh kiranen prithvi ke vayumndal men gaison ke nabhikon se takarati hain to ukt nabhikon ka vighatan ho jata hai. inake vighatan se bahut se protaaun, nyootraaun tatha gama kiranen nikalati hain. isake atirikt kuchh kanikaen bhi utpann hoti hain jinhen mesan kaha jata hai.

utpatti

antariksh ki kiranon ki utpatti ke snbndh men abhi koee nishchit siddhant nahin diya ja saka hai. vaigyanikon ka vichar hai ki ye aveshit kan akash gnga men hi utpann hote hain. inaki oorja itani adhik kaise ho jati hai. kuchh vaigyanikon ki ray hai ki soory ke charon or chunbakiy kshetr hai jisamen parivartan hota rahata hai. is paravarti chunbakiy kshetr men aveshit kan bita traaun ke siddhant ke anusar tvarit ho jate hain. any vaigyanik manate hain ki parivarti chunbakiy kshetr poori akash gnga men vyapt hai jahan kanon ka tvaran hota hai. milikan ke anusar antariksh kiranon ki utpatti ka karan antastarakiy akash men dravy ka nasht hona hai. milikan ki is kalpana ne antariksh kiranon ke adhyayan ki aur adhik protsahan diya.[1]

chhedan shakti

prarnbh men aisi dharana thi ki antariksh kiranen bahut chhoti tarng dairdhy vali keval gama kiranen hi hain, jinaki chhedan shakti atyadhik hai. chhedan shakti men in nee kiranon ki tulana doosari gyat vikiranon se nimnankit prakar se ki ja sakati hai-

sadharan prakash ki chhedan shakti

sadharan prakash aparadarshi padarthon ki keval mahin chadar ka, jaise kagaj ke vark ka athava usase kahin adhik mahin dhatu ke avaran ka chhedan kar sakata hai. isaki apeksha eks rashmiyon ki chhedan shakti itani adhik hoti hai ki ve hamare hath athava sare sharir se bhi hokar nikal sakati hain, jisake phalasvaroop shaly chikitsak hamari haddiyon ka photo le sakata hai. kintu kuchh hi mili mitar moti dhatu in eks rashmiyon ko poornataya rok sakata hai. gama kiranen kuchh senti mitar moti dhatu ka chhedan kar sakati hain. yah naya vikiran kee mitar mote sise (dhatu) ka chhedan kar sakata hai aur pani ki ek hajar mitar gaharaee tak ghus sakata hai.

prakriti v akshansh prabhav

antariksh kiranon ki prakriti ke bare men janakari akshansh prabhav se prapt huee. isaka avishkar kle ne 1927 ee. men aur usake bad aur adhik gahanata se kanpatan ne kiya tha. akshansh prabhav ki vyakhya ham is tarah kar sakate hain ki antariksh kiranon ke prathamik kan avesh yukt kan hain jo kee hajar mil tak akash men phaile hue prithvi ke chunbakatv kshetr se prabhavit hue hain. jitani kam in kanon ki oorja hoti hai utana hi adhik unake path chap ke roop men jhuk jate hain. antariksh kiranon ki tivrata bhoomadhyarekha par sabase kam hai aur dhruvon ki or badhati jati hai. samudr tal ki apeksha akshansh prabhav oonchaee par bahut adhik hota hai. jaise hi antariksh kiranon ke kan prithvi ke vayumndal men pravesh karate hain, vaise hi hava ke nabhikon ke sath unaki parasparik kriya hoti hai, jisake phalasvaroop anek prakar ke mool kan paida ho jate hain. inamen se kuchh kan aise hote hain jo any kisi riti se prakriti men utpann nahin hote. ye kan rediyamadharmi hote hain, jinamen se kuchh 10-6 sekend men samapt ho jate hain aur kuchh 10-1 athava 10-14 sekend men.

avesh yukt kan

antariksh kiranon ke bare men aur bhi adhik janakari 1927 ee. men skobeltazain ne ki, jab usane ek meghakaksh men uchch oorja vale avesh kanon ke urdhvadhar path chihn dekhe. 1928 men bote aur kol hoyarstar ne antariksh kiranon ke anusndhan ki ek nee riti apanaee, jisamen kee gaigar-myular-ganak ek sath snbaddh rahate the. is prayog dvara unhonne siddh kiya ki antariksh kiranen avesh yukt kan hain.

vayumndal men pravesh karane par kriyaen

vayumndal men antariksh kiranon ke pravesh karane par jo kriyaen hoti hain, unaka samany roop spasht hai. vayumndal ki oopari tahon men prathamik antariksh kiranon ke protaaun aur adhik bhari nabhikon ka avashoshan ho jata hai, jisake phalasvaroop dvitiyak protaaun aur nyootraaun, paee-mesan aur adhik bhari mesan banate hain. avesh rahit paee-mesan ke vighatan (disosieshan) se prakash ke do kvantam banate hain, jinase ghanatmak aur rinatmak ilektraaun paida hote hain. jaise hi ye ilektran nabhikon ke pas pahunchate hain, ye photan ban jate hain aur is prakar yah kriya badhati jati hai. ilektranon aur photano ke komal ghatak[3] ki tivrata pahale vayumndal men gaharaee ke sath teji se badhati hai aur phir, jaise-jaise in bauchhar paida karane vale kanon ka avashoshan hota hai, ghatati hai. samudr tal ke pas komal ghatak ke is ansh ki tivrata bahut kam ho jati hai.

aveshayukt paee-mesanon ke vighatan se myoo-mesan banate hain. myoomesan ki nabhikon ke sath adhik kriya pratikriya nahin hoti. nabhikon ke sath atynt durbal kriya pratikriya ke parinam svaroop unamen bahut adhik bhedan shakti dikhaee padati hai. ve prithvi men badi gaharaee tak pravesh kar sakate hain. at: ve antariksh kiranon ke tivr ghatak hote hain. myoo-mesan nasht hone par ilektraaun utpann karate hain. takarane se bhi ilektraaun paida hote hain. samudr tal ke pas ye ilektran tatha inake dvara utpann huee ilektraaun-photaaun ki bauchharon se komal ghatak ka mukhy ansh banata hai.

tarak

paee-mesan ke karan nabhik vighatit hote hain, jinhen tarak (star) kahate hain. laghu-oorja-pradesh men tarak nyootran ke karan utpann hote hain. atyadhik oorja vale kan badi vayu bauchharen paida karate hain. ek-ek vayu bauchhar men das karod se bhi adhik kan mile hain. kanon ke bich ki doori ek hi vayu bauchhar men hajar mitar se bhi adhik paee gee hai.

kiranon ki tivrata

antariksh kiranon ki tivrata men prekshan sthal par ki paristhitiyon se parivartan hota hai. unaki tivrata vayu ki dab, tap evn prithvi ke chunbakatv kshetr ke sath badalati hai. prekshan sthal ke oopar hava ki motaee aur usaki avashoshan shakti men parivartan ko isaka karan bataya ja sakata hai. antariksh kiranon men samayik parivartan bhi hote hain. jaise, lnbe samay vale parivartan, 27 din vale parivartan, saur samay ke anusar hone vale parivartan, aur bahut kam matra men nakshatr samay ke anusar hone vale parivartan. ye samayik parivartan bahut kam matra men hote hain, pratishat ke keval do-char-dasaven bhag tak. prithvi ke vayumndal ke bahar antariksh kiranon ki tivrata aur samayik parivartanon ke bich snbndh jodane ke lie prekshanon ko tap aur dav ke lie sahi karana padata hai. saur samay ke anusar tivrata men dainik parivartan hone ki khoj bahutere anusndhanakartaon ne ki hai. unake vishv vistrit svaroop ko phorabush ne siddh kiya.

parivartan ki matra, pashchath‌ madhyahn do baje ke asapas, jo adhikatam tivrata ka samay hai, lagabhag 0.2 pratishat hoti hai. tivrata men samayik parivartanon ke atirikt asamayik prabhav bhi hote hain. sabase adhik mahatv vala prabhav chunbakiy toophanon se snbndhit hain, jisake vishv vistrit roop ko phorabush ne antariksh kiranon ki tivrata ka adhyayan karake dikhaya hai. ye vishv vistrit parivartan is mat ka ek aur praman hain ki antariksh kiranon ka utpatti sthan prithvi ke bahar hai. samudr ki satah par antariksh kiranon ki tivrata ke prithvi ke chunbakatv par nirbhar hone ka arth yah hai ki prithvi ke chunbakiy kshetr men parivartanon ke sath antariksh kiranon ki tivrata men parivartan hote hain. antariksh kiranon aur prithvi ke sadharan chunbakiy vicharan (ghat-badh) men koee ghanishth snbndh nahin milata; arthath‌ shant dinon men prithvi ke sadharan chunbakiy prabhav ka antariksh kiranon se koee sarthak snbndh nahin hai.

yah dekha gaya hai ki vishv vistrit antariksh kiranon ki tivrata ka prithvi ke chunbakatv kshetr ke kshaitij ghatak ke parivartanon se ghanishth snbndh hai. chunbakiy toophanon ke samay antariksh kiranon ki tivrata men bahut spasht parivartan hota hai. kuchh chunbakiy toophanon ka prabhav antariksh kiranon ki tivrata par nahin dekha jata, kintu jab kshaitij chunbak bal ek pratishat kam hota hai to antariksh kiranon ki tivrata men sadharanat panch pratishat se adhik kami ho jati hai. antariksh kiranon ke adhyayan se kee maulik kanon (dr., kan maulik) ka pata chala hai. inhin kiranon ke adhyayan se nabhikiy balon ke vishay men bhi janakari mili hai.


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madhyamik
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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 antariksh kiranen (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 19 julaee, 2015.
  2. charjd partikals
  3. component

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