विद्युत्कर्षण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

vidyutkarshan (angrezi: Electric Traction) rel, tram athava any kisi prakar ki gadi ko khinchane ke lie, vidyut shakti ka upayog karane ki vidhi ko kahate hain. is kshetr men, vashp injan tatha any doosare prakar ke injan hi samany roop se prayog kie jate rahe hain. vidyuth‌ shakti ka karshan ke lie prayog sapekshataya navin hai aur mukhyat: pichhale 60 varshon men hi vikasat hua hai. parntu apani vishesh suvidhaon ke karan, isaka prayog badhata ja raha hai aur dhire-dhire any sadhanon ka sthan yah ab leta ja raha hai. vidyutkarshan men niyntran ki suvidha tatha gadiyon ka adhik veg se snchalan ho sakane ke karan utane hi samay men adhik yatayat ki upalabdhi ho sakati hai. sath hi koyala, dhuan athava hanikarak gaison ke n hone se adhik svachchhata rahati hai aur nagar ki ghani abadi vale bhagon men bhi isaka prayog snbhav hai.

vidyut motar

vidyutkarshan tntr men vidyut motaron dvara chalit lokomotiv[1] gadi ko khinchata hai. rel ki lain ke sath oopar men ek vidyut lain hoti hain, jisase chalak gadi ek chalanashil burush dvara snpark karati hai. rel ki lain, nigetiv lain ka kam deti hai aur shoony voltata par hoti hai. isake liye ise achchhi prakar bhoomit[2] bhi kar diya jata hai. is prakar ise chhoone se kisi prakar ki durghatana ki snbhavana nahin rahati. oopari lain ki boltata, prayog ki jane vali motaron evn snbharanatntr par nirbhar karati hai. purane tntron men 600 volt ki voltata sadharanataya prayog ki jati hai yadyapi 1,500 volt evn 3,000 volt bhi ab samany ho ge hain. pichhale kuchh varshon men, uchch voltata tntron ki rachana ki gee hai aur uchch voltata par pravartit hone vale ekapravastha[3] pratyavarti dharatntr ka prayog kiya gaya hai aur ab samanyat: inhin ka prayog hone laga hai. ye samanyat: 16,000 athava 25,000 volt ki veltata par pravartit hote hain.[4]

disht dhara motar

vidyutkarshan ke lie prayog hone vali motaron ko arnbh men adhikatam karshan ainthan[5] ka upalabdh karana avashyak hota hai, kyonki kisi bhi gadi ko khinchane ke lie arnbh men bahut shakti ki avashyakata hoti hai, parntu jaise-jaise veg badhata jata hai, kam shakti ki avashyakata hoti hai. arnbh men adhik ainthan se tvaran[6] shighrata se utpann kiya ja sakata hai. in motaron ko alp samay ke lie atibhar[7] snbhalane ki kshamata bhi honi chahie. in lakshanon ke anusar disht dhara shreni motar[8] sabase adhik upayukt hoti hai tatha samany roop se vyavahar men ati hain, parntu disht dhara motaren samanyat: uchch voltata par pravartan ke lie upayukt nahin hotin aur is karan disht dhara karshanatntr samanyat: 3,000 volt tak ke hi hote hain. disht dhara tntron ki apeksha pr.dha. tntr snbharan adhik samany hene ke karan, karshan men bhi inaka prayog karane ke prayatn barabar kie jate rahe hain.

kuchh vishisht praroop ki disht dhara motaren, lakshan men disht dhara shreni motar ke saman hoti hain. inaki snrachana pichhale 50 varshon se hi shodh ka samany vishay rahi hai aur ab aisi ekapravastha disht dhara motaren banaee gee hain, jinake lakshan disht dhara shreni motaron ke saman karshan ke lie upayukt hon. in pr.dha. motaron ka bhar usi shakti ki disht dhara motaron se kafi kam hoti hai aur ye sapekshataya sasti hoti hain. inaka sabase bada labh inake uchch voltata par pravartan men hai. is karan uchch voltata tntr prayog karana snbhav hai, jisase karshanatntr men paryapt bachat ki ja sakati hai. parntu ye motaren samany shakti avritti[9]par upayukt lakshan nahin de patin. inaka pravartan kam avritti par adhik sntoshaprad hota hai. at: karshan ke lie samanyat:, athava 25 chakriy avritti ka prayog kiya jata hai. is karan inhen samany snbharanatntron se nahin snbharan kiya ja sakata hai. ekapravastha tntr hone ke karan upakendr[10] par pravastha sntulan[11] ki samasya bhi rahati hai. parntu in samasyaon ke upayukt samadhan ho chuke hain aur ab 16,000 aur 25,000 volt ke, shhathava 25 chakriy avritti ke, ekapravastha vale pr.dha. tntr karshan ke lie samany roop se prayog kie jate hain. kahin-kahin donon tntron ki visheshataon ka labh uthane ke lie, snbharan lain [12] uchch voltata pr.dha. ki hoti hai tatha rijukari dvara use roopantarit kar di.dha. motaron ka prayog kiya jata hai.[4]

pr.dha. karshanatntron men bhi, samany tripravastha snbharan se ek pravastha lain lekar, pravastha parivartan[13] dvara use tripravastha tntr men badalakar, tripravastha preran motar [14]prayog karana bhi snbhav hai. is prakar samany motaron ka prayog kiya ja sakata hai aur pravastha sntulan ki samasya ka bhi sahaj samadhan ho sakata hai. vastut: hngari men aise hi karshanatntr ka prayog kiya gaya hai, parntu tripravastha preran motaron ke lakshan karshan ke lie itane upayukt n hone ke karan, yah tntr samany prayog men nahin a saka hai.

prayog

vidyutkarshan ke kshetr men yadyapi briten ka mahatvapoorn sthan hai, tathapi pr.dha. karshanatntr prayog karane men hngari agragany raha hai. yahan isaka prayog sabase pahale 1932 ee. men kiya gaya. isake bad jarmani men 1936 ee. men is tntr ka prayog kiya gaya. frans men ise 1950 ee. men apanaya aur 25,000 volt ke ek pravastha pr.dha. karshanatntr ke vikas men mahatvapoorn yogadan diya. bharat men bhi mukhy rel lainon ke vidyutikaran men bhi yahi tntr prayog kiya ja raha hai. uchch voltata par pravartan karane ke karan, kendron ki snkhya kam ho jati hai aur ve adhik door ho sakate hain. isase bhi tntr men kafi bachat ho sakati hai. uchch voltata ke prayog se vaise hi tar men tatha doosari sajjaon men kafi bachat hoti hai. at: mukhy lainon par ekapravastha uchch voltata pr.dha. tntr ka prayog samany ho gaya hai.[4]

motaron ki niyntran vyavastha

vidyutkarshan ke lie prayog hone vali motaron ki niyntran vyavastha atynt mahatvapoorn hai, kyonki isi ke karan vidyutkarshan tntr itane samany ho sake hain. disht dhara shreni motaron ke lie dram niyntrak[15] prayog kie jate hain, jinamen arnbhan, veganiyntran tatha brekan[16] sabhi ka pravadhan kiya jata hai. sath hi suvidhapoorvak ichchhanusar gadi ko age tatha pichhe chalaya ja sakata hai. ek pravastha pr.dha. motaron men bhi jo niyntrak prayog kie jate hain, ve bhi in sab prayojanon ka pravadhan karate hain. niyntrakon men hi snrakshan yuktiyan[17] bhi lagi hoti hain, jo motar ko atibhar [18]tatha atichal[19] se bacha saken. oopari lain se snpark karane vala snsparsh burush[20] bhi is prakar ke snrachak dvara vyavasthit hota hai ki burush tatha snsparsh tar men saman dab rahe aur veg tatha any kisi karan se snsparsh pratirodh[21] men vicharan n utpann ho.

surngon evn adhik yatayat sthalon par, oopari lain ka prayog karana snbhav nahin ho pata. at: tar ke sthan par ek doosari snsparsh rel ka prayog kiya jata hai jo bhoomi ke niche rahati hai. spashtataya adhik vyay ke karan sabhi sthanon par isaka prayog nahin kiya ja sakata. kahin-kahin snpoorn vidyuth‌ tntr ke sthan par dizal vidyuth‌ lokomotiv[22] ka prayog kiya jata hai, jisamen dizal injan dvara vidyuth‌ utpann karake vidyuth‌ karshan ka labh uthaya jata hai. vidyutkarshan hamare yug ka ek atynt mahatvapoorn sadhan hai, jisaka upayog adhikadhik badhata ja raha hai.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. locomotive
  2. earthed
  3. single phase
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 vidyutkarshan (hindi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 8 sitambar, 2015.
  5. torque
  6. acceleration
  7. overload
  8. D.C. series motor
  9. power frequency
  10. substation
  11. phase balancing
  12. supply line
  13. phase conversion
  14. three phase induction motor
  15. drum controller
  16. braking
  17. protective devices
  18. overload
  19. overspeed
  20. contact brush
  21. contact resistance
  22. diesel electric locomotive

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