अपवर्तन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

jab prakash ki kiranen ek paradarshi madhyam men pravesh karati hai, to donon madhyamon ko alag karane vale tal par abhilambath apati hone par bina mude sidhe nikal jati hai, parantu tirachhi apati hone par ve apani mool disha se vichalit ho jati hai. is ghatana ko prakash ka apavartan kahate hain. jab prakash ki koee kiran viral madhyam se saghan madhyam men pravesh karati hai, to donon madhyamon ke prishth par khinche ge abhilnb ki or jhuk jati hai tatha jab kiran saghan madhyam se viral madhyam men pravesh karati, to vah abhilnb se door hat jati hai, lekin jo kiran abhilnb ke samantar pravesh karati hai, unake path men koee parivartan nahin hota.

apavartan ke niyam

  • apatit kiran, abhilnb tatha apavartit kiran tinon ek hi samatal men sthit hote hain.
  • kinhin do madhyamon ke lie apatan kon ke jya (sine) tatha apavartan kon ke jya ka anupat ek niyatank hota hai. arthath
(niyatank)

niyatank ko pahale madhyam ke sapeksh doosare madhyam ka apavartanank kahate hain. is niyam ko snel ka niyam bhi kahate hain.

  • kisi madhyam ka apavartanank bhinn-bhinn rng ke prakash ke lie bhinn-bhinn hota hai. tarngadairdhy badhane ke sath apavartanank ka man kam ho jata hai. atah lal rng ka apavartanank sabase kam tatha baingani rng ka apavartanank sabase adhik hota hai.
  • tap badhane par bhi samanyatah apavartanank ghatata hai. lekin yah parivartan bahut hi kam hota hai.
  • kisi madhyam ka nirapeksh apavartanank nirvat men prakash ki chal tatha us madhyam men prakash ki chal ke anupat ke barabar hota hai. arthath
nirvat apavartanank = nirvat men prakash ki chal / madhyam men prakash ki chal

apavartanank ke karan ghatit ghatanaen

  • drav men anshatah doobi huee sidhi chhad tedhi dikhaee padati hai.
  • tare timatimate hue dikhaee padate hain.
  • sooryoday ke pahale evn sooryast ke bad bhi soory dikhaee dete hain.
  • pani se bhare kisi bartan ki tali men pada hua sikka oopar utha hua dikhaee padata hai.
  • jal ke andar padi huee machhali vastavik gaharaee se kuchh oopar uthi huee dikhaee padati hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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