मात्रक  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(angrezi:Units) kisi bhautik rashi ko vyakt karane ke lie usi prakar ki rashi ke matrak ki avashyakata hoti hai. pratyek rashi ki map ke lie usi rashi ko koee manak man chun liya jata hai. is manak ko matrak kahate hain. kisi rashi ki map ko prakat karane ke lie do baton ka batana avashyak hai—

  • rashi ka matrak—bhautik rashi jisamen mapi jati hai.
  • ankik man—jisamen rashi ke pariman ko vyakt kiya jata hai. isase yah batana sambhav hota hai ki us rashi men usaka matrak kitani bar prayog kiya gaya hai.

udaharan svaroop yadi tar ki lambaee '3 mitar' hai , to isaka arth yah hai ki lambaee mapane ka matrak 'mitar' hai aur tar ki lambaee chune gaye matrak 'mitar' ki tin guni hai. matrak do prakar ke hote hain.

mool matrak

mool matrak ve matrak hain, jo any matrakon se svatntr hote hain, arthath unako ek–doosare se athava apas men badala nahin ja sakata hai. udaharan ke lie lambaee, samay aur dravyaman ke lie mitar, sekend aur kilogram ka prayog kiya jata hai.

vyutpann matrak

ek athava ek se adhik mool matrakon par upayukt ghaten lagakar prapt kie ge matrakon ko vyutpann matrak kahate hain.

mapane ki antarrashtriy man paddhati ya SI paddhati

bhautik men anek rashiyon ko mapana padata hai aur yadi pratyek bhautik rashi ke lie alag matrak mana jae to matrakon ki snkhya itani adhik ho jaegi ki unako yad rakh sakana asambhav ho jaega. isilie sabhi bhautik rashiyon ko vyakt karane ke lie ek paddhati apanayi gayi hai, jise mool matrakon ki antarrashtriy paddhati athava ise SI paddhati kahate hain. is paddhati ke anusar yantriki men ane vali sabhi rashiyon ko lambaee, dravyaman, v samay ke matrakon men vyakt kar sakate hain. ooshma gati ki, vidyut tatha chumbakatv evn prakashiki men kam ane vali rashiyon ko tap, vidyut dhara v jyoti tivrata ke manakon men vyakt karate hain.

1971 men map aur taul ki antarrashtriy samiti ke dvara padarth ki matra ko mool rashi manate hue mol ko isaka mool matrak nirdharit kiya gaya hai. is prakar sat bhautik rashiyan—

lambaee ke matrak

mitar-kigra.-sekend paddhati men lambaee ka matrak 'mitar' hota hai. yah pletinam–iridiyam mishradhatu ki chhad par 0ºC par bane do chihnon ke bich ki doori ko 'mitar' kaha jata hai. yah chhad peris ke antarrashtriy map taul ke karyalay men rakhi gee hai. 1983 men, map taul ke ek kaaunphrens men 'mitar' ko punah paribhashit kiya gaya. isake anusar 'mitar' vah lambaee hai, jise prakash nirvat men 1/299792457 sekend men tay karata hai. ek any paribhasha ke anusar ek mitar vah doori hai, jisamen shuddh kriptaaun–86 se utsarjit hone vale narngi prakash ki 1,650,763,73 tarngen ati hain.

lambaee ke pramukh matrak
matrak lambaee (mitar men) matrak lambaee (mitar men)

1 teramitar (T)

1012 1 desimitar (d) 10-1
1 gigamitar (G) 109 1 sentimitar (c) 10-2
1 megamitar (M) 106 1 milimitar (m) 10-3
1 miriyamitar 104 1 maikron 10-6
1 kilomitar (K) 103 1 mili maikron m 10-9
1 hektomitar 102 1 engtram (Å) 10-10
1 dekamitar 10 1 pikomitar (p) 10-12
1 X–matrak 10-13
1 pharmimitar (f) 10-15
1 atomitar 10-18

prakash varsh- prakash dvara ek varsh men tay ki gee doori ko ek prakash varsh kahate hain. atah prakash varsh, doori ka matrak hai. prakash dvara nirvat men 1 varsh men chali gee doori 9.46×1015 mitar hoti hai. arthath-

1 prakash varsh=9.46×1015 mitar

khagoliy ikaee- soory v prithvi ke bich ki ausat doori ko ek khagoliy ikaee kahate hain. prithvi aur soory ke bich ausat doori 1.496×1011 mitar hoti hai. arthath-

1 khagoliy ikaee=1.496×1011 mitar

parasek- parasek 'Parallactic second' ka snkshipt roop hai. yah doori ka matrak hai. yah 1 sekend chap ka lamban pradarshit karata hai.

1 parasek=3×1016 mitar

dravyaman ke matrak

S.I. paddhati men dravyaman ka matrak 'kigra.' hai. peris ke pas sevares nagar men antarrashtriy map taul ke karyalay men rakhe pletinam–iridiyam mishr dhatu ke ek belan ka dravyaman 'manak kigra.' mana jata hai.

dravyaman ke matrak
matrak dravyaman
1 teragram 109 kigra
1 jigagram 106 kigra
1 megagram 103 kigra
1 tan 103 kigra
1 kvitnl 102 kigra
1 pikogram 10-15 kigra
1 miligram 10-6 kigra
1 desigram 10-4 kigra
1 slag 10.57 kigra
1 mitrik tan 1000 kigra
1 auns 28.35 gram
1 paund 16 auns (453.52 gram)
1 kigra 2.205 paund
1 kairet 205.3 miligram
1 megagram 1 tan
1 gram 10-3 kigra

samay ke matrak

S.I. paddhati men samay ka matrak 'sekend' hota hai. ek madhyahn se doosare madhyahn ke bich ki avadhi ko saur din kaha jata hai tatha poore varsh ke 'saur dinon' ke madhy ko 'madhy saur din' kahate hain. is madhy saur divas ka 1/86400 bhag ek sekend ke barabar hota hai.

samay ke matrak
matrak samay
1 pikosekend 10-12 sekend
1 nainosekend 10-9 sekend
1 maikrosekend 10-6 sekend
1 maikrosekend 1-3 sekend

vaidyut dhara ka matrak

vidyut dhara matrak aimpiyar hai. aimpiyar vah vidyut dhara hai, jo nirvat men 1 mitar ki doori par sthit do sidhe, lambe v samantar taron men pravahit hone par, pratyek tar ki prati mitar lambaee par taron ke bich 2×10-7 nyootan ka bal utpann karati hai.

tap ka matrak

tap ka matrak kelvin hai. samany vayumndaliy dab par galate barf ke tap tatha jal ke tap ke 100ven bhag ko ek kelvin (1 K) kahate hain.

jyoti tivrata ka matrak

isaka matrak kendila hai. manak srot ke khule mukh ke 1 semi2 kshetraphal ki jyoti tivrata ka 1/60van bhag ek kendila kahalata hai. jabaki srot ka tap pletinam ke galanank ke barabar ho.

in sabako mool rashiyan kahate hain. mool rashiyon ke matrak ek–doosare se prithakh aur svatntr hote hain. sath hi in rashiyon men se kisi ek ko kisi any matrakon men n to badala ja sakata hai aur n hi usase sambandhit kiya ja sakata hai. mool rashiyon ke matrak ko mool matrak kaha jata hai. uparyukt sat mool bhautik rashiyon ke atirikt do poorak mool rashiyan 'kon' tatha 'ghan kon' bhi hoti hain.

taliy kon ka matrak

taliy kon ka matrak rediyan hai. rediyan vah kon hai, jo vritt ki trijya ke barabar ek chap, vritt ke kendr par antarit karata hai.

ghan kon ka matrak

ghan kon ka matrak sterediyan hai. 1 sterediyan vah ghan kon hai, jo gole ke prishth ka vah bhag jisaka kshetraphal gole ki trijya ke varg ke barabar hota hai, gole ke kendr par antarit karata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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