उठान  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

uthan jab kabhi kisi sadak men mod ata hai to us modapar sadak ke pharsh ko mod ke bahari or ooncha uthakar sadak ko dhaloo banaya hai. isi prakar rel ke marg men bhi mod bahari patari bhitari se thodi unchi rakhi jati hai. sadak ki satah ka, ya rel ke marg ka, mod par is prakar dhaloo banaya jana uthan (supar ailiveshan) kahalata hai.[1]

mod par chalati huee gadi par jo bal kam karate hain ve (1) apakendr bal (sentrifugal fors) jisaka bahar ki or kshaitij tatha traijy prabhav padata hai, (2) gadi ka bhar, jo oordhvadhar niche ki or kary karata hai aur (3) sadak ke pharsh ki pratikriya jo oopar ki or kam karati hai. apakendr bal ka sntulan sadak ki satah ka gharshan karata hai aur yadi is gharshan ka bal yathesht n ho to gadi bahar ki or phisal jaegi. uthan is phisalane ki pravritti ko rokane men sahayata karati hai.

uthan ka prayog rel ke margon par dirghakal se kiya ja raha hai, kintu jahan tak sadakon ka prashn hai, pahale gadiyon ki mnd gati ke karan isaki avashyakata nahin padati thi. ajakal motar gadiyon ki tivr gati ke karan sadak ki uthan ek adhunik vikas hai.

avashyak uthan us mahattam gati par nirbhar rahati hai jisapar gadiyon ke chalane ki asha ki jati hai, arthath‌ unake kalpit veg par. uthan nimnalikhit sootr ke anusar nishchit ki jati hai :

u = ve2/15tri

q =V2/15r.

yahan u (q)= uthan, ve (V)= mil pratighnton men veg aur tri (r)= mod ki trijya, phut men.

sahi uthanavali sadak par kalpit gati se yatra karanevali gadi sugamata se tatha surakshit dhng par, phisalane ki pravritti ke bina, chalegi. yadi koee motarakar sadak par kalpit gati se tej chalegi to sadak ka gharshan use phisalane se bachaega. yadi koee relagadi kalpit gati se tej chalati hai to bagal ki dab ko pahiyon ke bahar nikale parshv (phlainjenz) snbhal lete hain. uthanavala koee bhi mod keval us gati se yatra karane ke lie sukhad hota hai jisake lie sadak banaee jati hai. kintu sadak par to anek prakar ki gadiyan, tivr tatha dhimi donon prakar ki gatiyon se chalati hain. dhimi chal se chalanevali gadiyon ko, jaise bailagadiyon aur any janavaron se khinchi janevali savariyon ko, jo kalpit gati se kahin kam gati par chalati hain, adhik uthan se asuvidha hoti hai. is karan bharat men indiyan rod kangres ke manakon ke anusar uthan ki sima 15 men 1 (arthath‌ 15 phut chaudi men 1 phut) niyat kar di gee hai. doosare deshon men yadyapi 10 men 1 tak ki uthan ki anumati hoti hai, to bhi sadharanat: uthan 15 men 1 se adhik nahin hoti.[2]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 58 |
  2. sn.grn.-ech.krisavel: haeeve spairels, supar-eliveshan aind vartikal karvs, dvitiy snskaran (lndan, 1948); ech.si. aibz : haeeve karvs (chaturth snskaran, chaipamain aind hal, lndan); ti. ef hikarasan : haeeve karvs aind aryavark (maikgraau hil buk knpani, nyooyark); el.ai. hyaz : amerikan haeeve praiktiv, khnd 1 (jan vilo aind sns, nyooyark).

snbndhit lekh

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