ऊष्मारसायन  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

ushmarasayan ke antargat rasayanik kriyaon men kshepit ya shoshit oorja ka adhyayan kiya jata hai. pratyek men ek vishisht antarnihit (intrinzik) oorja hoti hai. udaharan ke lie yadi kriya

k + kh ® g + gh

men bhag lenevale padarthon k, kh, g tatha gh ko antarnihit oorja kramanusar ka, kha, ga tatha gha dvara vyakt ki jae, to in oorjaon ke nimnalikhit snbndh snbhav hain :

(ka + kha) = (ga + gha);

(ka +kha) < (ga + gha);

(ka + kha) > (ga + gha).

pratham avastha men pratikarakon ki oorja ka yogaphal kriyaphalon ki oorja ke yogaphal ke barabar hai, atev pratikriya men n to ushma ka kshepan hoga, n shoshan. parntu vastut: bahut kam kriyaon men aisa hota hai. dvitiy avastha men pratikarakon ki kul oorja, (ka +kha), kriyaphalon ki kul oorja, (ga + gha), se adhik hai, atev oorjanityatv (kaaunazarveshan aauv enarji) snbndhi niyam ke anusar is pratikriya men (ka + kha) - (ga + gha) ke barabar ushma kshepit hogi. isi prakar tritiy avastha men (ka + kha) - (ga + gha) ke barabar oorja shoshit hogi. jin kriyaon men ushma ka kshepan hota hai, ve ushmakshepak (eksotharmik) kahalati hain aur jinamen ushma ka shoshan hota hai, un pratikriyaon ko ushmashoshak (endotharmik) kahate hain.

ushmarasayanik samikaran-sadharanataya kisi pratikriya men kshepit ya shoshit ushma ko usake samikaran dvara vyakt kar dete hain. udaharan ke lie :

H2 (gais) + Cl2 = 2HCl (gais) + 44,000 k0

dvara pakat hota hai ki 1 gram-anu (2 gram) haidrojan gais tatha 1 gram-anu (71 gram) klorin gais se snyojan se jab 2 gram-anu (73 gram) haidroklorik aml gais banati hai, to 44, 000 kailari ushma kshepit hoti hai. isi prakar nimnankit samikaran dekhie :

H2 (gais) + I2 = 2HCl (gais) - 11,860 k0

dvara yah prakat hota hai ki yadi 2 gram haidrojan tatha 254 gram ayodin gais ke snyojan se 256 gram haidrojan ayodaid gais banaee jae to is pratikriya men 11,860 kailari ushma shoshit hogi.

yah to spasht hai ki kisi bhi kriya men kshepit ushma ki matra usamen bhag lenevale padarthon ki bhautik avastha par nirbhar rahegi; isilie bhi likh jati hai. bhautik avastha ka jo prabhav pratikriya-ushma par padata hai vah nimnankit udaharan se spasht ho jaega :

H2 (gais) + O 2 = H2O (bhap) + 58,000 k0

tatha H2 (gais) + O 2 = H2O (drav) + 68,000 k0

dvitiy samikaran men ushma ki kshepit matra pratham samikaranon ki apeksha adhik hai kyonki isamen 18 gram bhap ke dravit hone men kshepit ushma ki matra sammilit hai.

jin pratikriyaon men pratikarakon ke ayatan men bhi parivartan hota hai, unake lie pratikriya-ushma is bat par bhi nirbhar hogi ki pratikriya sthir ayatan par ki gee hai athava sthir dab par. yadi pratikriya karate samay ayatan sthir rakha jae, to mndal (sistam) ko bahy dab ke viruddh kuchh kary nahin karana padata. atev sthir ayatan par pratikriya ki yatharth oorja kshepit ya shoshit hoti hai. parntu yadi kriya karate samay dab ko sthir rakhate hue ayatan ko badhane ya ghatane diya jae, to pratikriya-ushma ka yatharth man gyat nahin hoga. udaharan ke lie; ayatan badhane men mndal bahy dab ke viruddh kary karata hai, jisamen oorja vyay hogi; atev yadi pratikriya ushmakshepak hai to is avastha men kshepit ki matra kam ho jaegi. sadharanat: pratikriyaon ki ushma sthir ayatan par hi napi jati hai.

ushmarasayan ke drishtikon se pratikriyaon ko pray: kee vargon men bant lete hain aur pratikriya svabhav ke anukool pratikriya-ushma ko nam de diya jata hai-jaise vilayan-ushma (hit aauv solyushan), tanukaran-ushma (hita aauv dailyooshan), utpadan-ushma (hit aauv faaurmeshan), dahan-ushma (hit aauv knbashchan) tatha shithilikaran-ushma (hita aauv nyootrailaizeshan).

vilayan-ushma-kisi vilaye ko vilayak men gholane par pray: ushma ka kshepan hota hai. jo lavan jal se kriya karake jalayojit (haidreted) lavan banate hain unake ghulane par adhikatar ushma ka kshepan hota hai. any lavanon ke ghulane men kshepit ushma ki matra bahut kam hai. kisi padarth ke ek gram-anu ko vilayak men gholane par kshepit ya shoshit oorja ki matra ko vilayan-ushma kahate hain.

isake atirikt sandr vilayan ko tanu karane men bhi ushma men parivartan hota hai aur ise vilayan ki tanukaran-ushma kahate hain. tanukaran-ushma ki matra vilayanon ki tanuta ke sath kam hati jati hai aur adhik tanu vilayanon ke lie ise shoony mana ja sakata hai. aise tanu vilayanon ki ushmarasayan men 'jaliy' kahate hain. udaharan ke lie; potaishiyam naitret jal men vilin hokar ati banu vilayan banata hais, to usaki vilayan ushma 8,500 kailari hoti hai. is tathy ko nimnalikhit samikaran dvara vyakt kar sakate hain :

KNO3 + (jal) = KNO3 (jaliy) - 85,00 k0

utpadan-ushma-avayav tatvon ke snyog se kisi yaugik ke ek gram-anu banane men jitani ushma shoshit ya kshepit hoti hai, use us yogik ki utpadan-ushma kaha jata hai. udaharan ke lie nimnankit samikaranon dvara spasht hai ki karban daiaauksaid (CO2) , methen (CH4), tatha naitrik aml (HNO3) ki utpadan-ushma kramanusar 94.4, 18.8 tatha 42.4 kailari hai :

C + O2 = CO2 + 94.4 k0

C + 2H2 = CH4 + 18.8 k0

H2 + N2 = O2 = HNO3 + 42.4 k0

utpadan ushma rinatmak bhi ho sakati hai, jaise :

C + O2 = C S2 - 22,000 k0

avayav tatvon se jin yaugikon ke banane men ushma kshepit hoti hai unhen ushmakshepak yaugik kahate hain aur jin yaugikon ke banane men ushma shoshit hoti hai unhen ushmashoshak yogik kahate hain. adhikatar yaugik ushmakshepak hote hain, jaise haidrojan, kloraid, jal, haidrojan salafaid, salaphar daiaauksaid, karban daiaauksaid, led kloraid adi sab ushmakshepak yaugik hain. ushmashoshak yaugikon ke udaharan haidrojan ayodaid, karban daisalaphaid, aisetilin, ozon adi die ja sakate hain.

ushmashoshak yaugik ushmakshepak yaugikon ki apeksha bahut kam sthayi hote hain aur sugamata se apane avayaviy tatvon men vichchhedit ho jate hain. ushmakshepak aur ushmashoshak yaugikon ke sthayitv ka uparyukt bhed unamen antarnihit oorja ke antar ke karan hota hai. udaharan ke lie; 1 gram-anu karban tatha 1 gram-anu aksijan ke snyog se jab 1 gram-anu karban daiaauksaid banata hai, to 94,300 kailari ushma kshepit hoti hai. spasht hai ki apane avayav tatvon ki apeksha 1 gram-anu karban daiaauksaid men 94,300 kailari oorja kam hogi. isi prakar karban daisalphaid jaise ushmashoshak yaugik men apen avayav tatvon ki apeksha 22,000 kailari oorja adhik hogi. yadi samast tatvon ki antarnihit oorja ko shoony man liya jae, to upayukt vivechan se spasht hai ki yaugikon ki antarrihit oorja unaki utpadan ushma ke barabar hogi; parntu yadi utpadan oorja rinatmak hai to antarnihit oorja dhanatmak hogi aur isake viparit yadi utpadan ushma dhanatmak ho, to antarnihit oorja rinatmak hogi. udaharanat: karban daiaauksaid tatha karban daisalaphaid ki antarnihit oorjaen kramanusar -94,300 tatha +22,000 kailari ke barabar hongi.

dahan-ushma-kisi tatv yo yaugik ki 1 gram-anu matra ko aauksijan men sthir ayatan par poornataya jalane se ushma ki jo matra kshepit hoti hai, use us tatv ya yaugik ki dahan-ushma kahate hain.

udaharan ke lie nimnalikhit samikaran se spasht hai ki methen ki dahan-ushma 2,12,800 kailari hai :

CH2 + 2 O2 = C O2 + 2H2 O + 2,12,800 k0

karban ko aauksijan men jalane par do yaugikon ka banana snbhav hai-

C + O2 = C O2 + 49,900 k0

C + O2 = C O + 26,000 k0

yah bat dhyan dene yogy hai ki karban ki dahan-ushma 94,300 kailari hai, 26,000 kailari nahin, kyonki pratham kriya men hi karban poornataya jalata ya aksikrit hota hai. doosari kriya men karban, karban monoksaid men parivartit ho gaya hai, parntu abhi usaka dahan poorn nahin hua kyonki karban monoksaid ka aur dahan karake use karban daiaauksaid men aksikrit kiya ja sakata hai.

dahan-ushma gyat karane ke lie ek vishesh prakar ke kalarimapak ka upayog kiya jata hai jise bam-kalarimapak (baaumb kailorimitar) kahate hain. vaigyanik barathelon ne ise sarvapratham 1881 men banaya tha. yah ganametal ispat ka bana rahata hai aur belan ke akar ka hota hai. isake antarik tal par ek vishesh prakar ka inaimal chadha rahata hai, jisase usapar aauksijan ki koee kriya nahin hoti. dhakkan dh ko dridhata se bnd karane ke lie isamen majaboot pench lage rahate hain. jis padarth ki dahan-ushma nikalana ho usaki ek nishchit matra plaitinam ki pyali 'p' men le li jati hai aur bam men lagabhag 20-25 vayumndaliy dab par aauksijan bhar lete hain. isake bad vam ko dridhata se bnd karake use sadharan kalarimapak men rakhate hain. sadharan kalarimapak men jal ki ek nishchit matra le li jati aur prayog dvara pahale hi yah nirdharit kar liya jata hai ki is kalarimapak men jal ke tap ko 1° sentigred badhane ke lie kitani ushma ki avashyakata hoti hai. bahy kalarimapak men jal ka tap nap liya jata hai. ab plaitinam ke taron a tatha a dvara lohe ke ek mahin tar t men vidyuth‌ pravahit karate hain. vidyutpravah se tar t garam hokar lal ho jata hai aur pyali p men rakha padarth aksikrit hone lagata hai. lohe ke tar ke jalane men tatha aksikaran ki is kriya men ushma kshepit hoti hai, jisaki matra bahy kalarimapak men upasthit jal ke tap men vriddhi se gyat kar li jati hai. is prayog se prapt ushma-matra men se lohe ke jvalan men kshepit ushma ko ghatakar padarth ke dahan dvara kshepit ushma ki matra gyat ki ja sakati hai. spasht hai ki is prayog men mndal ka ayatan sthir rahata hai; atev is vidhi se kisi padarth ki dahan-ushma nirdharit ki ja sakati hai.

Heat.jpg

chitr 1. baratheli ka bam-kalarimapak

shithilikaran-ushma-ek gram-tuly matra kshar ko ek gram-tuly matra aml dvara shithil (nyootrailaiz) karane par ushma ki jo matra lepit hoti hai use shithilikaran-ushma kahate hain. yadi aml tatha kshar itane tanu vilayanon men lie jaen ki ve poornataya ayanon men vighatit hon to shithilikaran ki kriya keval haidrojan tatha haidroksil ayanon ke snyog se avighatit anu banane ki kriya hogi. atev tanu vilayanon men sab prabal (straaunh‌g) amlon dvara prabal ksharon ke shithilikaran ki ushma saman hogi. prayog dvara is ushma ka man 13,7000 kailari ata hai. at: prabal amlon dvara prabal kshar ke shithilikaran ko nimnalikhit samikaranon dvara vyakt kar sakate hain :

HX + MOH = MX + H2O

jahan X ko moolak hai aur M koee dhatu hai,

arthath‌ H+ + X+ + M+ + OH- = MX + H2O

arthath‌ H+ + OH- = H2O

parntu yadi aml ya kshar durbal ho, to vah tanu vilayan men bhi poornataya vighatit n hoga. atev aise amlon ya ksharon ki shithilikaran ushma 13,700 kailari n aegi. udaharan ke lie amoniyam haidraauksaid ki ayanikaran-ushma (1 gram-anu ke ayanikaran ki ushma) -1,500 kailari hai, atev amoniyam haidraauksaid tatha kisi prabal aml (jaise haklo) ki shithilikaran ushma (13,700-1,500) =12,200 kailari hogi.

prayog dvara shithilikaran ushma ko nirdharit karane ke lie sadharanat: ek tharamas phlask men kshar ke tanu vilayan ki ek nishchit matra lekar phlask ko sthir tapavale jal men dubakar rakhate hain, jisase vikiran (redieshan) dvara phlask ke bhitar vilayan ke tap men antar n ho. ab banu vilayan men aml ki samatuly matra lekar usaka tap kshar ke tap ke barabar sthir kar lete hain. aml ka tap sthir ho jane par use shighrata se kshar men mila dete hain. kach ke ek vilodak (starar) dvara vilayan ko chalakar usaka uchchatam tap nap liya jata hai. ab yadi mishr vilayan ki matra, usaki vishisht-ushma (spesifik hit), tap, prayukt phlask ki ushmadharita (hit-kaipesiti) gyat ho, to shithilikaran kriya men kshepit ushma ki matra sugamata se gyat ki ja sakati hai. isi vidhi dvara lavanon ki vilayan-ushma bhi sugamata se nikal sakate hain.

hes ka niyam-ushma-rasayan ka sabase pramukh niyam svis vaigyanik jaramen henari hes ne sanh‌ 1840 men pratipadit kiya tha. is niyam ke anusar kisi rasayanik kriya men kshepit ya shoshit ushma ki matra madhyavarti kriyaon par nirbhar nahin rahati, arthath‌ ek hi kriya ko yadi ek se adhik vidhiyon dvara poora kiya ja sake, pratikarak tatha kriyaphal pratyek kriya men poornataya ek hon aur un sabaki avasthaen bhi saman hon, to vibhinn vidhiyon men jo kul ushma-parivartan hoga, vah har ek vidhi ke lie saman hoga.

Heat-2.jpg


is niyam ki satyata snlagn chitr 2. se spasht hai. man len, padarth 'a' ko a men parivartit karane ke lie marg a k a tatha a kh a dvara jane par kramanusar k1 tatha k2 kailari ushma kshepit hoti hai. yadi k1 k man k2 se adhik hai, to marg a k a dvara a ko a men parivartit kar aur pun: a ko a men marg a kh a dvara badalakar (k1-k2) kailari ushma utpadit ki ja sakati hai. parntu yah oorja-avinashata niyam ke viruddh hoga, kyonki bina kisi kary ke mndal (sistam) men ushma utpadit karana asnbhav hai; arthath‌ (k1-k2) ka man sardav shoony hoga; at: k1 sadaiv k2 ke barabar hoga.

is niyam ki satyata dekhane ke lie nimnankit udaharan ko le sakate hain. amoniya tatha haidrojan kloraid gaison ki pratikriya se amoniyam kloraid vilayan do prakar se prapt kiya ja sakata hai :

pratham vidhi

NH3 (gais) + HCl (gais) = NH4Cl (gais) + 42,100 k0

NH4Cl (gais) + jal = NH4Cl (jaliy) - 39,900 k0

NH3 (gais) + HCl (gais) + jal = NH4Cl (jaliy) + 38,200 k0

dvitiy vidhi

NH3 (gais) + jal = NH3 (jaliy) + 8,400 k0

HCl (gais) + jal = HCl (jaliy) - 17,500 k0

NH3 (jaliy) + HCl (jaliy) = NH4Cl (jaliy) + 12,300 k0

NH3 (gais) + HCl (gais) + jal = NH4Cl (jaliy) 38,200 k0

uparyukt udaharan se hes ke niyam ki satyata spasht ho jati hai.

hes ka niyam ushma-rasayan men bahut upayogi siddh hua hai. isaki sahayata se pratyaksh roop se n ki ja sakanevali pratikriyaon men honevale ushma-parivartanon ko bhi paroksh roop se nikala ja sakata hai. udaharan ke lie; sadharanat: karbanik yaugikon ki utpadan-ushma pratyaksh kriya dvara nahin nikali ja sakati, parntu karbanik yaugik tatha isake avayav tatvon ki dahan-ushma ko nirdharit karake yaugik ki utpadan-ushma hes ke niyam se nikal sakate hain.

udaharan ke lie methen, karban tatha haidrojan ki dahan-ushma kramanusar 2,12,800; 94,400 tatha 68,400 kailari ati hai, arthath‌

CH4 + 2O2 = C O2 + 2H2 O + 2,12,800 k0

C + O2 = C O2 + 94,300 k0

H2 + O2 = H2 O + 68,400 k0

dvitiy samikaran men tritiy samikaran ka duguna jodakar pratham samikaran ko ghatane par nimnalikhit samikaran prapt hoga :

C + O2 = 2H 2 + O2 -CH4 - 2O2 = C O2 + 2H2 O -C O2

- 2H2 O + (94,300 + 2 ´ 68,400 - 2,12,80000)

arthath‌ C + 2H 2 = CH4 + 18,3000 k0

uparyukt vivechan se spasht hai ki methen utpadan-ushma 18,400 kailari hai. is prakar hes ke niyam ke anrtagat ushmarasayanik samikaranon ko ganit ke samikaranon ki bhanti guna kar, vibhajit kar, jodakar ya ghatakar abhisht pratikriya ka samikaran tatha us kriya men honevale ushma-parivartan ke man ka pata laga lete hain.

shh

talika 1

pratyaksh snshleshan vidhi se kuchh padarthon ki utpadan-ushma

yaugik kilokalari/gram-anu yaugik kilokalari/gram-anu

H2o (drav) -68.317 ±0.010 HFl (gais) -64.2

CO2 (gais) -94.052 ±0.011 HCl (gais) -22.063 ± 0.012

SiO2 (kvarth‌z) -210.3 ±0.3 BCll3 (gais) -97.5 ± 0.300

Al2O3 -400.3 ±0.3 H Br (gais) -8.707 ± 0.130

SnO2 -138.8 ±0.1 Ti3Br4 (drav) -148.1 ± 0.300

ThO2 -293.2 ±0.2 AIN -57.4 ± 1.300

talika 2

paroksh vidhiyon se prapt kuchh padarthon ki utpadan-ushma

yogik kilokalari/gram-anu yogik kilokalari/gram-anu

EtCl (gais) -26.2 ±0.5 Si (OEt) -330.2

EtBr (ges) -15.3 ±0.5 CH3COCl -65.1

CH4 (gais) -17.889 CH2CONH2 -78.7

C2H6 (gais) -20.326 CH2COOEt -114.9

C2H6 (gais) 19.82 CdMe2 16.7 ±0.5

BCl3 (drav) -10.26 HgPh2 65.4 ±2

ushmarasayan ke audyogik upayog-rasayanik kriyaon se prapt oorja hi hamare udyogon ko chalane ka sadhan rahi hai. aj kritrim upagrah ke yug men jab manav chndrama tatha any grahon ki yatra men prayatnashil hai to aise eedhanon ki khoj avashyak ho gee hai jinaki sookshm se sookshm matra adhik tam oorja de sake. boran yaugik is or bahut upayogi siddh ho rahe hain, kyonki saman matra men karban yaugikon se unaki dahan-ushma adhik hoti hai aur ve hamen adhik oorja dene men saphal hote hain.

ushmarasayan ke any upayog bahut kal se hote ae hain. udaharan ke lie ;pratham talika men ailyoominiyam auksaid ki utpadan-ushma sabase adhik dikhaee gee hai. isi gun ka upayog goldadashmit ki ushman vidhi (tharmit proses) men kiya gaya hai. ailyoominiyam aauksaid ki utpadan-ushma itani adhik hone ke karan pratikriya,

8 Al + 3 Fe3 O4® 9 Fe + 4 Al2 O3

men itani adhik ushma kshepit hoti hai ki mndal ka tap lagabhag 3,0000 sentigred tak pahunch jata hai aur loha tak pighal jata hai. is prakar tooti huee rel ki patariyon bhi bhari mashinon ke toote hue bhagon ko uparyukt kriya ki sahayata se pighalakar joda ja sakata hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 174 |

snbndhit lekh

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