न्यूटन के नियम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

gati vishayak hamara gyan tin mool niyamon par adharit hai. inhen sabase pahale mahanh vaigyanik sar aijak nyootan ne sanh 1687 men apani pustak prinsipiya men pratipadit kiya. isilie is vaigyanik ke sammanarth in niyamon ko nyootan ke gati vishayak niyam kahate hain.

pratham niyam

is niyam ke anusar yadi koee vastu viramavastha men hai ya ek saral rekha men saman veg se gatishil rahati hai, to usaki viramavastha ya saman gati ki avastha men parivartan tabhi hota hai, jab us par koee bahy bal lagaya jata hai. is niyam ko gaililiyo ka jadatv ka niyam bhi kahate hain.

bahy bal ke abhav men kisi vastu ki apani viramavastha ya samanagati ki avastha ko banae rakhane ki pravritti ko hi jadatv kahate hain. gati vishayak pratham niyam ke dainik jivan men anek udaharan dekhane ko milate hain.

  1. kar ya gadi men asavadhani se baithe yatri kar ya gadi ke ekaek chal dene se pichhe ki or gir jate hain. isaka karan hai ki yatri ke sharir ka nichala hissa gadi ke sampark men hai, yah hissa gadi ke sath–sath chalane lagata hai, parantu oopari hissa jadatv ke karan viramavastha men hi bana rahata hai. phalatah yatri ke sharir ka oopari hissa pichhe ki or jhuk jata hai.
  2. hathaude ke hatthe ko prithvi par patakane se hathauda hatthe men kas jata hai, kyonki jab ham hathaude ko oopar uthakar prithvi par oordhvadhar patakate hain to hathauda aur hattha donon hi gati ki avastha men hote hain. hattha to prithvi ke sampark men ate hi viramavastha men a jata hai, parantu hathauda gati ke jadatv ke karan gatishil hi rahata hai. phalasvaroop niche akar hatthe men kas jata hai.
  3. goli marane se kanch men gol chhed ho jata hai, parantu patthar marane par kanch tukade–tukade ho jata hai. isaka karan hai ki goli jab atyadhik veg se kanch se takarati hai, to kanch ka keval vahi bhag gati men a pata hai, jisake sampark men goli ati hai tatha shesh bhag jadatv ke karan apane hi sthan par rah jata hai. atah isake pahale ki kanch ka shesh bhag gati men ae, goli ek saf gol chhed banati huee kanch ke par nikal jati hai. isake viparit yadi patthar ka tukada kanch par mara jata hai to usaka veg itana adhik nahin hota ki kanch ka keval vahi bhag gati men ae jo patthar ke sampark men ata hai, varanh usake as–pas ka kanch bhi gatiman ho jata hai, jisase ki kanch ke tukade–tukade ho jate hain.

dvitiy niyam

is niyam ke anusar snveg parivartan ki dar bal ke anukramanupati hoti hai tatha yah usi disha men hoti hai, jisamen bal kary karata hai. is prakar, "kisi vastu par aropit bal, us vastu ke dravyaman tatha usamen bal ki disha men utpann tvaran ke gunanaphal ke barabar hota hai."

yadi ki vastu par bal aropit karane par usamen bal ki disha men tvaran utpann hota hai. yadi vastu ka dravyaman m ho to dvitiy niyam ke anusar—

= X

yadi = arthath jab vastu par koee bal nahin lag raha ho to = , kyonki dravyaman ka man shoony nahin ho sakata. yadi tvaran ka man shoony hai to isaka arth hai ki ya to vastu niyat veg se gatiman hai ya viramavastha men hai. isase spasht hai ki bal ke abhav men vastu apani gati athava viram avastha ko banae rakhati hai. yah gati vishayak dvitiy niyam hai. atah nyootan ka gati vishayak dvitiy niyam, pratham niyam ka hi ek roop hai.

nyootan ke dvitiy gati ke niyam se bal ka sootr prapt hota hai, isalie bal ka matrak Kgm/s2 ya N (nyootan) hota hai.

tritiy niyam

gati vishayak tritiy niyam ko kriya–pratikriya ka niyam bhi kahate hain.

"jab koee pind doosare pind par bal lagata hai to aisi sthiti men doosara pind bhi pahale pind par utana hi bal viparit disha men lagata hai. arthath pratyek kriya ki usake barabar tatha viparit disha men pratikriya hoti hai. ise nyootan ke gati ka tritiy niyam kahate hain." udaharan- mana ki do pind A v B hain, jo ek–doosare par bal aropit kar rahe hain.

yadi pind A par (pind B dvara) aropit bal AB hai, tatha pind B par (pind A dvara) aropit bal BA hai. tab nyootan ke tritiy gati niyam ke anusar

AB = -BA

in donon balon men se ek bal ko 'kriya' tatha doosare ko 'pratikriya' kahate hain. kriya tatha pratikriya pariman men barabar tatha disha men ek doosare ke viparit hoti hai. smaran rakhen ki kriya aur pratikriya sadaiv bhinn pindon par lagati hai. atah nyootan ke tritiy niyam ko 'kriya–pratikriya ka niyam' bhi kaha jata hai.

in niyam ke sambandh men do baten mahattvapoorn hain—

  1. ham yah nahin jan sakate hain ki amuk bal kriya hai tatha amuk bal pratikriya hai. ham keval yahi jan sakate hain ki ek bal kriya hai tatha doosari pratikriya.
  2. kriya tatha pratikriya sadaiv alag–alag pindon par lagati hai, ek hi par nahin.

uparokt udaharan men ek bal AB (kriya athava pratikriya) pind A par lag raha hai jabaki doosara bal BA (pratikriya athava kriya) pind B par lag raha hai.

nyootan ke tritiy niyam ke dainik jivan men anek udaharan dekhane ko milate hain—

  1. bandook se jab goli chhodi jati hai, to hamen pichhe ki or jhataka lagata hai. isaka karan hai ki jitana bal bandook goli par lagati hai, utana hi bal goli bhi bandook par viparit disha men pichhe ki or lagati hai, jisase hamen jhataka lagata hai.
  2. ghoda gadi ko khinchate samay apani pichhali tangon se prithvi par pichhe ki or dabata hai, jisase pratikriya svaroop prithvi ghode par age ki or bal lagati hai aur gadi age badhati jati hai. isi prakar jab koee vyakti nav se koodata hai to vah apane pairon se bal lagakar nav ko pichhe ki or dhakelata hai, jisake pratikriyasvaroop nav bhi vyakti par age ki or bal lagati hai aur vyakti kinare par pahunch jata hai.

nyootan ke tritiy niyam par adharit aur bhi kee udaharan hain, jaise—raauket ka age badhana, kunon se pani khinchate samay rassi toot jane par vyakti ka pichhe gir padana, oonchaee se koodane par chot lagana adi.

jet injan nyootan ke gati ke tisare niyam ke adhar par kary karata hai. adhikansh jet injan antarik dahan pranali par kary karate hain aur gair–dahan arthath apani aksijan apoorti ke lie vayumndal parivesh ka prayog karata hai. inhen lambi doori ki vayuyan seva ke lie prayog kiya jata hai, kintu antariksh ke lie nahin.  

panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh

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