अनुनाद  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

anunad kisi vastu men dhvani ke karan anukool knpan utpann hona tatha usake svar adi men vriddhi hone ko anunad (rejonains) kahate hain. bhautik jagat ki kriyaon men ham yantrik anunad aur vaidyut anunad pate hain. dravy aur oorja ke bich bhi anunad hota hai, jisake dvara hamen dravy ke anunadi vikiran ka pata lagata hai.

yantrik anunad-pratyek vastu ki ek knpanasnkhya hoti hai jo usaki banavat, pratyasthata aur bhar par nirbhar rahati hai. tanik thunaka dene par ghnte, ghntiyan, thali tatha any bartan pratyek seknd men isi snkhya ke barabar knpan karane lagate hai aur tab unake snpark se vayu men dhvani nahin sunaee padati, jaise pendoolam adi ke dolan men. yadi knpan snkhya 30 se kam hoti hai, to dhvani nahin sunaee padati, jaisi pendulam adi ke dolan men. yadi knpan snkhya 30 se adhik aur 30,000 se kam hoti hai to svar sunaee padata hai, jaise sitar ke tar, dhatu ke chhad athava ghade ki hava adi ke knpan se nikale svar. knpan ke 30,000 prati seknd se adhik hone par svar nahin sunaee padata.

chitr : 1-yadi donon svaritron ki knpanasnkhyaen barabar hain to unake bich anunad hota hai.

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kisi dolak (pendulam) ki knpanasnkhya usaki lnbaee par nirbhar rahati hai. yadi ek hi lnbaee ke do dolak k aur kh kisi tani huee rassi se latakae ge hon to k ko dolit karane se thodi der bad kh bhi rassi dvara shakti pakar dolit ho jata hai. dono men shakti ka adan pradan hota hai. yah tabhi snbhav hai jab donon ki knpanasnkhyaen barabar hon.


chitr : 2 k aur kh men anunad hota hai, g men nahin.

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yadi do svaritr (tyooning phork) laddhadi ke takhte par jade hue hon aur pratyek ki knpanasnkhya 256 ho, toe unamen se ek ko thunaka dene par doosara svat: knpit ho jata hai. isi prakar kinhin do taron men anunad hota hai. yadi k knpanasnkhya prati seknd hai, tar ki lnbaee l setimitar hai, t gramabhar men tar ka tanav hai aur bh tar ka bhar prati sentimitar hai to yadi donon tar tane ge hon to anunad ke lie

(t)/2l,bh, aur(t)/2l,bh

ko barabar hona chahie, jahan ek pras (daish) lage akshar ek tar se snbngh rakhate hai, aur do pras lage akshar doosare tar se.

vaidyutik anunad-do knpanashil vidyoot-paripathon men bhi anunad hota hai. vidyoot-paripath ka knpan usaki vidyooddharita (kapaisiti) dha aur upadan u par nirbhar rahata hai aur dolan snkhya k=1/2pu dha hoti hai. yadi do paripathon ki knpanasnkhyaen barabar hon, arthat k=k, ton donon men anunad hota hai.

vaidyutik anunad ki or sarvapratham sar aaulivar laauj ka dhyan akrisht hua. unhonne ek hi vidyuddharita ke do laidan jaron ko saman vidyut vibhav ka banaya. ek paripath ke laidan jaron ko prerana kundali (indakshan kaauel) athava vimjahart mashin se avisht kiya. dekha ki jyonhi us kundali ki jhiri men vidyut sphuling visarjit hota hai tyonhi doosari kundali ki jhiri men bhi sphuling utpann hota hai. is bhanti vaidyutik anunad ka pradarshan kar sar aaulivar laauj ne vidyoot-shakti-preshana ka sidvant sthapati kiya. donon knpanashil paripathon men pahale ko preshi (trainsamitar) aur doosare ko sngrahi (risivar) kahate hain. spasht hai ki vaidyutik anunad ke lie 2p (udha¢)=2p (u,dha), arthat, u,dha.=u,dh.

ek paripath ke knpan ko nishchit kar doosari men u athava dha ko adal badalakar isaki knpanasnkhya ko pahali ki knpanasnkhya se milaya jata hai. is kriya ko samasvaran (tyooning) kahate hai. donon ke mel khane par anunad utpann hota hai.

rediyo tarngon ka preshana aur grahan isi siddhant par snbhav hua. hainarik roodolph hartaj, guglimo marakoni, brainali, jagadishachndr bos adi vaigyanikon ne isi siddhant par paripath ki shakti badhakar tatha any apayogi sadhanon ka prayog kar vibhinn dolanasnkhyaon ke preshak aur grahak yntr banae the.

tamas arthar edisan aur o.dablyoo. richardasan ne tapayanik valv ka avishkar kiya. usi siddhant par dvadhruivi, phir chartdhruauvi aur pnchadhruvi valvon ka nirman hua. inake dvara nishchit knpanasnkhya aur prabal shakti ke vaidyut paripath banae ge aur vishal preshakon se rediyo ki tarngon dvara samachar, gane aur khabaren preshit hone lagin. in sabaki kriyavidhi vaidyut anunad par adharit hai.

dravy aur oorja snbndhi anunad-adhunik vaigyanik sadhanon se hamen padartharachana aur tatsnbndhi vikirn shaktiyon ki janakari sulabh hai. anu tatha paramanu ke vishisht varnakram hote hai. nils bor ke anusar anu evn paramanu men shakti ki kee sthitiyan hoti hai. bahari shakti ki prerana se uttejit hokar anu tatha paramanu sadharan sthiti se any uttejit sthitiyon men jate hai aur vahan se lautati bar vibhinn tarngadairdhyo ki rashmiyan vikirn karate hain. pratham uttejit sthiti se nikalati hai. sadharan sthiti men lautati bar unaki mukhy rashmiyan nikalati hai. yadi koee paramanu sadharan sthiti men ho aur usaki mukhy rekha ki oorja usapar lagaee jae, to paramanu aur oorja men anunad hota hai aur paramanu ki anoonadi rashmi utsarjit hoti hai. yadi apatit rashmisamooh men sabhi rashmiyan hon ton paramanu apani anunadi rashmiyon ko grahan kar leta hai aur avichchhinn varnakram men kali rekha usi sthan par paee jati hai. is anunadi siddhant ki khoj kirshaph ne ki thi aur usi ke adhar par saur spektram ki kali rekhaon ki vyakhya di thi. is rekhon ka pata phaun-haphar ne lagaya tha: at: in rekhaon ko phraun-hophar rekhaen bhi kahate hai. anunadi rashmiyon par ar.dablyoo. vud ne badi khoj ki hai.

paramanu visphot men nyootran ki oorja ka anunad yooreniyam 235 ke nabhik (nyooklias) se hota hai. isi karan bighatan shrinkhala sthapit hoti hai aur dravy ka parrivartan oorja men hota hai jisase apar oorja nikalati hai.

chitr : 3 sar alivar laauj ka prayog jab baeen or ke yntr ki jhiri k kh me sphuling visarjit ki jati hai tab dahini or ke yntr me bhi jhiri k kh me sphuling apane ap visarjit hoti hai.[1]

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panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 121 |

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