फ्राँस  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(फ़्राँस se punarnirdeshit)
frans ke vibhinn drishy

frans ganarajy pashchim yoorop men sthit ek desh hai. peris frans ki rajadhani hai. yah yooropiy sngh ka sadasy hai. frans kee kshetron aur vibhagon men vibhajit hai. frans yooropiy sngh ka ek snsthapak sadasy hai. frans ka kshetraphal kisi bhi any sadasy desh se sabase zyada hai. frans snyukt rashtr sngh ka snsthapak sadasy hone ke sath-sath snyukt rashtr suraksha parishad ke panch sthaee sadasyon men se ek hai. isaki sima beljiyam, laksembar, jarmani, svitajaralaind, itali, monako, andora aur spen se milati hai. frans ki sima se lagi huee do parvat shrinkhalaen hain, poorv men alps aur dakshin men prenis. frans se pravahit hone vali kee nadiyon men se do nadiyan pramukh hain, sin aur loyar. frans ke uttar aur pashchim men nichali pahadiyan aur nadi ghatiyan hain.

itihas

frans shabd latini bhasha ke phrainkiya se aya hai, jisaka arth phranks ki bhoomi ya phrankalaind hai. adhunik frans ki sima prachin gaul ki sima ke saman hi hai. prachin gaul men seltik gaaul nivas karate the. gaul par pahali shatabdi men rom ke joolias sizar ne jit hasil ki thi. tadoparant gaul ne roman bhasha aur roman snskriti ko apanaya. eesaiyat doosari shatabdi aur tisari shatabdi men pahunchi aur chauthi aur panchavin shatabdi tak sthapit ho gee. chauthi sadi men jarmanik janajati, mukhyatah phrainks ne gaul par kabza jamaya. is se fransis nam dikhaee diya. adhunik nam "frans" peris ke asapas ke frans ke kapetiyan rajaon ke nam se ata hai. phrainks yoorop ki pahali janajati thi, jisane roman samrajy ke patan ke bad ariyanijm ko apanane ki bajae kaitholik eesaee dharm ko svikar kiya. vardan sndhi (843) ke bad sharalemegne ka samrajy tin bhagon men vibhajit ho gaya. inamen sabase bada kshetr pashchimi fransiya tha, jo aj ke frans ke barabar tha. hyoog kapet ke frans ke raja banane tak karolingiyan rajavnsh ne 987 tak frans par raj kiya. unake vnshajon ne anek yuddhon aur poorvajon ki virasat ke sath desh ko ekikrit kiya. 17 vin sadi aur luee chaudahaven ke shasanakal ke dauran frans sabase adhik shaktishali tha. frans ke doople ka dubhashiya anand rng pillee tha. frans ka ek nausainik adhikari kaunt di ek tha. yah frans ke us jahaji bede ka kamandar tha, jis par savar hokar karnatak men angrezon aur fransisiyon ke bich ho rahe yuddh ke akhiri charan men 1758 ee. men kaunt di lali aur fransisi sena bharat aee thi.

frans ka dhvaj

paryatan sthal

peris

peris frans desh ka sabase bada shahar aur usaki rajadhani hai . ise duniya ke sabase khoobasoorat shaharon men se ek aur duniya ki faishan aur glaimar rajadhani mana jata hai . yahin par duniya ki sabase mashahoor minar aifil tavar sthit hai .

efil taauvar

efil taauvar frans ki rajadhani pairis men sthit ek lauh tavar hai. isaka nirman 1887-1889 men shaimp-de-mars men sin nadi ke tat par pairis men hua tha. yah tavar vishv men ullekhaniy nirmanon men se ek aur frans ki snskriti ka pratik hai.

efil taauvar ke bare men do shabd kahana avashyak hai. main nahin janata ki aj efil taauvar ka kya upayog ho raha hai. pradarshani men jane ke bad pradarshani sambandhi bate to padhane men ati hi thi. usamen usaki stuti bhi padhi aur ninda bhi. mujhe yad hain ki ninda karane valo men taaulstaauy mukhy the. unhonne likha tha ki efil taauvar manushy ki moorkhata ka chihn hain, usake gyan ka parinam nahin. apane lekh men unhonne bataya tha ki duniya men prachalit kee tarah ke nashon men tambakoo ka vyasan ek prakar se sabase jyada kharab hain. kukarm karane ki jo himmat manushy men sharab pine se nahin ati, vah bidi pine se ati hai. sharab pine vala pagal ho jata hain, jab ki bidi pine vale ki akl par dhuna chha jata hain, aur is karan vah havaee qile banane lagata hai. taaulstaauy ne apani yah sammati prakat ki thi ki efil taauvar aise hi vyasan ka parinam hai. efil taauvar men saundary to kuchh hai hi nahin. aisa nahin kar sakate ki usake karan pradarshani ki shobha men koee vriddhi huee. ek nee chij hai badi chij hai, is lie hajaron log dekhane ke lie us par chadhe. yah taauvar pradarshani ka ek khilauna tha. aur jab ham mohavash hain tab tak ham bhi balak hain, yah chij is taauvar se bhalibhanti siddh hoti hain. manana chahe to itani upayogita usaki mani ja sakati hain.[1] ---mahatma gandhi


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. mahatma gandhi jivani saty ke prayog se sngrahit

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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