अल्बेनिया  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

albeniya balkan prayadvip men ek samajavadi prajatntr desh hai. kshetraphal 28,748 varg ki. mi. (11,101 varg mil), janasnkhya 20,79,800 (1969 ee.) jisamen 70 pratishat musalaman, 20 pratishat kattarapnthi (arthodaauks) eesaee tatha 10 pratishat roman kaitholik hain. isake bhoobhag ki adhikatam lnbaee 224 mi.mi., adhikatam chaudaee 96 ki.mi. aur samudratat ki kul lnbaee 240 mi. mi. hai. isaki rajadhani tirana hai jisaki janasnkhya 1,96,000 (1967) hai. albeniyaee bhasha do boliyon men vibhakt hai-gheg tatha taausk. gheg shkunbi nadi ke uttar men aur taausk dakshin men boli jati hai. 1945 se rajakiy bhasha vah hai jo taausk ko adhar banakar vikasit ki gee hai.

alabeniya ke uttar tatha poorv men yoogoslaviya, dakshin poorv men yoonan (gris), pashchim men aidriyatik sagar aur dakshin pashchim men ayoniyan sagar hain.

albeniya ke lagabhag poore bhoobhag men albeniyaee alps namak parvat phaila hua hai; phalasvaroop is desh ka adhikatar bhag anupajaoo aur sagaratal se 3,000 phut ooncha hai. poorvi sima par korab namak sarvochch parvat shikhar hai jisaki oonchaee 9,066 phut hai. tatiy pradesh maidani, at: upajaoo hai. parntu yah bhi maleriyavale daladalon ke karan abhi tak avikasit pada hai. dakshin pashchim albeniya men bhi korache nagar ke charon or upajaoo maidan hain jahan khetibadi ki jati he.

is desh men vividh prakar ke bhoodharatal hain, at: yahan vividh prakar ki jalavayu aur tadanusar vibhinn prakar ki vanaspatiyan milati hain. dakshin ke tatiy maidanon men bhoomadhyasagariy jalavayu hai jisamen shit ritu men varsha hoti hai aur grishm ritu lagabhag shushk rahati hai. madhyavarti tatha uttari ilakon men lagabhag barahon mas kaphi varsha hoti hai. uchch parvatiy bhagon men pahadi jalavayu rahati hai jisamen shit ritu ke dauran himapat hota hai.

itihas : jarj kastriyota (jo iskndarabeg ke nam se prasiddh the) ki 1467 ee. men mrityu ke pashchath‌ albeniya par turki ka adhipaty ho gaya jo 1912 ee. tak bana raha. 29 navnbar, 1912 ko vlone (vailona) men albeniya ki svatntrata ki ghoshana ki gee. lndan men ayojit rajadoot sammelan men albeniya ki bhaugolik simaon ka nirdharan kiya gaya tatha prins viliyam aauv vid albeniya ke shasak manonit hue. ve 7 march, 1914 ko durens pahunche. lekin jaldi hi desh men arajakata vyapt ho gee aur prins 3 sitnbar, 1914 ko albeniya chhodakar chale ge. 26 aprail, 1915 ko lndan men hue gupt samajhaute men pravadhan rakha gaya ki albeniya ka bntavara kar diya jae. parntu 3 joon, 1917 ko itali ne ukt samajhauta asvikar kar diya aur albeniya sthit italavi pradhan senapati ne jirokastar namak nagar men albeniya ki svatntrata ki ghoshan kar di. janavari, 1925 men yahan janatantrik shasan ki sthapana ki gee jo 1 sitnbar, 1928 ko rajatntr men parivartit kar diya gaya aur 31 janavari, 1925 se rashtrapati ki haisiyat se kam karanevale ahamad beg jogu samrath ho ge. ye aprail, 1939 tak sinhasanaroodh rahe parntu isi sanh‌ men albeniya par itali ka adhipaty ho gaya aur samrath jogu inglaind bhag ge. 1939 se 1944 tak albeniya par italivalon tatha jarmanon ka adhipaty raha. kintu 29 navnbar, 1944 ko mitrarashtron ki sena ne ise mukt kara liya. 10 navnbar, 1945 ko briten, amarika tatha roos ne janaral enavar hoksha ki asthayi sarakar ko manyata de di, lekin is shart par ki yathashighr ne chunav kara die jaenge. 2 disnbar, 1945 ko hue chunav ke parinamasvaroop albeniya men samyavadiyon ko bahumat mila aur unhonne shasan snbhalakar 11 janavari, 1946 ko albeniya ko ek ganatntr desh ghoshit kar diya gaya. 1946 men gret-briten tatha amarika ne albeniya se snbndh vichchhed kar lie tatha snyukt rashtrasngh men albeniya ko sadasy banane ke prastav par nishedhadhikar (vito) ka prayog kiya. antat: 15 disnbar, 1955 ko albeniya rashtrasngh ka sadasy bana. lekin amarika ne is avasar par bhi matadan men bhag nahin liya. albeniya ke stalinavadi tatha chinasamarthak rukh ke karan 1961 men roos ne bhi isase apane rajanayik snbndh samapt kar lie.

snvidhan tatha shasan : albeniya ka rajanitik dhancha 1946 men svikrit snvidhan ke anuroop hain. lekin ukt snvidhan ko 1950, 1955, 1960 tatha 1963 men snshodhit kiya gaya hai. desh ki sarvochch vidhayika ek sadaniy jan asenbali hai jisaki baithak varsh men do bar hoti hai aur jo dainik shasan chalane ka adhikar sthayi samiti (prasidiyam) ko saunp deti he. sthayi samiti men adhyaksh (cheyaramain), tin upadhyaksh (depyuti cheyaramain), ek sachiv (sekretari) tatha das sadasy hote hain. jan asenbali ke sahakariyon (depyutiz) ka chunav vayask matadan se hota he. aisa pratyek sahakari ath hajar maton ka pratinidhitv karata hai.

sarakar men ek pradhan mntri (mntriparishadh ka adhyaksh), char upapradhan mntri, 13 mntri tatha sarakari yojana ayog ka ek adhyaksh hota he. snpoorn shasan par albeniyaee shramasngathan (arthath‌ kamyunistaparti) ka prabhutv rahata hai jisaki sthapana 8 navnbar, 1941 ko huee thi aur jisaka prashasakiy nikay polit byooro hai.

krishi : jaisa isase poorv likha ja chuka hai, albeniya ka adhikatar bhoobhag anupajaoo, jngali aur parvatiy hai. 1969 ee. yahan 5,80,200 hekteyar bhoomi kheti ke tatha 6,35,300 hekteyar charagahon ke lie upayog men laee gee. 1970 ee. men 2,83,200 hekteyar jamin ki sinchaee ki gee. yahan ke maidanon men angoor, sntare, niboo adi bhoomadhyasagariy phal paida hote hain.

dvitiy vishvayuddh ke bad yahan janavadi krishipranali lagoo ki gee. at: bhoomi par sarakar (bade jngalon tatha kheti ke lie anupayukt bhoomi), sarakari pharmon (1969 ee. men adhikrit 1,17,300 haikteyar krishi yogy bhoomi), sahakari samitiyon (1969 men adhikrit 4,61,600 hekteyar) tatha niji logon (1,300 hekteyar) ka adhikar hai. mee, 1967 men niji bhookhndon (platon) ko 50-60 pratishat tak kam kar diya gaya tha. 1969 men yahan traiktaron (pratyek 15 ashvashaktivala) ki snkhya 10,470 thi.

1965 men yahan nimnalikhit utpadan (mitrik tanon me) hua : anaj (gehoon chaval adi) 3,26,000; kapas 23,000; tnbakoo 14,000; aloo 21,000.

1964 men yahan 4,27,100 gay bail, 16,82,200 bheden, 11,99,300 bakariyan, 1,46,600, sooar (1963 men), 1,22,100 ghode tatha khachchar aur 16,90,000 murgiyan thin. is varsh kul 3,600 mitrik tan machhaliyan bhi pakadi geen.

khanij : albeniya khanijon ki drishti se kaphi samriddh hai. parntu inhen upalabdh karane ki paddhati pichhale kuchh hi varshon se vikasit ki ja rahi hai. 1970 men yahan sat koyale, sat kromiyam (varshik utpadan 3,00,000 mitrik tan) tatha chhah tanbe ki khanon men kam hua. 1969 men tirana ke nikat valiyas men koyale ke bahut bade bhndar ki khoj ki gee hai. vlon ke nikat namak ka utpadan bhi hota hai.

udyog dhndhe : albeniya men poore udyog dhndhon ka rashtriyakaran kiya ja chuka hai. utpadan kaphi kam hai. pramukh udyog krishi utpadon ko taiyar karana, vastr tatha siment ke hain. chin ki sahayata se rasayanik tatha abhiyantriki snbndhi udyogon ki sthapana ki ja rahi hai. elabasan men ek lauh tatha ispat ka karakhana sthapit kiya ja raha hai jisaki kshamata ath lakh tan hogi. lenin jalavidyuth‌ steshan, malik chini mil, shkodar tnbakoo mil tatha stalin vastr mil pahale se hi utpadanaprakriya men hain. yahan ab 6 jalavidyuth‌ghar hain jinase 1965 men 342 karod 9 lakh kilovat vidyut paida ki gee thi.[1]



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  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 267 |

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