एस्टोनिया  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

estoniya kshetraphal 45,000 varg ki.mi., janasnkhya 14,00,000 (1970 men) soviyat sngh ka ek rajy hai, jo uttar-poorvi yoorop men baltik sagar ke tat par hai. sanh‌ 1918 men is svatntrata mili, 1940 men soviyat sngh men milaya gaya, 1941 men jarmani ke adhin ho gaya tatha 1944 men pun: soviyat sngh se mila.

is pradesh ke bhootal par pratinootan (plaistosin) yug ki himasaritaon ne yathesht prabhav dala hai. uttar men hone ke karan yahan ki jalavayu shital hai. is rajy men bahut bade kshetr men van hain. yahan ka mukhy pesha krishi evn pashupalan hai. aloo, jo, raee, patasan (flaiks), doodh, mans adi yahan ke mukhy utpadan hain. van udyogon men latthe tatha kagaj ke udyog mukhy hain. is desh ke khanij tel ka kav (ayal shel) mahatvapoorn hai. isake pas daladal ka koyala (pot), choona patthar (laimaston), fasaforas, sngamaramar, jipsam adi ke bhi achchhe kosh hain. yahan ke mukhy udyog kataee, bunaee, banavati resham, diyasalaee, kagaj, siment, tatha chamada kamane ke karakhane aur potanirman hain. rajy ke adhe udyog talin nagar men hi sthit hain. yahan ke manushyon ka ek bada bhag nardik jati ka hai aur bhasha fino-urgiyan parivar ki hai. yahan par shiksha ka star kaphi uncha hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 262 |

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