अनाम  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

chnpa ke vyapariyon ne 'hind-chin' pahunchakar 'vartaman anam' ke pradesh men 'chnpa' namak 'bharatiy upanivesh' sthapit kiya tha.

chin ka akraman

yahan ke adivasi anami tangaking tatha dakshini chin ki gayochi jati ko apana poorvapurush manate hain. kuchh auron ke vichar se ye anami adivasi chin rajavnsh ke uttaradhikari hain. inake rajy ke bad ek doosara vnsh yahan akar jama jisake samay men chin rajy ne anam par akraman kiya. bad men din-bo-lanh ke vnshadharon ne yahan rajy kiya. unake samay men cham namak ek jati bahut badi snkhya men yahan a pahunchi. ye log hindoo the aur inake dvara bani kee attalikaen aj bhi isaka praman hain. sanh‌ 1407 ee. men anam par chini logon ka pun: akraman hua, parantu 1428 men liloyi namak ek anami senadhyaksh ne ise chiniyon ke hath se mukt kiya. liloyi ke bad guyen namak ek parivar ne isapar 18vin shatabdi tak rajy kiya. isake pashchath‌ anam phransisiyon ke adhikar men chala gaya. ve pino d bahen namak ek padari (bishap) ki sahayata se is desh men ae the. guyen parivar ke giyalng namak ek vidrohi ne is padari ke sath milakar phransisi sena ko anam men bulaya tha. sanh‌ 1778 ee. men giyalng ne phrans ke raja 16ven luee ke sath sndhi kar li aur usake vnshaj kuchh samay tak rajy karate rahe. tu dachoo anam ka antim svadhin raja tha. 1859 men phrans tatha spen ne anam par akraman kie. anam ke raja ne chin samrath ke pas sahayata ke lie prarthana ki parntu chin ke sath phransisiyon ne samajhauta kar liya. sanh‌ 1884 men anam phrench protektaret ho gaya aur ek rezident supiriyar anam ke rajakary paridarshan ke lie rakhe ge. is snbndh men baon daee yahan ke antim raja rahe.

dvitiy vishvayuddh

dvitiy mahayuddh ke samay 1941 men vichi sarakar par japani sena ne akraman kiya aur 1945 men phransisi aphasaron ko padachyut karake bao daee ko viyatanam (arthath‌ taaunakin, anam, kochin chin) ka shasanakarta banaya. isake bad se viyatanam ki rajanitik paristhiti bahut dinon tak dhili dhali rahi. 1951 ke asapas samyavadi prabhav prabal ho utha aur jhagada uttarottar badhata gaya. ant men yah desh 17° akshansh rekha ke dvara do bhagon men vibhajit kiya gaya-uttari bhag 'uttari viyatanam' tatha dakshini bhag 'dakshini viyatanam' prasiddh hua. pradhan mntri go din diyem ne bao daee ko padachyut karake dakshini viyatanam janatntr sthapit kiya tatha isaka pahala rashtrapati bana.

champa

vartaman ‘anam’ ka adhikansh bhag is kshetr men samahit tha. isaka vistar 140 se 100 uttari deshantar ke bich men tha. 'hindachin' men bharatiyon ka sarvadhik prachin upanivesh 'champa' tha. eesavi sanh se poorv hi bharatavasi is desh men pravisht ho chuke the. us kal me champa rajy sukh, vaibhav aur samriddhi se bharapoor anek nagaron tatha ati sundar hindoo v bauddh mandiron se sushobhit tha. vahan ke ‘misang’ aur ‘dang duang’ nag ke do nagar aj bhi darshaniy mandiron ke lie prasiddh hain. yahan ke hindoo nivasi hindoo devi-devataon ki upasana karate the. champa ki vastukala aur takshan-kala sarvashreshth thi. is rajy men snskrit bhasha aur hindoo dharm tatha snskriti ka vyapak prasar tha. mngolon aur anamiyon ke bhishan akramanon ne solahavin sadi men bharat ke is aupaniveshik rajy ka ant kar diya. champapuri ke vartaman avasheshon men yahan ke prachin bharatiy dharm v snskriti ki sundar jhalak milati hai.

vartaman sthiti

anam ke uttar se dakshin tak anamiz karadilera parvatashreni phaili huee hai. yah shreni laos ke parvaty bhag se dakshin ki or akar poorvi or thik vaise hi mud jati hai jaise barma ka pahad pashchim ki or mudata hai. in donon pahadon ne apane bich men knbodiya ke pathar ko gher rakha hai. is parvaty pradesh ki ridh pradhanat: grainait shila se bani hui hai jisake asapas apaksharan se purani shilaen nikal padi hain. kahin-kahin par apekshakrit bad men bani huee shilaen jaise karbonipheras yug ke choone ke patthar bhi dikhaee padate hain. ye shilaen visheshakar poorvi kinaron par hi milati hain. yah ridh nadiyon dvara kati phati hai; isalie kinare ke pas pahad tatha ghati ek ke bad ek padate hai. is kshetr ka uttari bhag pahadi tatha dakshini bhag pathari hai aur pahadon men poohak (6,560 phut), pooatavat (18,200 phut) madar aind chaild (6,888 phut) adi parvatashikhar hain. pashchim ki apeksha poorv ki or ki dhal adhik khadi hai. kee darro dvara upakool bhag desh ke bhitari bhag men mila hua hai, jinamen se uttar ka asam get (390 phut) vishesh mahatv ke hain. is upakool bhag men tooren ki khadi sabase achchha aur ekamatr potashray (bndaragah) hai.

jalavayu

yahan ki jalavayu manasooni hai. dakshin pashchim manasoon madhy aprail se agast ke ant tak chala karata hai, parntu yah sthal ke oopar se hokar chalane ke karan shushk rahata hai. is samay ka tap 82°-86° pha. rahata hai. yahan ki varsha sitnbar se aprail tak chalanevali uttar poorvi manasooni vayu dvara hoti hai, jo chin sagar ke oopar se bahati hai. is samay ka tap lagabhag 73° pha. rahata hai. samudri toophan yahan pray: ate rahate hain.

mukhy phasal

chaval yahan ki mukhy upaj hai jo upakool pradesh men tatha chhoti chhoti nadiyon ke muhanon par paryapt pariman men paida hota hai. chaval ke atirikt makka, chay, tnbakoo, ruee, masale, ganna adi yahan upajae jate hain. dakshin ki or kuchh bhoobhag men rabad ki kheti hoti hai aur pahadi kshetron men shahatoot ke pedon par resham ke kide pale jate hain. resham taiyar karana yahan ka purana karobar hai aur purane dhng se hi chalata hai. anam paryapt pariman men resham bahar bhejata hai. any purane vyavasayon men namak banana tatha machhali pakadana yahan bahut prachalit hain. bngaliyon ki bhanti machhali aur chaval inake mukhy khady hain. parivahan (yatayat) ki asuvidha ke karan is desh ka abhyntariy vyavasay nahin ke barabar hai. upakool bhag ka 1,200 kilomitar lnba rasta yahan ke yatayat ka mukhy sadhan hai jo bade bade shaharon ko milata hai. rel ki lain isi sadak ke samantar hai aur anam ki sari lnbaee par karati hai. yah pahadon ko chhodati huee bahudha samudratat ke pas se jati hai. tooren yahan ka sabase bada shahar tatha sabase bada bndaragah hai. yah bndaragah soot, chay, khanij tel tatha tnbakoo ayat karata hai. isaka niryat chini, chaval, ruee, resham tatha dalachini hai. tooren ke pas nngasan namak sthan par koyale ki khan hai. pahadi ilake men sona, chandi, tanba, jasta, sisa, loha tatha doosare khanij padarth paryapt matra men milate hain.[1]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 114 |

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