मानसून  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

manasoon
manasoon varsha
vivaran 'manasoon' kisi bhi desh aur usaki krishi ke lie bahut mahattvapoorn hai. manasoon ke samay kuchh vishisht havaen pravahaman hoti hain, jinaki vajah se paryapt matra men varsha hoti hai.
arth manasoon ka arth hai- "ve havaen, jinaki disha ritu ke anusar badal jati hai".
prakar 'garmi ka manasoon' (aprail se sitambar), 'jade ka manasoon' (aktoobar se march)
mahattv manasoon krishi ke lie atynt avashyak hai. vishv ki kee pramukh fasalon ki paidavar manasoon ki varsha par hi nirbhar karati hai.
vishesh lagabhag do hazar eesa poorv rachit upanishadon men prithvi aur soory ke sapekshik gati se utpann mausam chakr, badalon ka banana tatha varsha jaisi vishayon par pahali bar darshanik charcha ka ullekh milata hai.
snbndhit lekh varsha, hind mahasagar, arab sagar, bngal ki khadi
any janakari bharatiy bhashaon men manasoon ke badal ke lie 'ghan', 'ghata', 'megh', 'badali', 'jalad', 'saudamini' jaise kam se kam 40 se adhik paryayavachi shabd hain. maladiv men ise 'hulahangu' ya 'iroovaee', shrilnka men ise 'yalhulnga' ya 'kachchan' nam se pukara jata hai.

manasoon se abhipray hai- 've havaen, jinaki disha ritu ke anusar badal jati hai.' hind mahasagar evn arab sagar ki or se bharat ke dakshin-pashchim tat par ani vali ve vishesh havaen, jo bharat, pakistan, bangladesh adi men bhari varsha karatin hain. manasoon bharatiy krishi aur arthavyavastha ke lie behad aham hai, isake sath hi bharat ke lok jivan se bhi gahare juda hai. yah garmi ki tapish se nijat dilata hai aur logon men utsah v khushi ka snchar karata hai. bharat men manasoon hind mahasagar v arab sagar ki or se himalay ki or ane vali havaon par nirbhar karata hai. jab ye havaen bharat ke dakshin-pashchim tat par pashchimi ghat se takarati hain to bharat tatha as-pas ke deshon men bhari varsha hoti hai. ye havaen dakshin eshiya men joon se sitambar tak sakriy rahati hain. vaise kisi bhi kshetr ka manasoon usaki jalavayu par nirbhar karata hai.

prakar

bharat ek krishi pradhan desh hai. yahan ki arthavyavastha adhikanshat: krishi par hi nirbhar hai. isilie yah bahut avashyak hai ki paryapt matra men jal krishi ke lie upalabdh ho. manasoon men hone vali achchhi varsha kafi had tak kisanon ko samriddh bana deti hai. bharat hi nahin vishv ki kee pramukh fasalen manasooni varsha par nirbhar hain. bharat agar chhah rituon ka desh hai, to manasoon us chakr ki dhuri hai. aj bhi manasoon se hone vali varsha, bharatiy arthavyavastha ka adhar hai. sakal ghareloo utpad ka 30 pratishat krishi se ata hai, jabaki lagabhag 67 pratishat mazadooron ki nirbharata krishi ya is par adharit udyogon par hi hai. manasooni havaon ke do prakar hote hain-

  1. garmi ka manasoon, jo aprail se sitambar tak chalata hai.
  2. jade ka manasoon, jo aktoobar se march tak chalata hai.

bharat men varsha karane vala manasoon do shakhaon men bnta hota hai-

  1. arab sagar ka manasoon
  2. bngal ki khadi ka manasoon

nam tatha vistar

bharat samet poore dakshin eshiya men krishi ka adhar manasoon hai. 'manasoon' shabd ki utpatti arabi bhasha ke 'mausim' shabd se huee hai. arab ke samudri vyapariyon ne samudr se sthal ki or ya isake viparit chalane vali havaon ko 'mausim' kaha, jo age chalakar 'manasoon' kaha jane laga. manasoon ka jadoo aur isaka jivan–sngit bharatiy upamahadvip men hi phaila ho, aisa nahin hai. vastav men, yah prithvi par sabase badi jalavayu snrachana hai. bhoogol par isaka vistar lagabhag 10 digri dakshini akshansh se lekar 25 digri uttari akshansh tak hai. yadyapi manasoon mukhy roop se dakshin aur dakshin–poorv eshiya, madhy afrika tatha uttari aaustreliya men poorn vikasit roop men milata hai, kintu amerika aur meksiko ke pashchimi bhagon tak isake tar jude hain. snpoorn bharatiy upamahadvip ke alava eshiya men thailaind, myanmar, laos tatha viyatanam men manasoon ka prabhav garmiyon men spasht taur par dikhaee deta hai, jabaki hind mahasagar ke vistrit jalarashi ke chalate indoneshiyaee dvip samoohon par isaka prabhav kam hai. dakshini chin evn philipins men jade ke dinon men chalane vali vyaparik pavanon ka garmi ke dinon men gayab hona bhi manasooni havaon ke chalate hi hai.[1]

bhaugolik tathy

prakriti ke lay-tal men bndhe manasoon chakr ko prithvi aur samudri jal ke oopar varsh bhar padane vali saur ooshma ke phalasvaroop hone vale tapantar ke roop men samajha ja sakata hai. jaliy evn sthaliy bhagon men saur vikiran ko dharan karane ki kshamata alag-alag hoti hai. sthal bhag ki tulana men, soory ki ooshma samudri jal ko adhik der se garm kar pati hai. jade ke pashchath aprail-mee men soory ki garmi pakar, bharatiy prayadvip tatha dakshin-poorv eshiya ka sthaliy bhag, jahan khoob garm ho jata hai, vahin hind mahasagar ki vishal jalarashi apekshakrit thndi hoti hai.
manasooni varsha men gujarate vahan
sthaliy bhag men havaen garm hokar oopar ki or uthati hain aur nimn dab ki sthiti paida ho jati hai. tapantar aur nimn dab ki sthiti men arab sagar aur 'bngal ki khadi' men uchchadab ki sthiti vali shital samudri pavan apane sath bhari nami lie age badhati hai. bharatiy prayadvip ke pashchim men sahayadri aur uttar men himalay parvat jaise rukavat ko pakar manasooni havaen oopar uthati hain aur shitalan ke pashchath usaki nami se snghanit hokar varsha ki boondon men badal jati hai. arab sagar aur bngal ki khadi men prayah ek sath uthane vali manasooni pavan ke age badhane par keral ke nikat pashchimi ghat aur poorvi bharat ke meghalay men garo-khasi ki pahadiyon se takarakar 2500 milimitar se bhi adhik varsha karati hai.[1]

'bngal ki khadi' se chalane vali shakha poorvi evn poorvottar bharat, myanmar, bhootan aur nepal men varsha karati hai. dakshin-poorvi manasoon ki donon shakhaen age badhane par gnga ke maidani hisse men milakar pashchim bharat hote hue pakistan ki or badh jati hai. dakshin-poorvi manasoon jaise-jaise age badhati hai, usaki nami kam hoti jati hai aur varsha ki matra bhi. sitambar ke ant men sthiti ulti hone par, havaen apana rukh badal leti hain aur madhy bharat ke maidanon aur 'bngal ki khadi' ke oopar se lautate hue vapasi men nami se bhar jati hain. uttar–pashchimi disha men bahati huee, nami se bhari ye manasooni havaen lautate samay bharat ke tamilanadu, shrilnka tatha aaustreliya ke uttari bhagon men samany se bhari varsha karati hain.

vaigyanik drishtikon

manasoon ki utpatti evn isaki bhavishyavani prarnbh se hi logon ke lie jigyasa evn khoj ka vishay raha hai. jyotishiy gananaon ke adhar par varsha ke dinon ka anuman prachin kal se hi bharatiy pnditon dvara kiya jata raha hai. ane vali manasoon se snbhavit varsha ka poorvanuman koee asan kam nahin hai. vaigyanik tarike se 1884 se hi is disha men prayas chal rahe hain. bharatiy up-mahadvip men manasoon ki lnbi avadhi ke lie bhavishyavani ki jimmedari 1875 men sthapit 'bharat mausam vibhag' nibha raha hai. mausam vibhag dvara 16 kshetriy evn vaishvik rashiyon ka upayog kar 1988 men ek maaudal vikasit kiya gaya, taki lnbi avadhi ke lie manasoon ki bhavishyavani ki ja sake. in rashiyon men tapaman se snbndhit 6, vayudab kshetr se snbndhit 3, dabav men bhinnata ki sthiti ke lie 5 tatha himakshetr se snbndhit 2 rashi hain. vibhinn sthanon par lie ge tap, dab, ardata jaisi sthaliy, samudri evn vayumndaliy bhautik rashiyon ke man par adharit sankhyikiy maaudal ki sahayata se snbhavit manasoon ki varsha ka anuman lagaya jata hai. 'supar knpyootar' ka bhi upayog kar, ghat pratigaman maaudal ki sahayata se prapt varsh-man 4 pratishat snbhavit truti sima ke lie svikary hota hai.[1]

vishv ke manasoon

manasoon kisi bhi desh aur usaki krishi vyavastha ke lie bahut mahattvapoorn hai. vishv ki pramukh manasoon pranaliyon men pashchimi afrika evn eshiya-aaustreliyaee manasoon ate hain. is shreni men uttari amarika aur dakshin amariki manasoonon ko sammilit karane men kuchh matabhed abhi bhi vaigyanikon ke madhy hain.

varsha ka drishy

bharatiy manasoon

bharatiy manasoon hind mahasagar v arab sagar ki or se himalay ki or ane vali havaon par nirbhar karata hai. jab ye havaen bharat ke dakshin pashchim tat par pashchimi ghat se takarati hain to bharat tatha as-pas ke deshon men bhari varsha hoti hai. ye havaen dakshin eshiya men joon se sitambar tak sakriy rahati hain. vaise kisi bhi kshetr ka manasoon usaki jalavayu par nirbhar karata hai. bharat ke snbndh men yahan ki jalavayu ooshnakatibndhiy hai aur ye mukhyatah do prakar ki havaon se prabhavit hoti hai- 'uttar-poorvi manasoon' v 'dakshini-pashchimi manasoon'. uttar-poorvi manasoon ko prayah 'shit manasoon' kaha jata hai. yah havaen maidan se sagar ki or chalati hain, jo hind mahasagar, arab sagar aur 'bngal ki khadi' ko par karake ati hain. yahan adhikansh varsha dakshin pashchim manasoon se hoti hai. bharat men poorv se pashchim disha ki or se kark rekha nikalati hai. isaka desh ki jalavayu par sidha prabhav padata hai. grishm, shit aur varsha rituon men se varsha ritu ko prayah 'manasoon' nam se sambodhit kar diya jata hai.

poorv eshiyaee manasoon

yah manasoon indo-chin, philipins, chin, koriya evn japan ke bade kshetron men prabhav dalata hai. isaki mukhy prakriti garm, barasati grishm kal evn shit-shushk shitakal hote hain. isamen adhikatar varsha ek poorv-pashchim men phaile nishchit kshetr men simit rahati hai, sivay poorvi chin ke, jahan varsha poorv-poorvottar men koriya v japan men hoti hai. mausami varsha ko chin men 'meiyu', koriya men 'changma' aur japan men 'baee-yu' kaha jata hai. grishm kalin varsha ka agaman dakshin chin evn taeevan men mee mah ke arnbh men ek manasoon-poorv varsha se hota hai. isake bad mee se agast paryant grishm kalin manasoon anek shushk evn ardr shrinkhalaon se uttaravarti hota jata hai. ye indo-chaina evn dakshin chini sagar se arnbh hokar yangtaji nadi evn japan men aur antatah uttari chin evn koriya men julaee tak pahunchata hai. agast ke mahine men manasoon kal ka ant hona arambh hota hai aur yah dakshin chin ki taraf mudane lagata hai.

afrika

pashchimi up-sahara afrika ke manasoon ko pahale antarkatibandhiy snsripti zon ke mausami badalavon aur sahara tatha vishuvatiy andh mahasagar ke bich tapaman evn ardrata ke antaron ke parinamasvaroop samajha jata tha. ye vishuvatiy andh mahasagar se faravari men uttaravarti hota hai, aur phir lagabhag 22 joon tak pashchimi afrika pahunchata hai, aur aktoobar tak dakshinavarti hote hue pichhe hatata hai. shushk uttar-pashchimi vyaparik pavan aur unake charam svaroop haramattan men uttari badalav se prabhavit hote hain aur parinamit dakshinavarti pavan grishm kal men varsha lekar ati hain. soodan aur sahel ke ardh-shushk kshetr apane marusthaliy kshetr men hone vali zyadatar varsha ke liye is manasoon par hi ashrit hain.

uttari amarika

uttar amariki manasoon varsh ke joon ke ant ya julaee ke arnbh se sitambar tak ata hai. isaka udgam meksiko se hota hai aur snyukt rajy men madhy julaee tak varsha upalabdh karata hai. isake prabhav se meksiko men siyera maidr aauksidental ke sath-sath aur erizona, nyoo meksiko, nevada, yootah, koloraido, pashchimi teksas tatha kailiphorniya men varsha aur ardrata hoti hai. ye pashchim men prayadvipiy kshetron tatha dakshini kailiphorniya ke transvars shrinkhalaon tak phailate hain, kintu tatavarti rekha tak kadachit hi pahunchate hain. uttari amariki manasoon ko samar, sauthavest, meksikan ya erizona manasoon ke nam se bhi jana jata hai. ise kee bar 'marusthaliy manasoon' bhi kah diya jata hai, kyonki isake prabhavit kshetron men adhikansh bhag mojev aur sonorain marusthalon ke hain.

mahattvapoorn tathy

varsha men rikshe vala

manasoon ki varsha ke sndarbh men itihas evn vigyan se snbndhit kuchh rochak tathy[1] nimnalikhit hain-

  • lagabhag do hazar eesa poorv rachit upanishadon men prithvi aur soory ke sapekshik gati se utpann mausam chakr, badalon ka banana tatha varsha jaisi vishayon par pahali bar darshanik charcha ka ullekh milata hai. chauthi sadi eesa poorv men kautily dvara likhe gaye 'arthashastr' men varshamapi upakaran ka varnan tatha rajasv evn rahat karyon men varsha ke vaigyanik map ka mahattv bataya gaya hai. panchavin sadi men varahamihir dvara rachit pustak 'vrihatasnhita' men 'adityeth jayate vrishti' kahakar soory ko varsha ka janak kaha gaya hai.
  • satavin sadi men mahakavi kalidas dvara snskrit men rachit grnth 'meghadootamh' men manasoon ki varsha ka madhy bharat men agaman kal tatha badalon ke kramashah age badhane ka kavyamay varnan hai.
  • adhunik samay men british vaigyanik haili ne 1636 eesvi men grishm kalin bharatiy manasoon par vistrit vivaran likha tha. varsh 1877 eesvi men ae bhaynkar akal ke pashchath bharat men padasthapit ek angrez mausam vaigyanik tatha 'bharat mausam vibhag' ke snsthapak ech.ef.blainaford ne 1884 men pahali bar manasoon ke agaman ki vaigyanik adhar par bhavishyavani ki thi.
  • 'mausam vigyan vibhag' ke anusar lnbi avadhi ki ganana ke adhar par ausat man ki 90 se 97 pratishat tak hone vali varsha samany manasoon kahalati hai, jabaki 90 pratishat se kam varsha sookhe ka snket hai. bharatiy upamahadvip men 1889 se lagatar dakshin-pashchim manasoon ki samany varsha ho rahi hai. varsh 1921-1940 evn 1952-1964 ki avadhi ke bad pichhale 100 varshon men aisa tisari bar hua hai.
  • manasoon se hone vali samany varsha se alag, jab 100 milimitar prati ghnta se adhik varshan ho, tab ise "badal ka phatana" kaha jata hai. aisi sthiti men jan-mal ka kafi nukasan hota hai.
  • bharatiy upamahadvip men hone vali ausat varshik varsha ka 80 pratishat dakshin pashchim manasoon ke dvara sirf tin mahinon men hi ho jati hai. snsar men sabase adhik varsha bharat ke meghalay rajy men sthit jagah 'masinaram' (cherapoonji) men hoti hai.
  • manasooni pradesh men zyadatar chaudi patti vale sadabahar van milate hain, kintu kam varsha ke kshetr men ushn-katibndhiy patajhad van bhi milate hain. sagavan, sal, semal, shisham, bans jaisi bahumooly lakadiyon ke alava vayaviy jadon ke sahare doosare vanon par vikasit hone vale 'ipifaitik arkid' jaise padap samooh bhi paye jate hain.
  • bharatiy bhashaon men manasoon ke badal ke lie 'ghan', 'ghata', 'megh', 'badali', 'jalad', 'saudamini' jaise kam se kam 40 se adhik paryayavachi shabd hain. maladiv men ise 'hulahangu' ya 'iroovaee', shrilnka men ise 'yalhulnga' ya 'kachchan' nam se pukara jata hai.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 prakriti ka jivan sngit (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 07 joon, 2013.

bahari kadiyan

snbndhit lekh

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