bharatakosh ke snsthapak/snpadak ke fesabuk laiv ke lie yahan klik karen.

आर्कटिक प्रदेश  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

arkatik pradesh jal aur sthal us kshetr ko kahate hain jo uttari dhruv se charon or lagabhag arkatik vritt (66° 30¢ u.a.) tak phaila hua hai. isake antargat narave, svidan aur phinalaind ke uttari bhag, roos ka tundra pradesh, alaska ka uttari bhag, kanada ka tundra pradesh aur arkatik sagar men sthit anek dvip hain; jaise grinalaind, svitzabargan, phhऱainz jozephalaind, nova zemliya, sevarna zemliya, nyoo saiberiyan dvip, uttari kanada ke dvip; jaise elsamear, baiphir ityadi.

itihas - jahan tak gyat ho saka hai, narve ke logon ne pahale pahal arkatik pradeshon ke kuchh bhagon par apana adhikar jamaya. unaki pauranik kathaon men vahan ka varnan milata hai. sanh‌ 867 ee. men narve ke narsaman logon ne aisalaind dvip ki khoj ki aur sanh‌ 874 ee. men apane upanivesh vahan sthapit kie jinamen aj bhi unaki sntati basi huee hai. sanh‌ 982 ee. ke lagabhag erik di red namak ek narsamain ne grinalaind dvip ki khoj ki aur vahan bhi upanivashon ki sthapana huee, parntu kuchh samay pashchath‌ pratikool bhaugolik paristhitiyon ke phalasvaroop ve nasht ho ge. grinalainu se aur pashchim chalakar narsamain uttari amarika tak pahunch ge. snbhavat: erik di red ke putr liph ne sanh‌ 1,000 ee. ke lagabhag uttari amarika ke kad antarip aur laibrador ke bich sthit samudratat ke kuchh bhag ki yatra ki thi.

uttari pashchimi yoorop men vanijy ki vriddhi hone par angrej aur dach log sudoor poorv pahunchane ke lie yooreshiya ya amarika mahadvip ke uttar se hokar ek ne marg ki khoj men lag ge. in logon ne sudoor poorv pahunchane ke lie do vibhinn margon ka anusaran kiya, arthath‌ uttar poorvi marg aur uttar pashchimi marg. uttar poorvi marg dvara sudoor poorvi pahunchane ka prayas sanh‌ 1553 ee. men saibistiyan kaibat ke protsahan se arnbh hua. sanh‌ 1597 ee. tak in anveshanon dvara yooropiy roos ke arkatik samudratat aur samipasth dvipon ka paryapt gyan prapt ho gaya tha. is uttar poorvi marg ka anusaran 17vin shatabdi men bhi jari raha, parntu isase bhaugolik gyan men koee vishesh vriddhi nahin huee. sanh‌ 1760 ee. se roosi navikon ne bhi is marg ko apanaya aur snpoorn roos ke arkatik pradesh aur samipasth dvipon ke gyan ki vriddhi men vishesh yog diya. ant men sanh‌ 1932 ee. men saiberiyakov namak ek roosi barph todanevale jalayan ne uttar poorvi marg ki yatra saphalatapoorvak snpann ki. sanh‌ 1935 ee. se is marg par vyaparik jalayanon ka chalana prarnbh hua.

uttar pashchimi marg dvara grinalaind aur uttari amarika mahadvip ke madhy se hokar sudoor poorv pahunchane ka prayas sarvapratham 7 joon, 1576 ko martin phraubishan dvara prarnbh hua aur ant men ar. amnsan ne pahali bar 1903-1905 men apane jalayan gyoa se uttar pashchimi marg ki yatra saphalatapoorvak snpann ki. in anveshanon dvara grinalaind dvip aur kanada ke arkatik pradeshon ke gyan men mahatvapoorn vriddhi huee.

idhar uttari dhruv pahunchane ka prayas 19vin shatabdi ke arnbh se hi chal raha tha. is disha men phratauph nainasan ka prayas vishesh ullekhaniy hai. inhonne sanh‌ 1893 ee. men apane jahaj phraim men uttari dhruv ke lie prasthan kiya aur jahaj him ke bahav ke sahare uttar ki or badhata gaya. thos him se jahaj ki pragati rukane se pahale hi nainasan jahaj chhod apane sathi johanasen ke sath paidal badhane lage. ve 8 aprail, 1893 ko uttari dhruv se keval 3° 48¢ ki doori par rah ge the jab pratikool paristhitiyon ne unhen lautane par badhy kar diya. is prakar jalayanon dvara uttari dhruv pahunchane ke prayason ka kram chalata raha aur ant men 6 aprail, 1909 ko ar.ee. pairi ne uttari dhruv par vijay prapt kar li. vayuyan dvara uttari dhruv pahunchane ka shrey sarvapratham ar.ee. bard ko mee, 1926 men prapt hua aur panadubbi jahaj men barph ke niche chalakar uttari dhruv pahunchane ka shrey sarvapratham 'naautilas' jahaj ko 3 agast, 1958 ko prapt hua.

bhootatv - arkatik pradeshon men vibhinn kalpon ki chatritanen milati hain, jaise kanada ke arkatik pradesh aur grinalaind men prachinatam kalpiy shilaon ki adhikata hai, jab ki keval yooreshiya ke arkatik pradesh men hi purakalpiy tatha aur navin kal ki shilaen milati hain. is samay arkatik pradesh men jvalamukhi kriya adhik mahatvapoorn nahin hai aur jagrat jvalamukhiyon men jaaun meyan dvip men sthit birenabarg jvalamukhi parvat hi vishesh ullekhaniy hai. budabe aur spitzabargan dvipon men garam sote sthit hain. poorvakalin jvalamukhikriya ke chihn grinalaind, spitjubargan, phhऱainz jozephalaind aur nyoo saiberiyan dvipon ki tritiyak kalp men arkatik pradesh men kahin adhik ushn jalavayu ke spasht praman milate hain, parntu pratinootan him yug men jalavayu adhik thndi ho gee thi aur snbhavat: kanada ke arkatik dvipon ko chhodakar adhikansh arkatik pradesh himachchhadit the.

arkatik sagar - yah sthalakhndo dvara ghira hai, parntu isake bich uttari dhruv ki sthiti kendravarti nahin hai. grinalaind aur narvejiyan samudron sahit isaka kshetraphal lagabhag 54,00,000 varg mil hai. arkatik sagar ki ek mahatvapoorn visheshata isaka vistrit mahadvipiy nidhay hai, jisapar saikadon dvip aur dvipasamooh, jisaka ullekh oopar ho chuka hai, sthit hain. vastav men ye dvip poorvakal ke ek adhik vishal sthalakhnd ke avashesh matr hain aur samanyat: samipasth mahadvipiy khndon se bhaumikiy snbndh pradarshit karate hain. anushikt dvara snchalit 'naautilas' panadubbi jahaj ke anveshanon dvara (julaee agast, 1958 men) yah gyat hua hai ki uttari dhrav par jal ki gaharaee 13,410 phut hai aur yahan jal ke oopar himastaron ki ausat motaee 12 phut hai.

jalavayu - arkatik pradesh vishv ke ati shit pradeshon men hai aur yahan samudr se door sthit kshetron men -90° pha. tak ke nyoonatam tap ankit hone ke praman mile hain. grishmakal men yahan 80 pha. se bhi oonche tap ankit hue hain. ye vishv ke atyodhik shushk pradesh hai, jisase inhen shit marusthal bhi kahate hain ausat varshik vrishti lagabhag 10 inch hai jo mukhyat: him ke roop men hoti hai. varsh ke adhikansh samay thndhi dhruvi havaen ati tivr gati se chalati rahati hain.

prakritik snpatti - yahan ke khanij padartho ki khoj ki or abhi tak adhik dhyan akarshit nahin hua hai. mukhyat: patthar ka koyala, mitti ka tel loha aur tanba ityadi khanijon ka hi kuchh matra men utkhanan hua hai aur sona, chandi, plaitinam aur tin ityadi ki keval upasthiti hi gyat huee hain. arkatik vanaspati mukhyat: pharn, laiken aur maaus hain. inake alava grishmakal men chhote chhote rng birnge phoolonvale paudhe aur chhoti chhoti ber ki jhadiyan ug ati hain. ye pradesh lagabhag vrikshahin hain, keval dakshini bhagon men nadiyon ke kinare chhote kad ke barch ityadi tatha konadhari vriksh ugate hain. kuchh bhagon men anaj aur shak utpadan ki sabhanvanaen hain aur is hetu vishesh roop so prayatn kie ja rahe hain. arkatik pradeshon men vividh prakar ke jiv jntu pae jat hain, jaise kastoorivrish (mask aauks), lomadi, kairiboo, bhodiya, leming, kharagosh, dhraviy bhaloo ityadi. roendar pashuon men bivar, aautar, links tatha sebul mukhy hain. palatu janavaron men yooreshiya ke arkatik pradesh men paya janevala pashu renadir hai. yahan ke jal kshetron men mukhyatn: sil, hel aur valaras pae jate hain.

manushy tatha vyavasay - arkatik pradeshon ke nivasiyon ka mukhy udyog shikar karana tatha machhali pakadana hai. krishi ke abhav men inaki bhojan, vastr, ashray, yatayat ityadi ki avashyakaton ki poorti pashuon dvara hoti hai. snpoorn yooreshiya ke arkatik pradesh ke lie renadiyar bahut badi den hai, jisake dvara bhojan ke lie mans aur doodh, vastr aur tnbuon ke lie khal, astrashastron ke lie haddi aur sing tatha jalane aur prakash ke lie charabi milati hai. yahan yatayat ka mukhy sadhan binapahievali slej gadi hai jise renadiyar khinchate hain. yooreshiya ke arkatik pradesh ke nivasiyon ki laips, phins, asteks, yooriyats, saimoyad tatha yakoot kahate hain. ye sab asthiravasi (khanabadosh) hain jo bhojan ki khoj men idhar udhar ghoomate hain. ye adhikatar chamade ke tnbuon men nivas karate hain jinhen choom kahate hain.

uttari amarika ke arkatik pradeshon aur grinalaind men eskimo jati ke log nivas kahate hain. yahan ke prakritik sadhan yooreshiya ke arkatik pradesh se milate julate hain isalie rahan sahan ki dashaon men bhi samanata paee jati hai. parntu yahan ka mukhy janavar palatoo renadiyar n hokar jngali kairiboo hai. ab kuchh sthanon men renadiyar pala jane laga hai jo yooreshiya se laya gaya hai. yahan ke nivasi mukhyat: samudrataton par rahate hain tatha sil, hel aur valaras ka shikar karake mans, tel, haddi, khal ityadi prapt karate hain. shitakal men barph ke andar chhed karake harapoon (bhale) se machhali pakadate hain. aur barph ke gharon men, jinhen igloo kahate hain, nivas karate hain. grishmakal men rahane ke lie tnbuon aur latthon ki jhopadiyon ka prayog karate hain. ye yatayat ke lie navon ka upayog karate hain. chhoti nav kayak aur badi nav umiyak kahalati hai. shaktishali kutton dvara janevali slej gadi ka bhi upayog hota hai.

is prakar arkatik pradeshon ke nivasiyon ka jivan prakriti se nirntar sngharsh men vyatit hota hai. asha hai, bhavishy men yahan upasthit patthar ka koyala, mitti ka tel any khanij padartho ke badhate hue utpadan ke sath sath ye pradesh bhi arthik drishti se adhik mahatvapoorn ho jaenge aur isake sath hi jahan ke nivasiyon ka jivanastar bhi ooncha uth sakega. uttari dhrav se hokar vayuyanasnchalan ka mahatv badh jane se bhi in pradeshon ki arthik unnati ki or adhik dhyan diya jane laga hai.[1]


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. hindi vishvakosh, khand 1 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 426 |

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