ज्वालामुखी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

jvalamukhi

jvalamukhi bhoopatal par vah prakritik chhed ya darar hai, jisase hokar prithvi ka vighala padarth lava, rakh, vashp tatha any gaisen bahar nikalati hain. bahar hava men uda hua lava shighr hi thnda hokar chhote thos tukadon men badal jata hai, jise 'sindar' kahate hain. udgar men nikalane vali gaison men vashp ka pratishat sarvadhik hota hai. prithvi par jitane bhi jvalamukhi maujood hain, unamen se zyadatar das hazar se ek lakh sal purane hain. vakt ke sath-sath inaki oonchaee bhi badh jati hai. jvalamukhi parvat se nikalane vali chizon men maigma ke sath kee tarah ki vishaili gaisen bhi hoti hain. ye gaisen as-pas base logon ke lie kafi ghatak hoti hain. in parvaton se nikala maigma ek bahati huee ag ke saman hota hai. yah apane samane aee har chiz ko poori tarah se samapt kar deta hai.

udgar ya visphot

jvalamukhi ka udgar ek kendr ya chhidr dvara athava darar se hota hai. kendriy udgar vale jvalamukhi prayah bhaynkar aur tivr veg vale hote hain, jabaki darari udgar men lava prayah dhire-dhire nikal kar bhoo-prishth par phail jata hai. kendriy udgar men niahsrit lava tatha any padarth adhik oonchaee tak akash men pahunch jate hain tatha akash men prayah badal chha jate hain aur vikhndit padarth punah tivrata se niche girate hain.
jvalamukhi
ye jvalamukhi adhik bhaynkar tatha vinashakari hote hain. kendriy udgar vale jvalamukhi udgar ki avadhi, antaral tatha prakriti ke anusar kee prakar ke hote hain, jinhen vishisht jvalamukhi ke adhar par kee vargon men vibhakt kiya jata hai. inamen pramukh prakar haiah havaee, stramboli, valkaino, piliyan, tatha visooviyas tuly jvalamukhi.

visphot se poorv ke snket

kisi bhi jvalamukhi ke ag ugalane se pahale kuchh parivartan samany roop se dekhe jate hain. inamen us jagah ke as-pas maujood pani ka star achanak badhane lagata hai. jvalamukhi phatane se pahale bhookamp ke kuchh halke jhatake bhi ate hain. in tamam baton ke alava jvalamukhi kya-kya tabahi lane vala hai, isaka snket vah svayn bhi deta hai. jo jvalamukhi parvat phatane vala hota hai, us parvat men se gaison ka risav shuroo ho jata hai. gaison ka yah risav isake muhane (mukh) ya phir 'kretar' se hota hai. isake alava, parvat men kee jagah paida huee dararon se bhi in gaison ka risav hota hai. yah is bat ka snket hai ki ab isake ag ugalane ka samay a gaya hai. in gaison men salfar-daee-aauksaid, kaaurban-daee-aauksaid, haidrojan kloraid adi pramukh gaisen hoti hain. inamen se haidrojan-kloraid aur kaaurban-daee-aauksaid behad khataranak hoti hai.[1]

astittv

jvalamukhi n sirf prithvi par hi maujood hain, balki inaka astitv mahasagaron men bhi hai. samudr men qarib das hazar jvalamukhi maujood hain. aj bhi kee jvalamukhi vaigyanikon ki nigah se bache hue hain. vinashakari sunami laharon ka nirman bhi samudr ke bhitar jvalamukhi visphot se hi hota hai. sabase bada jvalamukhi parvat havaee men hai. isaka nam 'mona lo' hai. yah qarib 13000 fit ooncha hai. yadi isako samudr ki gaharaee se napa jae, to yah qarib 29000 fit ooncha hai. isaka arth hai ki yah maunt evarest se bhi ooncha hai.
jvalamukhi
isake bad sisali ke 'maunt aitana' ka nnbar ata hai. yah vishv ka ekamatr sabase purana jvalamukhi hai. yah 3,5000 sal purana hai. jvalamukhi 'stromaboli' ko to 'laitahaus aauf maiditairiyan' kaha jata hai. isaki vajah hai ki yah har vakt sulagata hi rahata hai.

khanij padarth

jvalamukhi ke mukh se nikali ye gaisen vatavaran ko kafi pradooshit karati hain. jvalamukhi se nikale lave men kee tarah ke khanij bhi hote hain. jvalamukhi parvat kee tarah ki chattanon se bane hote hain. inamen kali, safed, bhoori chattanen adi shamil hain. amerika men endij parvatamala ko jvalamukhi parvat shrinkhala ke taur par liya jata hai. havaee (amerika) men maujood kee tapoo apane kali mitti se bane taton ke lie behad prasiddh hain. ye tat aur kuchh nahin, balki in parvaton se nikale khanij hi hain. jvalamukhi zamin ki athah gaharaee men chhipe khanijon ko ek hi bar men bahar phenk deta hai.[1]

jvalamukhi ke prakar

ek anuman ke mutabik abhi tak poori duniya men qarib 1500 jivit jvalamukhi parvat hain. himalay ek mrit jvalamukhi hai, isalie isase kisi bhi prakar ka khatara hone ki ashnka nahin hai. magar doosari taraph 'maunt etana' samet kee any jivit jvalamukhi hain, kyonki inase samay-samay par lava aur gais nikalati rahati hain. ye insani jan ke lie hamesha se hi khataranak rahe hain. eshiya mahadvip par sabase zyada jvalamukhi indoneshiya men hain. udgar ki avadhi ke anusar jvalamukhi tin prakar ke hote hain-

jvalamukhi
  1. sakriy jvalamukhi
  2. prasupt jvalamukhi aur
  3. shant jvalamukhi ya mrit jvalamukhi

bharat men jvalamukhi

yah sochana galat hai ki bharat men jvalamukhi nahin hain. bharat ke do sabase khataranak jvalamukhi andaman evn nikobar dvip samooh par hain. inamen se ek bairan dvip hai. 2004 men aee sunami ke dauran bairan phat gaya tha. is dauran isake 500 mitar oonche kretar se lava nikalane laga tha. andaman ki rajadhani port bleyar se qarib 135 kilomitar door bairan dvip men isase pahale 1996 men visphot hua tha. isi ke milate julate nam vala jvalamukhi hai, 'bairan ayalaind'. gol akar vale is jvalamukhi men 1994-95 men kee visphot ho chuke hain. isase nikale lave ke nishan aj bhi maujood hain. andaman men hi tisara bada jvalamukhi hai, 'narakondam'. jise pahale samapt man liya gaya tha. joon 2005 men is jvalamukhi se kichad aur dhuan nikalata dekha gaya tha. isase pahale 100 sal tak isamen koee gatividhi nahin huee thi. kaha jata hai ki 2004 men sumatra men ae bhookamp ki vajah se isamen visphot hua.

shaktishali jvalamukhi

vaigyanikon ke mutabik dharati par sabase zyada khataranak jvalamukhi 'tnbora' hai. jo indoneshiya men maujood hai. hind mahasagar men sabase zyada takatavar jvalamukhi 'piton de la phaaurnes' hai, to prithvi ka sabase bada jvalamukhi 'mauna loa' ko mana jata hai. jo havaee dvip men hai. inake alava bhi saikadon aise jvalamukhi hain, jo bhookamp ke halat paida hone par khatara ban jate hain.

savadhaniyan evn upay

jh‍valamukhi udagar se pahale

  • apane ghar ke sadash‍yon ke sa‍th milakar bachav hetu sh‍than chhodakar jane ka abhh‍yas karen.
  • ek ghareloo apatakalin yojana banaen. apane ghar ke liye tatha sath le kar ja sakane vali getave kit ke liye apatakalin bachav vash‍tuon ko vh‍yavasthit karen aur inaka rakharakhav banae rakhen.
  • apani apatakalin yojanaon men apane palatoo pashuon aur pashudhan ko shamil karen.

jab jh‍valamukhi udagar ka khatara ho

  • apane sh‍thaniy rediyo kenh‍dron ko sunen jahan apatakalin prabndhan karmachari apake samuday ke lie sarvadhik upayukh‍t janakari prasarit karenge.
  • apani apatakalin yojana par karyavahi karen.
  • yadi ap vikalang hain ya apako sahayata ki avashh‍yakata ho to, apane sahayogi netavark se samh‍park karen aur nagarik pratiraksha salah ke prati jagarook rahen.
  • sabhi mashinon ko jh‍valamukhi ki rakh se bachane ke lie gairaj ya shed men rakhen, ya unako bade tirapal se dhak den.
  • palatoo pashuon aur pashudhan ko jh‍valamukhi rakh se bachane ke lie banh‍d ashrayash‍thalon par le aen.
  • najuk ilekh‍traaunik samanon ko bachakar rakhen aur unh‍hen tab tak n kholen jab tak ki vatavaran poorn roop se rakh rahit n ho jae.
  • un mitron aur padosiyon ke vishay men pata lagaen, jinako kisi vishesh sahayata ki avashh‍yakata ho sakati hai.

jh‍valamukhi udagar ke dauran

  • nagarik pratiraksha salah ke lie rediyo sunen aur dishanirdeshon ka palan karen.
  • yadi udagar ke samay ghar se bahar hain, to kar ya kisi bhavan men ashray len. yadi jh‍valamukhiy rakh men phns jaen, to dash‍t maaush‍k (dust mask) pahanen ya apane munh v nak ko roomal se dhnk len.
  • ghar men hi thaharen kh‍yonki jh‍valamukhi ki rakh sh‍vash‍thh‍y ke lie khataranak hai, visheshakar yadi ap ko sans ki pareshaniyan, jaise dama ya bronkaitis hai.
  • jab ghar men hon to jh‍valamukhiy rakh ko andar ane se rokane ke lie sabhi khidaki-daravaze banh‍d kar den. dahalijon par bhige tauliye rakhen.
  • phon lainon ko gair-apatakalin kaaulon par vh‍yash‍t n rakhen.
  • yadi apako bahar jana ho to mash‍k v chashh‍me jaise surakshath‍mak upakaran ish‍temal karen aur apani th‍vacha ko yathasamh‍bhav dhakakar rakhen.
  • kanh‍taikh‍t lenh‍s ke bajay chashh‍me pahanen varana yah kaaurniya men kharonch ka karan ban sakate hain.
  • jin paipon/naliyon se gatar ko ganh‍de pani ki nikasi hoti ho unh‍hen jam hone se rokane ke lie kanekh‍shan bnd kar den. yadi ap pani ki apoorti ke lie varsha jal sngrahan pranali ish‍temal karate hon to taink ka kanekh‍shan bnd kar den.
  • chinhit nishiddh kshetron se bahar thaharen.

jh‍valamukhi udagar ke bad

  • nagarik pratiraksha salah ke lie apake sh‍thaniy rediyo kenh‍dron ko sunen aur dishanirdeshon ka palan karen.
  • gharon men th‍haren aur jh‍valamukhi ki rakh girane vale sh‍thanon se yathasamh‍bhav door rahen.
  • jab bahar jana surakshit ho, to apane gatar aur chhat ki rakh saph karen kh‍yonki adhik rakh jama hone se apaki chhat dhah sakati hai.
  • yadi apako apoorti kie ja rahe pani men adhik rakh ho to apane dishavashar ya vashing mashin ko ish‍temal n‍ karen.
  • adhik rakh girane par vahan n chalaen kh‍yonki isase rakh ud sakati hai jo injan ko jam kar sakati hai aur jo apake vahan ko kafi kshatigrash‍t kar sakati hai.
  • pashuon ko jahan tak snbhav ho bnd jagahon par rakhen, unake pet men rakh jane se rokane ke lie unake pnjon/khuron v th‍vacha ki rakh saph kar den, aur unh‍hen pine ke lie saph pani den.
  • rakh saph karate samay ankhon ko surakshit rakhane ke lie maaush‍k ya bhige kapade ka ish‍temal karen. rakh ko saph karane se pahale us par chhidakav karake nam bana den.
  • upayogi sevaon ki tooti laeenon ko janchen aur upayukh‍t pradhikariyon ko isaki riport karen.
  • yadi apaki snpatti nashh‍t ho gee ho, to bima uddeshh‍yon ke lie isaka vivaran likhen aur photo khinch len. yadi apaki samh‍patti kirae ki hai, to jitani jalh‍di snbhav ho sake apane makan-malik se samh‍park karen aur apani snbndhit bima knpani se samh‍park karen.[2]



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 Mitra, Vijay. jvalamukhi (hindi). . abhigaman tithi: 27 navambar, 2011.
  2. badh (hindi) get ready get thru. abhigaman tithi: 4 julaee, 2013.

snbndhit lekh

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