अलनीनो  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

alanino athava al–nino jalavayu tntr ki ek aisi badi ghatana hai jo mool roop se bhoomadhy rekha ke asapas prashant kshetr men ghatati hai kintu prithvi ke sabhi jalavayaviy chakr isase prabhavit hai. isaka rachana snsar lagabhag 120 digri poorvi deshantar ke asapas indoneshiyaee dvip kshetr se lekar 80 digri pashchimi deshantar yani meksiko aur dakshin ameriki peroo tat tak, snpoorn ushn kshetriy prashant mahasagar men phaila hai. inhen bhi dekhen: el nino, la nino evn paryavaran aur snvidhan

paribhasha

alanino, ek aisi mausami dasha hai jisamen bhoomadhy rekha par prashant mahasagar ki satah ka tapaman ausat se adhik ho jata hai. lihaja asamany vashpikaran aur snghanit hokar bane badal dakshin amerika men bhari varsha karate hain, lekin prashant mahasagar ka doosara ushn katibndhiy chhor is sthiti se achhoota rahata hai. natijan kam barish aur sookhe ki sthiti ban jati hai. mana jata hai ki yahi sthiti dakshin pashchimi manasoon ko bhi prabhavit karati hai.

utpatti ka karan

al nino ki utpatti ke karan ka abhi tak kuchh pata nahin. al–nino ghatit hone ke snbndh men bhi kee siddhant maujood hai lekin koee bhi siddhant ya ganitiy maaudal al–nino ke agaman ki sahi bhavishyavani nahin kar pata. andhi ya varsha jaisi ghatanaen choonki aksar ghatati hai isalie isake bare men paryapt janakari upalabdh hai aur isake agaman ki bhavishyavani bhi lagabhag poornata ke sath kar li jati hai kintu char–panch varshon men ekabar ane vali al–nino ke bare men mausam vigyani itana nahin janate ki paryapt samay rahate isake agaman ka anuman laga liya jae. ek bar isake ghatit hone ka lakshan maloom pad jae to agale 6–8 mahinon men isaki sthiti ko anka ja sakata hai. la–nina yani samudr tal ki thndi tapiy sthiti amataur par al–nino ke bad ati hai kintu yah zaroori nahin ki donon bari–bari se ae hi. ek sath kee al–nino bhi a sakate hain. al–nino ke poorvanuman ke lie jitane prachalit siddhant hain unamen ek yah manata hai ki vishuvatiy samudr men snchit ushma ek nishchit avadhi ke bad al–nino ke roop men bahar ati hai. isalie samudri tap men huee abhivriddhi ko mapakar alanino ke agaman ki bhavishyavani ki ja sakati hai. yah dava pahale galat ho chuka hai.

ek doosari manyata ke anusar, mausam vaigyanik yah manate hain ki al–nino ek aniyamit roop se ghatit hone vali ghatana hai aur isaka poorvanuman nahin kiya ja sakata. jo bhi ho, al–nino agaman ki bhavishyavani kisan, machhuare, sarakar aur vaigyanik sabhi ke lie chinta ka karan hota hai. ushn ya uposhn katibndh men padane vale kee desh jaise– peroo, brazil, bharat, ithiyopiya, aaustreliya adi men krishi yojana ke lie yahan ki sarakaren al–nino ki bhavishyavaniyon ka istemal karane lagi hain. sarakari tatha gair–sarakari bima knpaniyan bhi al nino ke chalate hone vali hani ke akalan hetu kharch ke lie taiyar rahati hain. punaravriti ki avadhi ke hisab se sochen, to 1997–98 men ae al–nino ke bad isake ane ki agali snbhavana qarib jan padati hai.[1]

alanino tatha alanina

samudri jalasatah ke tap–vitaran men antar tatha sagar tal ke oopar se bahane vali havaon ke bich anrtakriya ka parinam hi alanino tatha alanina hai. prithvi ke bhoomadhyakshetr men soory ki garmi choonki salon bhar padati hai isalie is bhag men havaen garm hokar oopar ki or uthati hai. isase utpann khali sthan ko bharane ke lie uposhn kshetr se thndi havaen age ati hai kintu ‘korielis prabhav’ ke chalate dakshini golardh ki havaen banyi or aur uttari golardh ki havaen danyi or mud jati hai. prashant mahasagar ke poorvi tatha pashchimi bhag ke jal–satah par tapaman men antar hone se uposhn bhag se ane vali havaen, poorv se pashchim ki or viral vayudab kshetr ki or badhati hai. satat roop se bahane vali in havaon ko ‘vyaparik pavan’ kaha jata hai. vyaparik pavanon ke dabav ke chalate hi peroo tat ki tulana men indoneshiyaee kshetr men samudr tal 0.5 mitar tak ooncha uth jata hai. samudr ke vibhinn hisson men jal–satah ke tapaman men antar ke chalate samudr tal par se bahane vali havaon prabhavit hoti hai kintu samudr tal par se bahane vali vyaparik pavanen bhi sagar tal ke tap vitaran ko badalati rahati hai. in donon ke bich “pahale murgi ya pahale anda” vali kahavat charitarth hai.[1]

alanino ka prabhav

alanino ek vaishvik prabhav vali ghatana hai aur isaka prabhav kshetr atynt vyapak hai. sthaniy taur par prashant kshetr men matasy utpadan se lekar duniya bhar ke adhikansh madhy akshanshiy hisson men badh, sookha, vanagni, toophan ya varsha adi ke roop men isaka asar samane ata hai. al–nino ke prabhav ke roop men likhit taur par 1525 eesvi men uttari peroo ke maroosthaliy kshetr men huee varsha ka pahali bar ullekh milata hai. uttar ki or bahane vali thndi peroo jaladhara, peroo ke samudr tatiy hisson men kam varsha ki sthiti paida karati hai lekin gahan samudri jivan ko badhava deti hai. pichhale kuchh salon men al–nino ke sakriy hone par ulati sthiti darj ki gayi hai. peroo jaladhara ke dakshin ki or khisakane se tatiy kshetr men andhi aur badh ke phalasvaroop mridaksharan ki prakriya men teji ati hai. samany avastha men dakshin ameriki tat ki or se bahane vali phasphet aur naitret jaise poshak tatvon se bharapoor peroo jaladhara dakshin ki or bahane vali chhichhali garm jaladhara se milane par samudri shaival ke vikasit hone ki anukool sthiti paida karati hai jo samudri machhaliyon ka sahaj bhojan hai. al–nino ke ane par, poorvi prashant samudr men garm jal ki moti parat ek divar ki tarah kam karati hai aur plankatan ya shaival ki sahi matra vikasit nahin ho pati. parinamasvaroop machhaliyan bhojan ki khoj men anyatr chali jati hai aur machhaliyon ke utpadan par asar padata hai.

bharatiy manasoon par prabhav

bharatiy manasoon bhi isake prabhav se achhoota nahin rahata. alanino ki sthiti ka ek any mahatvapoorn prabhav poorvi prashant ke hisse men samudri jivan par padata hai. vyaparik pavanon ka kamazor bahav, pashchim ki or ke samudr men thnde aur garm jal ke bich, tap vibhajan rekha ki gaharaee ko badha deta hai. lagabhag 150 mitar gaharaee vali pashchimi prashant ka garm jal, poorab ki or thnde jal ke chhichhale parat ko oopar ki dhakelata hai. poshak tatvon se bharapoor is jal men samudri shaival tatha plankatan aur in par ashrit machhaliyan khoob vikas karati hai. alanino ki sthiti hone par poorab ki or ki tap vibhajan rekha niche dab jati hain aur thnde jal ki gaharaee badhane se samudri shaival adi nahin panapate.[1]



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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 sagar ki sntanen al–nino evn la–nina (hindi) indiya vatar portal. abhigaman tithi: 14 apral, 2015.

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