बाँध  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

bandh
hirakund bandh, mahanadi
vivaran 'bandh' vah avarodh hai, jisase madhyam se jal ko bahane se roka jata hai. yah vinashakari badh ko rokata hai aur sath hi jhil ke nirman men bhi sahayak hota hai.
prakar gurutv bandh, chap bandh, tatabndh bandh
snbndhit lekh saradar sarovar bandh, gandhisagar bandh, nagarjun sagar bandh, hirakund bandh
any janakari jalashayon evn bandhon ka bharat ki arthavyavastha par bahut prabhav raha hai, isase logon ko rozagar milata hai, sinchaee ke lie pani tatha ghar ghar bijali pahunchati hai.

bandh (angrezi: Dam) ek avarodh hai, jo jal ko bahane se rokata hai aur ek jalashay banane men madad karata hai. bandh se badh ane se to rukati hi hai, isake sath hi isamen jama kiya gaya jal sinchaee, jalavidyut, peyajal ki apoorti, nauvahan adi men bhi sahayak hota hai. bharat men tihari bandh, bhakhada bandh, saradar sarovar bandh tatha hirakund bandh adi kaphi bade hain aur krishi men sinchaee tatha jalavidyut adi ke utpadan ke lie bade hi mahattvapoorn hain.

kya hai bandh

bandh nahar athava nadi par jal ke pravah ko rokane ka ek avarodh hai, tatha isako kee prayojanon ke lie upayog kiya ja sakata hai. bandh laghu, madhyam tatha bade ho sakate hain. bade bandhon ka nirman karana adhik jatil hota hai, jisase atyadhik kary, shakti, samay tatha dhan kharch hota hai. bandh ka nirman knkrit, chattanon, lakadi athava mitti se bhi kiya ja sakata hai. bhakhada bandh, saradar sarovar, tihari bandh ityadi bade bandhon ke udaharan hain. ek bandh ki isake pichhe ke pani ke bhar ko vahan karane ki kshamata ati avashyak hoti hai. bandh par dhakele jane vali jal ki matra ko jal-dab kahate hain. jal-dab jal ki gaharaee ke sath badhata hai. isake parinamasvaroop kee bandhon ka tal chauda hota hai, jisase yah satah ke kaphi niche bahubhaga men bahane vale jal ka bhar vahan kar saken.[1]

bandhon ki avashyakata

bandhon ka upayog sinchaee, pine ka pani, bijali banane tatha punah srijan ke lie jal ke bhandaran men hota hai. bandhon se badh ke niyntran men bhi sahayata milati hai. bandh ke jalashay se pine ka pani prapt kar sakate hain athava bandh ke jalashay ke jal se sinchit kshetron ke khady padarthon ka sevan kar sakate hain athava jal vidyut sayntr se utpann bijali prapt kar sakate hain. nadi ka jal bandhon ke pichhe uthata hai tatha kritrim jhilon ka nirman karata hai, jo jalashay kahalate hain. snchayan kie ge jal ko vidyut nirman athava gharon tatha udyogon men jal ki apoorti sinchaee athava nauvahan men upayog kiya ja sakata hai. jalashay, machhali pakadane tatha khelane ke lie bhi achchhe sthan hain.

prakar

bandh ke nirman tatha abhikalp men upayog ki gee samagri ke adhar par bandh kee prakar ke hote hain. ek bandh dvara kitana pani uthaya jae tatha ise kitana bada evn shaktishali banaya jae, isaka pata lagane ke lie abhiyntaon dvara maaudalon tatha kampyootaron ka upayog kiya jata hai. tab ve nirnay le sakate hain ki kis prakar ke bandh ka abhikalp kiya jae. bandh ke prakar banae jane vale bandh ke sthan, samagri, tapaman, mausam avasthaon mitti evn chattan kism tatha bandh ke akar par nirbhar karate hain.[1]

gurutv bandh knkrit se bane bahut bade evn vajanadar bandh hote hain. is tarah ke bandhon ka nirman ek badi ninv par kiya jata hai tatha inake vajanadar hone se in par jal ke bahav ka asar nahin hota. gurutv bandhon ko keval takatavar chattani ninv par hi banaya ja sakata hai. adhikansh gurutv bandhon ka nirman mahnga hota hai, kyonki inake lie kaphi knkrit ki avashyakata hoti hai. bhakhada bandh, knkrit gurutv bandh hai.

chap bandh kenyan ki divaron ki sahayata se banae jate hain. chap bandh ka nirman jal ki or mudi chap ki bhanti kiya jata hai. chap bandh snkari, chattani sthanon ke lie uttam hai. chap bandh ko keval snkari kenyan men hi banaya ja sakata hai, jahan chattani divaren kathor evn dhaluan hoti hai. bandh dvara dhakele jane vala jal bandh ke lie sahayata karata hai. bharat men keval iddooki bandh hi ek chap bandh hai.

tatabndh bandh prayah mitti ke bandh athava raaukaphil bandh hote hain. yah mitti tatha chattan ke bane vishal akar ke bandh hote hain, jisamen jal ke tej bahav ko rok saken. inamen chattanon ki dararon se hone vale jal ke risav ko rokane ke lie mitti athava knkrit ki parat ka istemal kiya ja sakata hai. choonki mitti knkrit ki bhanti shaktishali nahin hoti, mitti ke bandh akar men kaphi mote hote hai. tihari bandh , raaukaphil bandh ka ek udaharan hai.

bade bandhon se labh

jal, dharati par sabhi ke jivan ke samh‍poshan ke lie anivary hai. yah samash‍t snsar men saman roop men vitarit nahin hota hai tatha isaki upalabh‍dhata varsh ke dauran ek jaise sh‍thanon par ek saman bhi nahin hoti. jabaki vishh‍v ke ek hish‍se men pani ka abhav hai tatha vah sookhagrash‍t hai to vishh‍v ke doosare hish‍se men adhik jal hai ki ve upalabh‍dh snsadhanon ka anukoolatam prabanh‍dh karane ke chunautipoorn karyon ka samana karate hain. ni:sanh‍deh nadiyan prakriti ka ek mahan varadan hain tatha vibhinh‍n sabhh‍yataon ke vikas men ek mahath‍vapoorn bhoomika nibhati rahi hain. phir bhi kee avasaron par nadiyan, badh ke samay logon ke jivan evn samh‍patti ke sath vinashakari khel khelati hain. at: nadiyon ke jal ka kushal prabanh‍dh karana ek mahath‍vapoorn vicharadhin muda hai. nadi jal snsadhanon ke kushal prabanh‍dhan ke lie yah avashh‍yak hai ki vibhinh‍n nadi besinon, jo gahan sarvekshan karane ke uparanh‍t takaniki roop se samh‍bhavan tatha arthik roop se vh‍yavahary paee gee hain, ke lie vishishh‍t yojanaen banaee jani chahie. sabhh‍yata ka vikas hone ke bad se manav barasati avadhi ke dauran nadi ke upalabh‍dh atirikh‍t jal ko ekatr karane tatha shushh‍k avadhi ke dauran usi jal ka upayog karane ke lie bandhon tatha jalashayon ka nirman karata raha hai. bandh aur jalashay, th‍varit samajik-arthik vikas ke lie nadi jalon ka sadupayog karana tatha sookha evn badh se prabhavit vishh‍v ki vrihat janasnkhh‍ya ke kashh‍ton ko kam karane ke lie dohari bhoomika nibha rahe hain.[2] bandh aur jalashay nimh‍nalikhit manaviy moolabhool avashh‍yakataon ki poorti karane men ulh‍lekhaniy yogadan dete hain-

  1. pine tatha audyogik upayog hetu jal
  2. sinchaee
  3. badh niyntran
  4. jal-vidyut uth‍padan
  5. nalend nevigeshan (anh‍tardeshiy naupiravahan)
  6. manornjan

peyajal aur audyogik upayog hetu jal

haeedrolojikal saeekal men adhik vibhinh‍nataon ke karan barasati avadhi ke dauran nadi ke atirikh‍t jal ko snchayan karane tatha jab jal ka abhav hota hai to shushh‍k avadhi ke dauran, usi jal ka upayog karane ke lie bandh evn jalashay banae jane apekshit hain. uchit roop se abhikalpit tatha sunirmit kie ge bandh logon ki peyajal ki avashh‍yakataon ki poorti karane men mahath‍vapoorn nibhate hain. audyogik avashh‍yakataon ki poorti hetu bhi jalashayon men snchit jal ka atyidhik prayog kiya jata hai. jalashayon se jal ka niyamit bahav shushh‍k avadhi ke dauran jal se kam anh‍tarvah ke karan nadi men ghulanashil hanikarak padarthon ko kam karane men madad karata hai tatha surakshit simaon ke bhitar jal ki gunavatta ko banae rakhata hai.

sichanee

bandh aur jalashayon ka nirman barasati avadhi ke dauran atirikh‍t jal jisaka upayog shushh‍k bhoomi par sinchaee hetu kiya ja sakata hai, ko snchit karane ke lie kiya jata hai. bandh aur jalashayon ka mukhh‍y labh yah hai ki varsh ke dauran vibhinh‍n kshetron ki krishi avashh‍yakataon ke anusar jal bahav ko niyamit kiya ja sakata hai. bandh aur jalashay manav-jati ko ati vishal paimane par sinchaee avashh‍yakataon ki poorti hetu avish‍maraniy sevaen upalabh‍dh karate hain. yah anuman hai ki varsh 2025 tak bandh evn jalashayon dvara upalabh‍dh karaee gee sinchaee se 80% atirikh‍t khadyanh‍n uth‍padan upalabh‍dh hoga. bandh aur jalashay vikasashil deshon, jinake bade hish‍se shushh‍k (sookhe) kshetr hain, ki sinchaee avashh‍yakataon ko poora karane hetu ati avashh‍yak hain. sinchaee praudyogiki men anh‍y sudharon dvara jal ka snrakshan karane ke lie vikasit upayon ke atirikh‍t jalashayon par adharit adhik pariyojanaon ka nirman karane ki avashh‍yakata hai.[2]

badh niyanh‍tran

nadiyon men ane vali badhen logon ke jivan evn samh‍patti ke sath bahut bar vinashakari khel khelati rahi hain. bandh ke daoonash‍trim nadi ke jal pravah ko niyamit karake badh niyanh‍tran ke lie bandh aur jalashayon ka prabhavi prayog kiya ja sakata hai. bandh, logon ke jivan evn samh‍patti ko bina nukasan pnhuchae, besin ke madhh‍yam se badh rooting ke lie vishishh‍t yojana ke anuroop parikalpit, nirmit tatha parichalit hote hain. badh ke samay bandhon aur jalashayon dvara snrakshit jal ka sinchaee evn peyajal avashh‍yakataon ko poora karane tatha jal vidyut uth‍padan karane hetu upayog kiya ja sakata hai.

jal vidyut uth‍padan

oorja desh ke samajik-arthik vikas ke lie mahath‍vapoorn bhoomika nibhati hai. jal vidyut oorja ka sash‍ta, sh‍vachh‍chh aur navinikaraniy sh‍trot hai. jal vidyut navikaraniy oorja ka ati vikasit tatha kiphayati snsadhan hai. jalashayon par adharit jal vidyut pariyojanaen grid ko ati avashh‍yak piking pavar upalabh‍dh karavati hain. jal vidyut sh‍teshan men tharmal vidyut sh‍teshan ki apekshakrit takaniki rukavaten kam ati hain. kshetriy athava rashh‍triy adhar par vidyut avashh‍yakataon ki poorti hetu badi jal vidyut pariyojanaon dvara jaliy kshamataon ka upayog kiya ja sakata hai aur kshetron ki sh‍thaniy vidyut avashh‍yakataon ko poora karane hetu laghu/maeekro jal pariyojanaon ke dvara laghu jal kshamataon ka upayog kiya ja sakata hai. jal vidyut uth‍padan ke atirikh‍t bahuudedashiy jal vidyut pariyojanaon se sinchaee evn peyajal avashh‍yakataen poori karane tatha badh niyanh‍tran adi ke labh bhi hain.[2]

anh‍tardeshiy viman-snchalan

bh‍yavak besin yojana evn vikas, upayogi bandhon, laaukas tatha jalashayon ke parinamash‍varoop anh‍tardeshiy viman snchalan men vridvi huee, jo rashh‍triy mahath‍v ke vrihat arthik labhon ko sakar karane men mahath‍vapoorn bhoomika nibhate hain.

manornjan

ek bandh ka nirman karake banaya gaya jalashay ek jhil ka sunh‍dar drishh‍y prash‍tut karata hai. jin kshetron men prakritik satahi jal kam ya kalpit matr hota hai, un kshetron men jalashay manornjan ke sh‍trot hote hain. anh‍y uddeshh‍yon ke sath jhil se naukayan, tairaki, math‍sh‍y palan ith‍yadi manornjan labh hain. ek adarsh bahuuddeshiy pariyojana ke sabhi labhon ko praph‍t karane ke lie yojana banane ke sh‍tar par hi poora vichar kiya jata hai. bandh manavata ke lie yomen sahayata upalabh‍dh karavate hain.



panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 bandh (hindi) indiawaterportal. abhigaman tithi: 06 aktoobar, 2017.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 vrihat bandhon se labh (hindi) bbmb.gov.in. abhigaman tithi: 06 aktoobar, 2017.

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snbndhit lekh

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