ऋतु  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

(मौसम se punarnirdeshit)
ritu
sarason ke khet (basnt ritu)
vivaran ritu ek varsh se chhota kalakhnd hai jisamen mausam ki dashaen ek vishesh prakar ki hoti hain. bharat ko bhoolok ka gaurav tatha prakriti ka puny lilasthal kaha gaya hai. vishv men bharat hi ek aisa desh hai jahan samay-samay par chhah rituen apani chhata bikherati hain. pratyek ritu do mas ki hoti hai.
kul rituen bharat men mote hisab se tin rituen mani jati hain- sharad, grishm, varsha jisamen pratyek ritu char mahine ki hoti hai parntu prachin kal men yahan chhah rituen mani jati thin- vasnt, grishm, varsha, sharad, hemnt aur shishir.
vasnt chaitr se vaishakh
grishm jyeshth se ashadh
varsha shravan se bhadrapad
sharad ashvin se kartik
hemnt margashirsh se paush
shishir magh se phalgun
any janakari bharatavarsh men varsha ritu badi spasht hoti hai, parntu snsar ke any sabhi bhagon men aisa nahin hota. keval aphrika aur dakshin amarika ke ushnakatibndhiy bhagon men kuchh kuchh aisa hota hai. yoorop adi samashitoshn deshon men char rituen mani jati hai- sharad, vasnt, garami aur patajhad (aautam).

ritu (angrezi: Season) ek varsh se chhota kalakhnd hai jisamen mausam ki dashaen ek vishesh prakar ki hoti hain. yah kalakhnd ek varsh ko kee bhagon men vibhajit karata hai jinake dauran prithvi ke soory ki parikrama ke parinamasvaroop din ki avadhi, tapaman, varsha, ardrata ityadi mausami dashaen ek chakriy roop men badalati hain. mausam ki dashaon men varsh ke dauran is chakriy badalav ka prabhav paritntr par padata hai aur is prakar paritntriy rituen nirmit hoti hain. rituen prakritik avasthaon ke anusar varsh ke vibhag hain. bharat men mote hisab se tin rituen mani jati hain- sharad, grishm, varsha jisamen pratyek ritu char mahine ki hoti hai parntu prachin kal men yahan chhah rituen mani jati thin- vasnt, grishm, varsha, sharad, hemnt aur shishir. pratyek ritu do mahine ki hoti hai. ritu saair aaair chandr dae prakar ke haete hain. dharmik kary men chandr rituen li jati hain. jin mahinon men sabase adhik pani barasata hai ve varsha ritu ke mahine hain; nam ke anusar savan bhadon ke mahine varsha ritu ke hain, parntu yadi varsh ka man-varsh men dinon ki snkhya-thik n ho to kalantar men rituon aur mahinon men antar pad jaega aur yah antar badhata jaega. bharat ke jo pnchang prachin grnthon ke adhar par banate hain unamen varsh man thik nahin rahata aur is karan vartaman samay ke savan bhadon tatha kalidas ke samay ke savan bhadon men lagabhag 22 din ka antar pad gaya hai. mote hisab se navnbar se pharavari tak sardi, march se madhy joon tak garmi aur madhm joon se aktoobar tak varsha ritu gini ja sakati hai.

mool karan

rituon ka mool karan yah hai ki prithvi, soory ki pradakshina karati hai. usake charon or chakkar lagati rahati hai aur sath hi apane aksh par ghoomati rahati hai. yah aksh poorvokt pradakshin ke samatal par lnb nahin hai; lnb se aksh lagabhag 231/2 ansh ka kon banata hai. isak parinam yah hota hai ki ek varsh men adhe samay tak pratyek drashta ko soory uttar ki or dhire dhire badhata dikhaee padata hai aur adhe samay tak dakshin ki or. varsh ke ye hi do adhe hi ayan, uttarayan aur dakshinayan kahalate hain.

vaigyanik drishtikon

prithvi ke aksh ke ghoomane ke karan din aur rat hoti hai. prithvi ke uttari golardh men sthit deshon men, jaise bharat men, uttarayan men din badhata jata hai aur dakshinayan men ghatata rahata hai. bharat men sabase chhota din lagabhag 24 disnbar ko hota hai aur sabase bada din lagabhag 23 joon ko hota hai. yadi soory ka mahattam unnatansh-dopahar ke samay ki koniy oonchaee-varsh bhar ek saman rahata to pratyaksh hai ki lnbe dinon men kul milakar adhik dhoop aur isalie adhik ooshma milati, aur isalie garami tab padati jab din lagabhag mahattam bade hote, parntu sath hi yah bhi hota hai ki jab din bade hote hain tab soory ka madhyanhakalik unnatansh adhik rahata hai. isalie 24 joon ke lagabhag poorvokt donon karanon se-dinon ke lnbe hone tatha sooryonnatansh adhik rahane se hamen soory se garami sabase adhik milati hai. inhin ki viparit avasthaon ke karan 24 disnbar ke lagabhag hamen soory se garami nyoonatam matra men milati hai.

parntu prithvi ke tal par jitani garami padati hai sab vahin nahin rah jati. chalan (kndakshan) se kuchh prithvi ke bhitar ghus jati hai; snvahan (knnavekshan) se kuchh hava dvara idhar udhar chali jati hai aur vikiran (redieshan) se kuchh akash men nikal jati hai. jab soory se mili garami aur poorvokt karanon se nikal gee garami barabar ho jati hai to samyavastha sthapit hoti hai aur tap nahin badhata. yah samyavastha usi din nahin sthapit hoti jis din din sarvadhik bada hota hai aur isalie prithvi ko soory se mahattam garami milati hai. samyavastha lagabhag ek mahine bad sthapit hoti hai aur isalie tap adhikansh deshon men-jahan joon men pani nahin barasata-lagabhag ek mahine bad mahattam hota hai. prithvital ke tap se usake oopar ki vayu ke tap ka ghanishth snbndh hai. donon lagabhag ek sath hi mahattam ya laghuttam hote hain. samudr par pani men dharaon ke karan aur vashpan (pani ke vashp men parinat hone) ke karan bhi tap adhik nahin hone pata. vahan sabase bade din ke lagabhag do mahine bad pani sabase adhik garam hota hai. oopar ki baten vahin lagoo hongi badal n hon aur pani n barase. pani aur badal se saryoo se garami ka milana bnd ho jata hai.

yah dekhana ki soory ke uttar chale jane par din kyon lnbe ho jate hain aur soory ka unnatansh kyon badh jata hai, saral hai. jab soory prithvi ko bhoomadhyarekha ke dharatal men rahata hai tab prithvi ke apane aksh ke parit: ghoomane ke karan-apani dainik gati ke karan-varanasi ke saman sthan ek ahoratri (=24 ghnte) ke adhe samay tak dhoop men rahata hai aur adhe samay tak andhere men parntu joon men, jab soory bhoomadhyarekha ke samatal se uttar rahata hai aur usase lagabhag 231/2 ansh ka kon banata hai, uttariy gole par ka pratyek sthan adhi ahoratri se kahin adhik samay tak dhoop men rahata hai aur vahan soory ka unnatansh bhi adhik rahata hai.

bharat ki chhah rituen

bharat ko bhoolok ka gaurav tatha prakriti ka puny lilasthal kaha gaya hai. vishv men bharat hi ek aisa desh hai jahan samay-samay par chhah rituen apani chhata bikherati hain. pratyek ritu do mas ki hoti hai.

ritu hindoo mas angrezi mah (gregori mas)
grishm jyeshth se ashadh mee se joon
varsha shravan se bhadrapad julaee se sitambar
sharad ashvin se kartik aktoobar se navambar
hemant margashirsh se paush disambar se 15 janavari (lagabhag)
shishir magh se phalgun 16 janavari (lagabhag) se faravari
vasant chaitr se vaishakh march se aprail
1. basnt ritu

chaitr aur vaishakh basnt ritu' ka parichay deti hai. is ritu ko rituraj ki sngya di gayi hai. dharati ka saundary is prakritik annd ke strot men badh jata hai. rngon ka tyauhar holi basnt ritu ki shobha ko dvigunit kar deta hai. hamara jivan charon or ke mohak vatavaran ko dekhakar muskara uthata hai.

2. grishm ritu

jyeshth aur ashadh 'grishm ritu' ke mas hai. isamen soory uttarayan ki or badhata hai. grishm ritu prani matr ke liye kashtakari avashy hai par tap ke bina sukh-suvidha ko prapt nahin kiya ja sakata. yadi garmi n pade to hamen paka hua ann bhi prapt n ho.

3. varsha ritu

shravan aur bhadrapad 'varsha ritu' ke mas hain. varsha naya jivan lekar ati hai. mor ke panv men nrity bndh jata hai. tij aur rakshabndhan jaise tyauhar bhi is ritu men ate hain.

4. sharad ritu

ashvin aur kartik ke mas 'sharad ritu' ke mas hain. sharad ritu prabhav ki drishti se basnt ritu ka hi doosara rup hai. vatavaran men svachchhata ka prasar dikhaee padata hai. dashahara aur dipavali ke tyauhar isi ritu men ate hain.

5. hemant ritu

margashirsh aur paush 'hemant ritu' ke mas hain. is ritu men sharir pray: svasth rahata hai. pachan shakti badh jati hai.

6. shishir ritu

magh aur phalgun 'shishir' arthath patajhad ke mas hain. isaka arambh makar snkranti se hota hai. is ritu men prakriti par budhapa chha jata hai. vrikshon ke patte jhadane lagate hain. charon or kuhara chhaya rahata hai. is prakar ye rituen jivan roopi phalak ke bhinn- bhinn drishy hain, jo jivan men rochakata, sarasata aur poornata lati hain.

any deshon men rituen

bharatavarsh men varsha ritu badi spasht hoti hai, parntu snsar ke any sabhi bhagon men aisa nahin hota. keval aphrika aur dakshin amarika ke ushnakatibndhiy bhagon men kuchh kuchh aisa hota hai. yoorop adi samashitoshn deshon men char rituen mani jati hai- sharad, vasnt, garami aur patajhad (aautam). parntu smaran rakhana chahie ki rituon ka yah bntavara keval suvidha ke lie hai. vastavik ritu men badal, pani, pavan, pahad, samudr ki nikatata, samudradharaon adi ka bada prabhav padata hai. bhoomadhy rekha ke pas-lagabhag 5° uttar se 5° dakshin tak-soory ki garami pray: barahon mas ek saman rahati hai aur rat din bhi barabar nap ke hote hain. vahan rituen adhikatar badal adi poorvokt karanon par nirbhar rahati hain. mote hisab se vahan do grishm aur do sharad rituen mani ja sakati hain.

tika tippani aur sndarbh

mool path srot: rituen (hindi) (pi.ech.pi) bharatakhoj. abhigaman tithi: 25 joon, 2012.

snbndhit lekh


varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah