पर्यावरण  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif is lekh ka punarikshan evn sampadan hona avashyak hai. ap isamen sahayata kar sakate hain. "sujhav"

paryavaran (angreji: Envoirment) bhautik vatavaran ka dyotak hai. paryavaran 'Envoirment' ka hindi roopantaran hain, jo phrench shabd 'Invoiren' se bana hai. 'Invoirn' ka arth hain - asapas ka avaran.

hindi shabd paryavaran ka ‘pari’ tatha ‘avaran’ shabdon ka yugm hai. ‘pari’ ka arth hain - ‘charon taraph’ tatha ‘avaran’ ka arth hain - ‘ghera’ arthath prakriti men jo bhi charon or parilakshit hai yatha- vayu, jal, mrida, ped-paudhe tatha prani adi sabhi paryavaran ke ang hain. aksaphord edavansd larnars dikshanari aph karent inglish ke anusar inavayarament ka arth hai - asapas ki vastu sthiti, paristhitiyan athava prabhav. chembars tvaintieth senyachuri dikshanari men inavayarament arthath paryavaran ka arth vikas ya vriddhi ko prabhavit karane vali paristhitiyon se hai. desh ke paryavaran (snrakshan) adhiniyam, 1986 ki dhara 2 (k) ke anusar paryavaran men vayu, jal, bhoomi, manaviy prani, any jiv-jantu, paudhe, sookshm jivanu aur unake madhy vidyaman antarsambandh sammilit hain.

sabhi bhoogolavidon ka sandarbh vishay mukhy roop se manushy ka paryavaran raha hai. aisa isalie hai kyonki manushy ka any jiv-jantuon tatha padap jivan se alag astitv kisi bhi paristhit men sambhav nahin hai. park ne un dashaon ke yog ko paryavaran mana hai, jo nishchit samay men nishchat sthan par manushy ko avrit karati hain. harsakovits un sabhi bahari dashaon aur prabhavon ke yog ko paryavaran manate hain jo prani ke jivan aur vikas ko prabhavit karate hain. paryavaran ki samata prakriti se ki gayi hain. prakriti men paye jane vale nirjiv bhautik ghatakon - vayu, jal, mrida adi tatha jaivik ghatakon - ped-paudhe, jiv-jantu, sookshm jivanu adi ke adhar par paryavaran ko mukhyatah bhautik evn jaivik paryavaran men vibhajit kiya gaya hai. e. gauji ne apani pustak ‘The Nature of Invoirment’ men prithvi ke bhautik ghatakon ko hi paryavaran ka pratinidhi mana hai. unake anusar paryavaran ko prabhavit ghatakon ko hi paryavaran ka pratinidhi mana hai. unake anusar paryavaran ko prabhavit karane men manushy ek mahattvapoorn karak hai. maikaivar ke anusar prithvi ka dharatal aur usaki samast prakritik dashaen, prakritik snsadhan, bhoomi, jal, parvat, maidan padarth, paudhe, pashu tatha sampoorn prakritik shaktiyan, jo prithvi par vidyaman hokar manav jivan ko prabhavit karati hain, bhaugolik paryavaran ke antargat ati hai. dhyatavy hain ki bhautik paryavaran tatha jaivik paryavaran ek doosare ko prabhavit karate hai. tatpary yah hai ki bhautik paryavaran badalane se jaivik paryavaran bhi badal jata hai.

paryavaran ke prakar

bhautik ghatakon ki tin avasthaon thos, drav tatha gais ke adhar par bhautik paryavaran ki tin shreniyan hai

  1. sthalamandaliy paryavaran
  2. jalamandaliy paryavaran
  3. vayumandaliy paryavaran

isi prakar jaivik ghatakon ki do kotiyon-vanaspati evn jantu ke adhar par jaivik paryavaran ki do shreniyon hain

  1. vanaspatik paryavaran
  2. jantu paryavaran

vibhinn jivadhariyon dvariyon samajik samooh evn sngathan ki rachana karane ke karan samajik paryavaran ka nirman hota hai, jisake antargat pratyek jivadhari ko apane jivan-nivarh, astitv evn snbarddhan ke lie bhautik paryavaran se padartho ko prapt karana padata hai, phalasvaroop arthik paryavaran ka nirman hota hai. isi prakar manav dvara sanskritik evn rajanitik paryavaran ka nirman hota hai.

paryavaran ki gatishilata

paryavaran ki prakriti gatishil hai. bhautik tatha jaivik paryavaran ke tatvon men sadaiv kuchh n kuchh parivartan hota rahata hai. sthalakritiyon ke svaroop men bhi kabhi achanak to kabhi dhire-dhire parivartan hote hain. ye samast parivartan soory ki oorja ke karan hote hain. dhyatavy hai ki soory, prithvi aur usake vayumandal ko saman roop se garm nahin karata he jisaki vajah se vayu aur jal ka parisncharan hota hai, parinamasvaroop vibhinn rituon ki jalavayu ki dashaon men parivartan ho jata hai. bhautik paryavaran men bahut bade parivartan bhi hue hain, jisaki vajah se ped-paudhon aur jiv-jantuon ki kuchh jatiyan vilupt ho gayin tatha naye bhautik paryavaran ke anuroop ped-paudhon aur jiv-jantuon ki nee jatiyon ka vikas hua. aj se qarib sadhe chhah karod varsh poorv ped-paudhon aur jiv-jantuon ki anek jatiyan bahut badi snkhya men vilupt ho gayi. manushy ka vikas bhi lagabhag das lakh varsh poorv paryavaran men aye parivartan ke karan hi hua tha.

paryavaran ke karak

jis paryavaran men jiv rahate hain, vah paryavaran karakon ke paraspirak sambandhon ka ek jatil sammiran hai. choonki paryavaran ka prabhav jivadhariyon par padata hai, isalie isake karakon ka adhyayan avashyak hai. paryavaran ka pratyek bhag jo pratyaksh ya paroksh roop se jivan ko prabhavit karata hai, paryavaraniy karak kahalata hai. paryavaraniy karak mukhyatah do prakar ke hote hain.

  1. paristhitik karak
  2. ajaivik karak

paristhitik karakon ko jaivik karak, vayumandaliy karak tatha agri karak men vibhajit kiya gaya hai. jaivik karakon ke antargat praniyon ke jaivik sambandh, paudhon ke jaivik sambandh, praniyon ka paudhon par prabhav evn manav ka yogadan ate hain, jabaki ajaivik karakon ko bhautik evn rasayanik karakon men vibhajit kiya gaya hai. bhautik karakon ke anrtagat tap karak evn prakash karak ate hain. rasayanik karakon men jal karak evn mrida karak sammilit hain.

  • paryavaran ke do bhag hote hain
  1. bhautik paryavaran (ajaivik paryavaran)
  2. jaivik paryavaran
  • bhautik paryavaran ke tin bhag hain
  1. sthalamandaliy paryavaran
  2. jalamandaliy paryavaran
  3. vayumandaliy paryavaran
  • jaivik paryavaran ke do bhag hain
  1. vanaspati paryavaran
  2. jantu paryavaran
  • vanaspati paryavaran ke char bhag hain
  1. samajik paryavaran
  2. sanskritik paryavaran
  3. arthik paryavaran
  4. rajanitik paryavaran

bhautik snghatak

paryavaran ke tin bhautik snghatak hain-

  1. ajaivik ya bhautik snghatak
  2. jaivik snghatak
  3. oorja snghatak

paryavaran sammelan

paryavaran ke sambandh men vishv star par sampann pramukh sammelan nimnavath hain -

  1. paryavaran pradooshan par antarrashtriy sammelan
  2. manav paryavaran staaukahom sammelan, 1972.
  3. nairobi sammelan (nairobi ghoshana), 1982.
  4. ojon parat snrakshan viyana abhisamay, 1985.
  5. ojon parat snrakshan viyana abhisamay, 1985 dvitiy.
  6. snyukt rashtr paryavaran tatha vikas sammelan (prithvi sammelan), 1989.
  7. dvitiy snyukt rashtr manav sammelan (haibitet dvitiy), 1996.
  8. kyoto sammelan, 1997.
  9. prithvi sammelan dvitiy, 2002.
  10. snyukt rashtr jalavayu parivartan sammelan, 2007.


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