वनस्पति  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

Icon-edit.gif is lekh ka punarikshan evn sampadan hona avashyak hai. ap isamen sahayata kar sakate hain. "sujhav"

kisi kshetr ka vanaspatik jivan ya  bhoomi par maujood ped-paudhe aur isaka snbndh kisi vishisht jati, jivan ke roop, rachana, sthanik prasar ya any vanaspatik ya bhaugolik gunon se nahin hai. yah shabd  'phlora'  shabd se kahin adhik bada hai jo vishesh roop se jati ki snrachana se snbndhit hota hai. vanaspati n sirph insani jivan, balki prithvi par vas karane vale samast jiv-jntuon ke jivan chakr ka ek aham hissa hai. ek taraph jahan yah vatavaran ko shuddh karane men mahattvapoorn bhoomika nibhati hai, vahin doosari taraph isaki kee prajatiyan dava ke roop men bhi kam ati hain.

bharat men vanaspati

desh men milane vali jalavayavik evn mrida sambandhi vibhinnataon ne vanaspati ko bhi paryapt roop men prabhavit kiya hai. uchchavach ka prabhav bhi vanaspat ki prakriti ko nirdharit karane ka ek mahattvapoorn karak hai. desh men ushn, shit evn shitoshn tinon prakar ke jalavayu katibandhon ki dashaen milati hai. vartaman men 774,74 lakh varg kimi bhoomi par van hai, sampoorn bhaugolik kshetr ka 23.56 pratishat hai. isamen se saghan van 11.88 pratishat, khula van 88.75 pratishat aur kachchh vanaspati kshetr 0.15 pratishat hai. desh men vanon ka vistar sabhi rajyon men saman nahin hai. kuchh bhagon men varsha ki matra ausat se adhik milati hai, jabaki kuchh bhag shushk evn varshavihin hi hain. varsha ke asaman vitaran tatha uchchavach ki vibhinnata ke adhar par bharat ko 6 vanaspati pradeshon men vargikrit kiya jata hai, jo is prakar hain -

  1. himalay pradeshiy ya parvatiy van
  2. ushnardr sadabahar van
  3. ardr manasooni van
  4. ushnardr patajhad van
  5. marusthaliy van
  6. daladali athava jvar bhata kshetron ke van

himalay pradeshiy ya parvatiy van

himalay parvatiy kshetr men milane vale parvatiy vanon men oonchaee ke anusar antar paya jata hai. parvatiy kshetron ki talahati vale bhagon men 6 se 9 mitar tak ki oonchaee ke chaudi patti vale van milate hai, jabaki uchch bhagon men 18 mitar se bhi adhik oonchaee ke nukili patti vale van paye jate hain. himalay parvatamala ke poorvi bhag men, jahan varshik varsha ki matra adhik hoti hai, kam varsha vale pashchimi bhagon ki apeksha ghani evn vividh prakar ki vanaspatiyan payi jati hai. himalay ke van pradeshon ko mukhyatah 2 prakaron men vargikrit kiya ja sakata hai -

poorvi himalay ki vanaspatiyan

isamen arddh ushnakatibandhiy van taraee kshetron se lekar 1,524 ki oonchaee tak milate hain. aise vanon men sal, shisham, amoora, semal, chinauli, chandan adi ke vriksh paye jate hain. inamen savana prakar ki lambi ghasen bhi payi jati hai. bans evn lambi lataon ne is prakar ke vanon ko kafi saghan bana diya hai. poorvi himalay men 1,524 se 2,800 mitar ki oonchaee tak shitoshn katibandhiy vanaspatiyan milati hain jinamen onk, barch, maipil, eldar, maiganoliya tatha larel ke chaudi patti vale vriksh paye jate hain. 2,800 se 3,600 mitar ki oonchaee vale bhagon men poornatah parvatiy vanaspati ka varchasv milata hai jisamen silvar phar, barch, bhojapatr, saij tatha lichen ke vriksh milate hain. 4,800 se 6,100 mitar ki oonchaee vale bhagon men chhoti-chhoti ghanse tatha sundar pushp milate hain jabaki isake oopar keval barf ka jamav paya hai.

pashchimi himalay ke van

himalay parvatamala ke pashchimi bhagon men 1,524 mitar ki samany oonchaee tak arddh ushn katibandhiy vanaspatiyan payi jati hain jinamen pramukh vriksh sal, sal dhak, semal, bans anvala, shisham, ber adi hain. 3,000 se 5,000 mitar ki oonchaee vale bhagon men shitoshn katibandhiy vanon ki adhikata hai. aise vanon men chid, devadar, valasam, bloopain, eldar, elm, barch adi vriksh milate hain.

ushnardr sadabahar van

desh men un bhagon men, jahan ausat varshik varsha 200 semitar se adhik, varshik ausat tapaman 240 sen. ke asapas tatha varsh bhar ardrata 70 pratishat tak rahati hai. ushnardr sadabahar van paye jate hai. inaka vistar uttar men himalay ki taraee vale kshetron, poorvi himalay ke pad-pradesh (asam, pashchim bngal), pashchimi ghat parvat ke dhalon par, nilagiri tatha annamalaee ki pahadiyon par evn andaman nikobar dvip samooh men paya jata hai. in vanon men milane vale pramukh vriksh hain - mahogani, rojavud, tad, bans, rabad, jngali am, abanoos, adi. inaki oonchaee 30 se 45 mitar tak hoti hai. ye apas men mile hote hain jisake karan inhen katane men asuvidha hoti hai.

ardr manasooni van

desh men 100 se 200 se.mi. ausat varshik varsha vale bhagon men ard manasooni prakar ki vanspati payi jati hai. vrikshon ki saghanata kam hone ke karan inaki kataee adhik huee. hai. inaka vistar himalay ke bahari evn nichale dhalon par pnjab se lekar asam tak tatha uttar pradesh, bihar, pashchim bngal ke dakshini bhag, udisa, pashchimi ghat parvat ke poorvi sire se lekar madhy pradesh, maharashtr, tamilanadu, karnatak aur keral ke shushk bhagon men kumari antarip tak paya jata hai. inamen milane vale pramukh vriksh sal, sagaun, sakhoo, shahatoot, palas, lal chandan, am, jamun, goolar, pakad adi hain. ye van lagabhag 7 lakh varg kimi kshetr par phaile hain. sagaun ke vriksh maharashtr aur karnatak rajy men bahut adhik pae jate hain. in vanon se lakadi ke sath upayogi padarth prapt hote hain jaise - tel, varnish, chamada rngane ka padarth adi. inaki lakadi audyogik evn ghareloo upayogon ke lie kafi mahattvapoorn hoti hai.

ushnardr patajhad van

ushnardr patajhad vale van desh ke sarvadhik kshetraphal par paye jate hain. inaka vistar uttar pashchimi men pnjab evn hariyana se lekar madhy pradesh, maharashtr, andhr pradesh, karnatak evn tamilanadu rajyon tak milata hai. is prakar ke vanon men am, mahua, baragad, shisham, kakar, babool adi pramukh kisme hain. uttar pradesh men pashchim bngal men moonj evn kas ugati hai. taraee pradashon men savana prakar ki ghas milati hai. inaki sarvadhik pradhanata 50 se.mi. se 100 se.mi. ki ausat varshik varsha vale prayadvipiy bharat ke madhyavarti bhagon men payi jati hai.

marusthaliy van

50 se.mi. se kam ausat varshik varsha vale kshetron men samanyataya 6 mitar se 9 mitar ki oonchaee vale kantedar vriksh vale marusthaliy van paye jate hain. varsha ki kami ke karan inaki pattiyan kam, chhoti evn kantedar hoti hai tatha vrikshon ki jade lambi hoti hai, jisase jal ke abhav men bhi ye adhik lambe samay tak bane rahate hain. inaki snrachana jal ki kami ko sahan kar lene vali hoti hai. dakshini-pashchimi pnjab uttar pradesh men is prakar ke vriksh paye jate hain. marusthaliy vanon men milane vale vriksh nagaphani, khejadi, babool, kikar, khair, khajoor, rabans adi hain. jal ki kami ke karan aise kshetron men prayah ghas ka abhav paya jata hai.

daladali athava jvar bhata kshetron ke van

daladali athava jvar bhata kshetron ke van gnga-brahmaputr delta kshetr tatha poorvi ghat parvat shreniyon ke tatiy bhagon ke jvar bhata vale kshetron men milate hain. daladali mitti men ugane ke karan inaki jal sahan karane ki kshamata adhik hoti hai. gnga-brahmaputr ke delta kshetron men sundari vriksh ki adhikata ke karan is kshetr ko ‘sundaravan’ kaha jata hai. isake atirikt tamilanadu evn andhr pradesh ke tatavarti zilon tatha mahanadi, godavari, krishna, kaveri adi nadiyon ke delta kshetron men tad, nariyal, phoniks, kevada, supari, rojiphora adi prajatiyon ke vriksh paye jate hain.

bharatiy van sarvekshan

vibhinn prakar ki vanaspatiyon ke hote hue bhi hamare desh men paryavaran sntulan ki drishti se avashyak kam se kam 33 pratishat kshetr par vanon ka avaran hona chahie, jabaki vanon ki andhadhundh kataee adi ke karan vanon ka nimn vistar paya jata he. 2005 ke sarvekshan ke adhar par desh ka matr 20.60 pratishat kshetr hi vastavik roop se vanon se dhaka hai.

bharatiy van sarvekshan, 2005 ke anusar 2005 men desh men vanachchhadit kshetr 6,77,088 varg kimi tha, jabaki do varsh poorv 2003 men yah 6,78,333 varg kimi, (kul bhag ka 20.64 pratishat ) tha. is prakar in do varshon men van kshetr men 1245 varg kimi ki kami aee hai. van mntralay ki dvivarshik riport men kaha gaya hai ki 2003-05 ke dauran uttarakhand, asam, chhattisagadh, gujarat, madhy pradesh, maharashtr, manipur, nagalaind tatha andaman aur nikobar men jahan van kshetr ghata hai, vahin himachal pradesh, pnjab, hariyana v dilli men 2 se 11 pratishat ki vriddhi huee hai. riport ke anusar dilli men 2 pratishat, hariyana men 11 pratishat men v himachal pradesh men 10 pratishat ki vriddhi van kshetr men huee hai. 2005 men desh men kul 6,77,088 varg kimi van kshetr men 54,569 varg kimi men ghane van, 3,32,647 varg kimi men majhole van v 2,89,872 varg kimi kshetr men khule v chhitare van shamil hai. is prakar desh ke kul bhoo-bhag ka 1.7 pratishat ghane vanon se 10-12 pratishat majhole vanon se tatha 8,82 pratishat bhag khule vanon se achchhadit tha.

van niti ki ghoshana

bharat men prati vyakti vanon ka ausat 0.2 haikteyar matr hai, jabaki brajil men 8.6, astreliya men 5.1 aur poorv soviyat sngh men 3.5 hekteyar hai. is prakar in deshon men prati vyakti vanon ka kshetr adhik hai. vanon ki suraksha ke lie svatntrata prapti pashchath 1952 men hi sarakar dvara van niti ki ghoshana ki gayi thi jise sndhodhit kar 1988 men nee van niti ghoshit ki gee. nee niti men vanon ke snrakshan ke sath hi naye vanon ko lagaye jane par zor diya gaya hai.


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