फ़र्टाइल क्रेसेट  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

fartail kreset ya upajaoo arddh chndr madhy-poorv men vah kshetr hai jahan madhy-poorv aur bhoo-madhy besin sabhyata ki shurooat huee. ameriki 'prachvid jems henari bresatad' (1865-1935) ne is shabd ko lokapriy banaya.

bhoogol

oopajaoo arddh chndr men mote taur par tare ke akar ki apekshakrit upajaoo bhoomi shamil thi, jisamen shayad vartaman ki apeksha atit men adhik shitoshn, krishi ki drishti se utpadak jalavayu thi, vishesh taur par mesopotamiya aur nil nadi men, dakshin men arab registan aur uttar men armeniya parvaton ke bich sthit yah kshetr bebiloniya aur nikatavarti susiana[1] se lekar tigaris tatha yufretiz nadiyon se asiriya tak phaila tha. asiriya ke poorv men zagros parvaton se pashchim men siriya se bhoomadhy tatha dakshin men dakshini izarail tak yah kshetr phaila hua tha. misr ki nil ghati ko aksar isaka vistar mana jata hai, sinaee men chhota sa badhak kshetr, isaki nirntarata ko todane vale mesopotamiya aur siriya ke aise hi registani kshetron se bada nahin hai. samooche kshetr men uttam krishi parinamon ke liye sinchaee avashyak hai aur vastav men yah kisi bhi prakar ki kheti ke lie avashyak hai.

vyapak drishti

upajaoo arddh chndra apani vyapak drishti men us kshetr ke saman hai, jo yahoodi parnparaon ki utpatti men pramukh bhoomika nibhata hai; jisamen ve puratan desh[2] shamil hain, jo grik aur roman sabhyataon se pahale vidyaman the. rediyokarban deting se is bat ki pushti huee hai ki upajaoo arddh chndr men prachinatam vyavasthit[3] gramin krishi samuday ki sharooat huee. yahan lagabhag 8000 ee.poo. se prarnbhik krishi evn gramin snkedran shuroo hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. faras ka dakshin-pashchimi prant
  2. bebiloniya, asiriya, misr, phoenishiya
  3. base huye

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

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