सुनामी  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

sunami lahar gathan

sunami ek samudri hava hai, jo bade paimane par samudri pani men halachal paida kar deti hai. sunami japani shabd hai, jisaki utpatti do shabd-soo (harbar) aur nami (veb) se huee hai, jisaka ashay japan men ‘bandaragah ki laharen’ se hai. sunami laharon ki shrinkhala se milakar bani ek prakritik ghatana hai jo tab uth‍panh‍n hoti hain jab samudr ya jhil men jal ki vh‍yapak matra teji se vish‍thapit hoti hai. sunami vishal panadubbi ya tatiy bhooknp, pani ke niche bhoosh‍khalan jo bhookamh‍p ya jh‍valamukhiy gatividhi ke karan bhi ho sakata hai, badi tatiy chattan ya jhil ke kinare ke bhoosh‍khalan, ya samudr ki talahati ke niche ya isake samip jh‍valamukhiy udagar adi ke dvara bhi uth‍panh‍n ho sakati hain.

sunami ke prakar

sunami tin prakar ki hoti hain. ap kis prakar ki sunami ka samana karenge, yah sunami uth‍panh‍n hone vale sh‍than se ap ki doori par nirbhar karata hai.

  • doorash‍th sunami door lamh‍be rash‍te men uth‍panh‍n hoti hai, jaise ki chili men prashant ke us par se. aisi avastha men hamare pas nh‍yoojilaind ke lie chetavani ka tin ghnte se adhik samay hoga.
  • kshetriy sunami apane gntavh‍y se door ek se tin ghnte ki yatra samay ke bich uth‍panh‍n hoti hain. nh‍yoojilaind ke uttar karamade‍k gart men pani ke niche jh‍valamukhi udagar kshetriy sunami uth‍panh‍n kar sakata hai.
  • sthaniy sunami nyoojilaind ke bahut hi qarib utpann hoti hain. is prakar ki sunami bahut khataranak hai kh‍yonki hamare pas chetavani ke keval kuchh minat hi ho sakate hain.[1]

karan

ab tak ke bade bhookamp
sthan kab ae tivrata
chili 22 mee, 1960 9.5
prins viliyam saund, alaska 28 march, 1964 9.2
uttari sumatra, pashchimi tat 26 disambar, 2004 9.1
kamachataka, poorvi roos 4 navambar, 1952 9.0
maule tat, chili 27 faravari, 2010 8.8
ikvador ke tat par 31 janavari, 1906 8.8
rait ailaind alaska 4 faravari, 1965 8.7
uttari sumatra, indoneshiya 28 march, 2005 8.6
asam aur tibbat sima 15 agast, 1950 8.6
endriyanoph ailaids, alaska 9 march, 1957 8.6
dakshini sumatra, indoneshiya 12 sitambar, 2007 8.5
bainda si, indoneshiya 1 faravari, 1938 8.5
kamachataka, poorvi roos 3 faravari, 1923 8.5
chili-arjenatina sima 11 navambar, 1922 8.5
kuril ailainds 13 aktoobar, 1963 8.5

adhikatar sunami ka karan bhooknp hota hai. lekin jvalamukhi ke phatane, dharati ki pleton ke khisakane, vayumndaliy dabav, samudr ke bhitar visphot aur ulkaon ke prabhav ke karan bhi sunami ati hai. sunami chautarapha bavndar ki tarah hoti hai. isaki hava ki koee nishchit disha nahin hoti hai. 30 kilomitar pratighnta se lekar 700 kilomitar pratighnta tak isaki raphtar ho sakati hai.

sunami chetavani

samh‍bhavit sunami ke bare men chetavani sndesh aur snket anek sroton se a sakate hain - prakritik, adhikarik ya gairadhikarik.

prakritik chetavani

sthaniy srot adharit sunami ke lie, jo minaton men pahunch sakati hai, adhikarik chetavani ke lie samay nahin hoga. aise men prakritik chetavani ke snketon ko pahachanana aur jalh‍di se kary karana mahath‍vapoorn hai.

adhikarik chetavani

adhikarik chetavaniyan keval door ki aur kshetriy srot adharit sunami ke lie hi snbhav hain. sarakari chetavaniyan nagarik pratiraksha evn apada prabndhan mntralay dvara rashh‍triy midiya, sh‍thaniy pradhikariyon evn anh‍y pramukh jimh‍medar ejensiyon ko prasarit ki jati hain. apaki sthaniy kaunsil sh‍thaniy midiya, sairan aur snbhavat: anh‍y sh‍thaniy vh‍yavash‍thaon ke dvara bhi chetavaniyon ko jari kar sakati hai.

gairadhikarik ya anaupacharik chetavani

ap doston, anh‍y samanh‍y janon, antarrashh‍triy midiya aur intaranet se chetavaniyon ko praph‍t kar sakate hain. chetavani ko tabhi sath‍yapit karen yadi ap bahut jalh‍di se aisa kar saken. yadi adhikarik chetavani mil sake, to anaupacharik cheta‍vaniyon ke bajay us par jh‍yada bharosa karen.[1]

sunami ke dauran kya karen

  • yadi snbhav ho to apani getave kit ko apane sath le len. apani kit ya saman uthane ke lie jokhim vale kshetron men n jaen.
  • apane palatoo pashuon ko sath le len yadi ap surakshit roop se aisa kar saken.
sunami
Tsunami
  • turnt jitana ho sake najadik ki sabase oonchi bhoomi ki or jaen, ya tat se door antarik kshetr men pahunchen. yadi sh‍than khali karake bahar jane nakh‍sha maujood hai, to dikhae ge margon ka anusaran karen.
  • yadi snbhav ho to paidal ya saikil se jaen aur yadi bahut zaroori ho tabhi gadi chalaen. yadi draiving karate hue ap sh‍than khali karae jane vale kshetr se surakshit bahar nikal jate hain to apane pichhe ane valon ko jagah dene ke lie chalana jari rakhen.
  • yadi ap sunami se bach kar bhag nahin saken, to kisi mazaboot imarat ki oopari mnzil par ya chhat par ya ped ke oopar chadh jaen, ya tairati vash‍tu ko p‍kad le aur sahayata pahunchane tak lagatar mazabooti se pakade rahen.
  • naukaen tat ki apeksha amataur par 20 mitar se adhik gahare pani men adhik surakshit hoti hain. nav ko samudr men le jayen jab isake lie samay ho aur aisa karana surakshit ho.
  • sunami dekhane ke lie kabhi bhi kinare par mat jaen. jokhim vale kshetron se tab tak door rahen jab tak khatara poori tarah talane ki adhikarik chetavani n jari kar di jae.
  • apane sh‍thaniy rediyo kenh‍dron ko sunen jahan apatasthiti prabndhan karmachari, apake samuday aur paristhiti ke lie sabase upayukh‍t salah jari karenge.[1]

sunami ane ke bad

sunami
Tsunami
  • nagarik pratiraksha salah ke lie lagatar rediyo ko sune aur tab tak khali kie gaye kshetr men vapas n jaen jab tak khatara poori tarah talane ki adhikarik chetavani n jari kar di jae.
  • savadhan rahen kh‍yonki ek se adhik laharen ho sakati hain aur yah 24 ghnte ya adhik samay tak surakshit nahin bhi ho sakata hai. pahali lahar ke bad men ane vali laharen aur badi ho sakati hain.
  • yadi chot lagi ho to apani janch karen aur zaroori ho to prathamik chikith‍sa praph‍t karen. doosaron ki madad karen yadi ap aisa kar saken.
  • isake drishh‍y dekhane mat jaen.
  • jab gharon ya bhavanon men pun: pravesh karen, to ath‍yanh‍t savadhani baraten kh‍yonki badh ka pani bhavanon ko kshatigrash‍t kar chuka ho sakata hai. upayogi suvidhaon ki tooti laeenon ki janch karen aur samuchit pradhikariyon ko isaki riport karen.
  • yadi apaki snpatti nashh‍t ho gee ho, to bima uddeshh‍yon ke lie isaka vivaran likhen aur photo khinch len. yadi apaki samh‍patti kirae ki hai, to jitani jalh‍di snbhav ho sake apane makan-malik se samh‍park karen aur apani snbndhit bima knpani se samh‍park karen.[1]

sunami bhavishyavani ka bharatiy tntr

2004 men sunami ane ke bad bharat ne isake khatare ko kam karane ke upay par kam shuroo kiya. sunami ki chetavani jari karane ke lie 'inndiyan osiyan sunami varning mishigeshan sistam' (aee.o.ti.dablyoo.es.) vikasit hua. bharat, aaustreliya, indoneshiya samet 18 desh is bat par sahamat hue ki, ve apas men sunami jaisi kisi bhi apada ki bhavishyavani snbndhi soochana ek doosare ke sath sajha karenge. aee.o.ti.dablyoo.es bhooknp aur jvalamukhi ka pata lagata hai, jo sunami ka karan ban sakata hai. samudri tal ke bhitar hone vale knpan par nazar rakhata hai. yah mukhyat: do tarah se kam karata hai. pahala samudr men ban rahe dabav ko rikaaurd karata hai, doosara laharon ko mapata hai. usake adhar par sunami ka kitana khatara hai isaka akalan kiya jata hai. in sare data ko ikathta kar vah grih mntralay ko jari karega. 2004 se ek antarim ejensi jaipanij meteriyolaaujikal ejensi ke netritv men kam kar rahi thi, lekin aee.o.ti.dablyoo.es uchch takanik par adharit sistam hai, jo khud is tarah ki soochanaen ikathta karane men saksham hai. aee.o.ti.dablyoo.es sunami ki bhavishyavani samudri laharon ki oonchaee ko nap kar karata hai.

bhookamp janit sunami

  • indoneshiya (2006) - indoneshiya ke java prayadvip men 7.7 tivrata ki bhookamp janit sunami ki vajah se 654 log mare ge the.
  • soloman prayadvip (2007) - pashchimi soloman prayadvip men 8.0 tivrata ke bhookamp se sunami paida ho gee. jisaki chapet men akar 52 log mare ge the.
  • samoa (2009) - soa men riktar paimane par 8.0 tivrata ke bhookamp aur sunami ke karan 190 log mare ge the.
  • chili (2010) - chili men 8.8 tivrata ke bhookamp se upaji sunami ke karan qarib 600 log mare ge the.
  • indoneshiya (2010) - suprama prayadvip men 7.7 tivrata ke bhookamp aur sunami ki vajah se 112 log mare ge aur 500 log lapata ho ge.
sunami
  • hind mahasagar (26 disamabar, 2004) - 9.3 tivrata ke bhookamp ke chalate hind mahasagar ka sina sunami se dahal gaya. sumatra is bhookamp ka kendr tha. 30 mitar tak oonchi uthi laharon ne vinash ka aisa tandav machaya ki, manavata kanp uthi. is sunami ke karan 14 desh prabhavit hue. sarvadhik prabhavit hone vale deshon men bharat, indoneshiya, shrilnka aur thailaind adi pramukh the aur isamen marane valon ki snkhya qarib dhaee lakh thi.
bharat (2004 ki sunami men hua nukasan)
parinam tamilanadu keral andhr pradesh pandicheri kul
mare ge log 7,793 168 105 453 8499
prabhavit janasnkhya 691000 2470000 211000 43000 3415000
prabhavit kshetr (varg kilomitar) 2487 790 790 4,067
prabhavit tat ki lambaee (kilomitar) 1000 250 985 25 2260
sunami laharon ki oonchaee (mitar) 7-10 3-5 5 10
prabhavit ganvon ki snkhya 362 187 301 26 876
pashu hani 5476 195 3445 916



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tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 sunami (hindi) (ech.ti.em.el) getthru.govt.nz. abhigaman tithi: 16 march, 2011.

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