कंबुज  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

  • hind-chin ka prachin hindoo upanivesh jise knbodiya kaha jata hai.
  • isaki sthapana 7vin shati ke pashchath huee thi aur tatpashchath 700 varshon tak knbuj ke vaibhav tatha aishvary ka yug raha.

lokakatha

  • knbodiya ki ek prachin lokakatha men ary desh ya bharat ke raja svaynbhuv dvara knbuj rajy ki sthapana ka varnan hai.
  • yahan ka sarvapratham aitihasik raja shrutavarmanh tha jisake is desh ko phoonan ke shasan se mukt karake ek svntatr rajy sthapit kiya.
  • yahan ki tatkalin rajadhani shreshthapur men thi jisaka namakaran knbuj ke dvitiy raja shreshthavarmanh ke nam par hua tha.
  • isaki sthiti vartaman laos men vataphoo pahadi[1] ke parivarti pradesh men thi.
  • is pahadi par, jisaka prachin nam ling parvat tha, bhadreshvar shiv ka mndir sthit tha.
  • ye knbuj nareshon ke ishtadev the.

knbuj, knboj knbodiya ka prachin snskrit nam. bhootapoorv indochin prayadvip men sarvaprachin bharatiy upanivesh ki sthapana phoonan pradesh men pratham shati ee. ke lagabhag huee thi. lagabhag 600 varshon tak phoonan ne is pradesh men hindoo snskriti ka prachar evn prasar karane men mahatvapoorn yog diya. tatpashchath‌ is kshetr men knbuj ya knboj ka mahanh‌ rajy sthapit hua jisake adbhut aishvary ki gauravapoorn parnpara 14vin sadi ee. tak chalati rahi. is prachin vaibhav ke avashesh aj bhi angkoravat, angkorathom namak sthanon men vartaman hain.

knboj ki prachin dntakathaon ke anusar is upanivesh ki ninv 'aryadesh' ke raja knbu svayanbhuv ne dali thi. vah bhagavanh‌ shiv ki prerana se knboj desh men ae aur yahan basi huee nag jati ke raja ki sahayata se unhonne is jngali marusthal men ek naya rajy basaya jo nagaraj ki adbhut jadoogari se hare bhare, sundar pradesh men parinat ho gaya. knbu ne nagaraj ki kanya mera se vivah kar liya aur knbuj rajavnsh ki ninv dali. yah bhi snbhav hai ki bharatiy knboj (kashmir ka rajauri jila tatha snvarti pradesh-dr. 'knboj') se bhi indochin men sthit is upanivesh ka snbndh raha ho. tisari shati ee. men bharat ki uttar-pashchimi sima par basanevo murundon ka ek rajadoot phoonan pahuncha tha aur snbhavat: knboj ke ghode apane sath vahan laya tha. knboj ke pratham aitihasik rajavnsh ka snsthapak shrutavarman tha jisane knboj desh ko phoonan ki adhinata se mukt kiya. isake putr shreshthavarman ne apane nam par shreshthapur namak rajadhani basaee jisake khndahar laos ke vataphoo pahadi (lingaparvat) ke pas sthit hain. tatpashchath‌ bhavavarman ne, jisaka snbndh phoonan aur knboj donon hi rajavnshon se tha, ek naya vnsh (khmer) chalaya aur apane hi nam bhavapur namak rajadhani basaee. bhavavarman tatha isake bhaee mahendravarman ke samay se knboj ka vikasayug prarnbh hota hai. phoonan ka purana rajy ab jirnashirn ho chuka tha aur shighr hi is ne durgharsh samrajy men vilin ho gaya. mahendravarman ki mrityu ke pashchath‌ unaka putr eeshanavarman gaddi par baitha. is pratapi raja ne knboj rajy ki simaon ka door-door tak vistar kiya. usane bharat aur chnpa ke sath rajanayik snbndh sthapit kie aur eeshanapur nam ki ek nee rajadhani ka nirman kiya. eeshanavarman ne chnpa ke raja jagaddharm ko apani putri byahi thi jisaka putr prakashadharm apane pita ki mrityu ke pashchath‌ chnpa ka raja hua. isase pratit hota hai ki chnpa is samay knboj ke rajanitik prabhav ke antargat tha. eeshanavarman ke bad bhavavarmanh‌ dvitiy aur jayavarmanh‌ pratham knboj nareshon ke nam milate hain. jayavarmanh‌ ke pashchath‌ 674 ee. men is rajavnsh ka ant ho gaya. kuchh hi samay ke uparant knboj ki shakti kshin hone lagi aur dhire-dhire 8vin sadi ee. men java ke shailendr rajaon ka knboj desh par adhipatay sthapit ho gaya. 8vin sadi ee. ka knboj itihas adhik spasht nahin hai kintu 9vin sadi ka arnbh hote hi is prachin samrajy ki shakti manon pun: jivit ho uthi. isaka shrey jayavarmanh‌ dvitiy (802-854 ee.) ko diya jata hai. usane angakor vnsh ki ninv dali aur knboj ko java ki adhinata se mukt kiya. usane snbhavat: bharat se hiranyadas namak brahman ko bulavakar apane rajy ki suraksha ke lie tantrik kriyaen karavaeen. is vidvanh‌ brahman ne devaraj namak snpraday ki sthapana ki jo shighr hi knboj ka rajadharm ban gaya. jayavarmanh‌ ne apani rajadhani kramash: kuti, hariharalay aur amarendrapur namak nagaron men banaee jisase spasht hai ki vartaman knbodiya ka pray: samast kshetr usake adhin tha aur rajy ki shakti ka kendr dhire-dhire poorv se pashchim ki or badhata hua antat: angkor ke pradesh men sthapit ho gaya tha.

jayavarmanh‌ dvitiy ko apane samay men knbujarajendr aur usaki maharani ko knbujarajalakshmi nam se abhihit kiya jata tha. isi samay se knbodiya ke prachin nam knbuj ya knboj ka videshi lekhakon ne bhi prayog karana prarnbh kar diya tha. jayavarmanh‌ dvitiy ke pashchath‌ bhi knboj ke samrajy ki nirntar unnati aur vriddhi hoti gee aur kuchh hi samay ke bad samast indochin prayadvip men knboj samrajy ka vistar ho gaya. maharaj indravarmanh‌ ne anek mndiron aur tadagon ka nirman karavaya. yashovarmanh‌ (889-908 ee.) hindoo shastron aur snskrit kavyon ka gyata tha aur usane anek vidvanon ko rajashray diya. usake samay ke anek sundar snskrit abhilekh prapy hain. is kal men hindoo dharm, sahity aur kal ki abhootapoorv pragati huee. yashovarmanh‌ ne knbupuri ya yashodharapur nam ki nee rajadhani basaee. dharm aur snskriti ka vishal kendr angkor thom (dr. 'angkor thom' lekh) bhi isi nagari ki shobha badhata tha. 'angkor snskriti' ka svarnakal isi samay se hi pranrabh hota hai. 944 ee. men knboj ka raja rajendravarmanh‌ tha jisake samay ke kee brihadh abhilekh sundar snskrit kavyashaili men likhe milate hain. 1001 ee. tak ka samay knboj ke itihas men mahatvapoorn hai kyonki is kal men knboj ki simaen chin ke dakshini bhag chhooti thin, laos usake antargat tha aur usaka rajanitik prabhav syam aur uttari malaya tak phaila hua tha.

sooryavarmanh‌ pratham (mrityu 1049 ee.) ne pray: samast syam par knboj ka adhipaty sthapit kar diya aur dakshin brahmadesh par bhi akraman kiya. vah sahity, nyay aur vyakaran ka pndit tha tatha svayn bauddh hote hue bhi shaiv aur vaishnav dharmon ka premi aur snrakshak tha. usane rajyasin hone ke samay desh men chale hue grihayuddh ko samapt kar rajy ki sthiti ko pun: sudridh karane ka prayatn kiya. uttari chnpa ko jitakar sooryavarmanh‌ ne use knboj ka karad rajy bana liya kintu shighr hi dakshin chnpa ke raja jayahari varmanh‌ se har manani padi. is samay knboj men grihayuddhon aur padosi deshon ke sath anaban ke karan kaphi ashanti rahi.

jayavarmanh‌ saptam (abhishek 1181) ke rajyakal men pun: ek bar knboj ki prachin yash:pataka phaharane lagi. usane ek vishal sena banaee jisamen syam aur brahmadesh ke sainik bhi sammilit the. jayavarmanh‌ ne anam par akraman kar use jitane ka bhi prayas kiya kintu nirntar yuddhon ke karan shanai: shanai: knboj ki sainik shakti ka hhras hone laga, yahan tak ki 1220 ee. men knbojon ko chnpa se hatana pada. kintu phir bhi jayavarmanh‌ saptam ki ganana knboj ke mahanh‌ rajyanirmataon men ki jati hai kyonk usame samay men knboj ke samrajy ka vistar apanicharam sima par pahuncha hua tha. jayavarmanh‌ saptam ne apani nee rajadhani vartaman angkorathom men banaee thi. isake khndahar aj bhi snsar ke prasiddh prachin avasheshon men gine jate hain. nagar ke chaturdikh‌ ek ooncha parakota tha aur 110 gaj chaudi ek parikha thi. isaki lnbaee sadhe ath mil ke lagabhag thi. nagar ke parakote ke panch sinhadvar the jinase panch vishal rajapath (100 phut chaude, 1 mil lnbe) nagar ke andar jate the. ye rajapath, beyon ke virath hindoo mndir ke pas milate the, jo nagar ke madhy men sthit tha. mndir men 66,625 vyakti niyukt the aur isake vyay ke lie 3,400 gramon ki ay lagi huee thi. is samay ke ek abhilekh se gyat hota hai ki knboj men 789 mndir tatha 102 chikitsalay the aur 121 vahani (vishram) grih the.

jayavarmanh‌ saptam ke pashchath‌ knboj ke itihas ke anek sthal adhik spasht nahin hain. 13vin sadi men knboj men sudridh rajanitik shakti ka abhav tha. kuchh itihasalekhakon ke anusar knboj ne 13vin sadi ke antim charan men chin ke samrath kubale khan ka adhipaty manane se inakar kar diya tha. 1296 ee. men chin se ek dootamndal angkorathom aya tha jisake ek sadasy shoo-tan-kuan ne tatkalin knboj ke vishay men vistrit tatha manornjak vrittant likha hai jisaka anuvad phransisi bhasha men 1902 ee. men hua tha. 14vin sadi men knboj ke padosi rajyon men nee rajanitik shakti ka uday ho raha tha tatha syam aur chnpa ke thaee log knboj ki or badhane ka nirntar prayas kar rahe the. parinam yah hua ki knboj par do or se bhari dabav padane laga aur vah in donon deshon ki chakki ke paton ke bich pisane laga. dhire-dhire knboj ki prachin mahatta samapt ho gee aur ab yah desh indochin ka ek sadharan pichhada hua pradesh banakar rah gaya. 19vin sadi men phransisi ka prabhav indochin men badh chala tha; vaise, ve 16vin sadi men hi is prayadvip men a ge the aur apani shakti badhane ke avasar ki tak men the. vah avasar ab aur 1854 ee. men knboj ke nirbal raja ankaduong ne apana desh phransisiyon ke hathon saunp diya. noradam (narottam) pratham (1858-1904) ne 11 agast, 1863 ee. ko is samajhaute ko pakka kar diya aur agale 80 varshon tak knboj ya knbodiya phrench-indochin ka ek bhag bana raha. (knbodiya, phrench ka roopantar hai. phrench nam knboj ya knbujiy se bana hai.) 1904-41 men syam aur phransisiyon ke bich honevale yuddh men knbodiya ka kuchh pradesh syam ko de diya gaya kintu dvitiy vishvayuddh ke pashchath‌ 1945 ee. men yah bhag use pun: prapt ho gaya. is samay knbodiya men svatntrata andolan bhi chal raha tha jisake parinamasvaroop phrans ne knbodiya ko ek naya snvidhan pradan kiya (mee 6, 1947). kintu isase vahan ke rashtrapremiyon ko sntosh n hua aur unhonne 1949 ee. (8 navnbar) men phransisiyon ko ek ne samanaite par hastakshar karane par vivash kar diya jisase unhonne knbodiya ki svatntr rajanitik satta ko svikar kar liya, kintu ab bhi desh ko phrench yooniyan ke antargat hi rakha gaya tha. isake viruddh knbodiya ke prabhavashali raja noradam sinhanuk ne apana rashtriy andolan jari rakha. inake prayatn se knbodiya shighr hi svatntr rashtr ban gaya aur ye apane desh ke pratham pradhan mntri chune ge.

dharm, bhasha, samajik jivan

knboj vastavik arth men bharatiy upanivesh tha. vahan ke nivasiyon ka dharm, unaki snskriti evn sabhyata, sahityik parnparaen, vastukala aur bhasha-sabhi par bharatiyata ki amit chhap thi jisake darshan aj bhi knboj ke darshak ko anayas hi ho jate hain. hindoo dharm aur vaishnav snpraday aur tatpashchath‌ (1000 ee. ke bad) bauddh dharm knboj ke rajadharm the aur yahan ke anek snskrit abhilekhon ko unaki dharmik tatha pauranik sanskritik prishthabhoomi ke karan bharatiy abhilekhon se alag karana kathin hi jan padega. udaharan ke lie rajendravarmanh‌ ke ek vishal abhilekh ka keval ek ansh yahan prastut hai jisamen shiv ki vndana ki gee hai :

roopn yasy navendumnditashikhn trayh‌ya: pratitn parn

bijn brahmaharishvarodayakarn bhinnn kalabhistridha.

saksharadaksharamamananti munayo yogodhigamyn namash‌

snsiddhyai pranavatmane bhagavate tasmai shivayastu vamh‌..

purane arab paryatakon ne knboj ko hindoo desh ke nam se thik hi abhihit kiya. knbuj ki rajabhasha prachin kal men snskrit thi, usaka sthan dhire-dhire bauddh dharm ke prachar ke karan pali ne le liya aur aj bhi yah dharmik kshetr men yahan ki mukhy bhasha bani huee hai. knbuj bhasha men snskrit ke hajaron shabd apane knbuji ya khmer roop men aj bhi pae jate hain (jaise-teph‌da u devata, shats u shasan, suor u svarg, phimean u viman). khh‌mer lipi dakshini bharat ki pallav aur poorvi chaluky lipiyon ke mel se bani hai. knboj ki vastukala, moortikala tatha chitrakala par bharatiy prabhav spasht hai. angkorathom ka beyon mndir dakshin bharat ke mndiron se bahut milata-julata hai. isake shikhar men bhi bharatiy mndiron ke shikharon ki spasht jhalak milati hai. is mndir aur ailora ke kailas mndir ke kalatatv, visheshat: moortikari tatha alekhy vishayon aur drishyon men adbhut samy hai.

knboj ki samajik dasha ka sundar chitran, shoo-tan-kutan ke varnan (13vin sadi ka ant) is prakar hai-

vidvanon ko yahan pnki (pndit), bhikshuon ko shoo-koo (bhikshu) aur brahmanon ko pa-sho-veee (pashupat) kaha jata hai. pndit apane knth men shvet dhaga (ygyopavit) dale rahate hain, jise ve kabhi nahin hatate. bhikshu log sir mudate aur pit vastr pahanate hain. ve mans machhali khate hain par mady nahin pite. unaki pustaken talapatron par likhi jati hain. bauddh bhikshuniyan yahan nahin hai. pashupat apane keshon ko lal ya saphed vastron se dhake rahate hain. knboj ke samany jan shyam rng ke tatha hrishtapusht hain. rajaparivar ki striyan gaur varn hain. sabhi log kati tak sharir vivastr rakhate hain aur nnge panv ghoomate hain. raja patarani ke sath jharokhe men baithakar praja ko darshan deta hai.

likhane ke lie krishn mrig kachamada bhi kam men ata hai. log snan ke bahut premi hain. yahan striyan vyapar ka kam bhi karati hain. gehoon, haldi, chini, resham ke kapade, ranga, chini bartan kagaj adi yahan vyapar ki mukhy vastuen hain.

ganvon men prabndh karane ke lie ek mukhiya ya mayichi rahata hai. sadakon par yatriyon ke vishram karane ke lie avas bane hue hain. (vi.ku.ma.)

knbodiya-knboj ka arvachin nam hai. yah hind chin prayadvip ka ek desh hai jo sanh‌ 1955 ee. men phransisi adhipaty se mukt hua hai. 19vin shatabdi ke poorv yah pradesh khmer rajy ka ang tha kintu 1863 ee. men phransisiyon ke adhipaty men a gaya. dvitiy vishvayuddh men knbodiya par japan ka adhikar tha.

knbodiya ka kshetraphal 1,81,000 varg mil hai. isaki pashchimi aur uttari sima par syam tatha lao aur poorvi sima par dakshini viyatanam desh hain. dakshin-pashchim bhag syam ki khadi ka tat hai. knbodiya tashtari ke akar ki ek ghati hai jise charon or se parvat ghere hue hain. ghati men uttar se dakshin ki or mikang nadi bahati hai. ghati ke pashchimi bhag men tangale namak ek chhichhali aur vistrit jhil hai jo udang nadi dvara mikang se judi huee hai.

knbodiya ki upajaoo mitti aur mausami jalavayu men chaval prachur pariman men hota hai. ab bhi vistrit bhookshetr shramikon ke abhav men krishivihin pade hain. yahan ki any pramukh phasalen tubakoo, kahava, nil aur rabar hain. pashupalan ka vyavasay vikasonmukh hai. paryapt janasnkhya machhali pakadakar apani jivika arjit karati hai. chaval aur machhali knbodiya ki pramukh niryat ki vastuen hain. is desh ka ek vistrit bhag bahumooly vanon se achchhadit hai. mikang aur tonalesap ke sngam par sthit pnaaum pen knbodiya ki rajadhani hai. bade-bade jalayan is nagar tak ate hain. yah nagar knbodiya ki vibhinn bhagon se sadakon dvara juda hai.[2]


tika tippani aur sndarbh

  • aitihasik sthanavali | prishth snkhya= 122-123| vijayendr kumar mathur | vaigyanik tatha takaniki shabdavali ayog | manav snsadhan vikas mntralay, bharat sarakar
  1. basak ke nikat
  2. hindi vishvakosh, khand 2 |prakashak: nagari pracharini sabha, varanasi |snkalan: bharat diskavari pustakalay |prishth snkhya: 357 |

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