मेसोपोटामिया  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

mesopotamiya
mesopotamiya
vivaran 'mesopotamiya' vishv ki sarvadhik prachin sabhyata vala sthan hai. ise kansyayugin sabhyata ka udgam sthal mana jata hai.
sammilit kshetr iraq, uttar-poorvi siriya, dakshin-poorvi turki tatha eeran ka quzestan prant.
snbndhit lekh hammoorabi, hadappa, mohanajodado, chanhoodadon, hadappa samaj aur snskriti, sindhu lipi
any janakari mesopotamiya ke logon ka mukhy vyavasay krishi tha. kumhar ke chak ka prayog sarvapratham isi sabhyata men hua.

mesopotamiya (angrezi: Mesopotamia) prachin sabhyata se juda ek mahattvapoorn ilaqa hai. yah ek kansy yugin sabhyata thi. yah ilaqa dajala[1] aur farat[2] nadiyon ke bich ke kshetr men padata hai. isamen adhunik iraq, uttar-poorvi siriya, dakshin-poorvi turki tatha eeran ka quzestan prant ke kshetr sammilit hain. mesopotamiya ka yoonani arth hai- "do nadiyon ke bich".

kansy yugin sabhyata

yah kansy yugin sabhyata ka udgam sthal mana jata hai. yahan sumer, akkad sabhyata, bebilon tatha asiriya ke samrajy alag-alag samay men sthapit hue the. mesopotamiya hazaron sal tak ek krishi pradhan samaj tha. usake bad hi vah ek adhunik rajy ke roop men ubhara.

itihas

chauthi shatabdi ee. poo. ke ant tak mesopotamiya men rajyon ki sthapana ho chuki thi aur 'dajala aur farat' nadiyan jahan qarib a jati hain, vahan bebilon nagar bas chuka tha. yah ek bada vyaparik nagar tha, jahan badi-badi mndiyan aur godam the. bebilon men 1792 ee. poo. men 'hammoorabi' namaka ek shasak hua tha, jisane 1750 ee. poo. tak shasan kiya. bebilon men apar sampada thi aur hammoorabi ke pas vishal sena. hammoorabi ek-ek kar as-pas ke rajy hastagat karata gaya. apane ap ko vah devata samajhata tha aur is bat ka use bahat garv tha. usane apani praja ke liye ek qanoon snhita banaee thi, jo itihas men 'hammoorabi snhita' ke nam se bahut prasiddh hai.
hammoorabi snhita

ayat niryat

sindhu se mesopotamiya ko niryat ki jane vali vastuon men sooti vastr, imarati lakadi, mashale, hathidant evn pashu-pakshi rahe hogen. ur, kish, lagash, nishpur, tel asmar, tepe, gavara, hama adi mesopotamiya ke nagaron se sindhu sabhyata ki lagabhag ek darjan muharen mili hain. mesepotamiya se sindhu sabhyata ke nagaron dvara ayat ki jane vali vastuon men mohanajodado se prapt haritabh rng ka klorait prastar ka tukada, jis par chataee ki tarah dijain bani hai, ullekhaniy hai. mesopatamiya aur sindhu sabhyata ke bich vyaparik sambandhon ke vishay men abhilekhiy sakshyon ke adhar par yah gyat hota hai ki dilamun se sona, chandi, lajavard, maniky ke manake, hathidant, ki knghi, pashu-pakshi, abhooshan adi ayat kiya jata tha. mesopatamiya men prapt sindhu sabhyata se sambandhit abhilekhon evn muharon par ‘meluha‘ ka zikr milata hai. mesopotamiya men pravesh hetu ‘ur‘ uk mahattvapoorn bandaragah tha. dilamun ki pahachan faras ki khadi ke baharin dvip se ki jati hai. dilamun saindhav vyaparik kendron tatha mesopotamiya ke sath vyapar ka madhyasth bndaragah tha. bharat men lothal se faras ki muharen prapt huee hain. unhonne uttari afaganistan men ek vanijy upanivesh sthapit kiya tha, jisake sahare unaka vyapar madhy eshiya ke sath chalata tha.

mahattvapoorn tathy

british sngrahalay, mesopotamiya
  • mesopotamiya ke logon ka mukhy vyavasay krishi tha. kumhar ke chak ka prayog sarvapratham isi sabhyata men hua.
  • sumeriyan logon ne 'kyoonipharm lipi' vikasit ki thi. sabase pahale ek british aphasar henari raaulinsan ne ise ise padha tha.
  • paithogoras pramey bhi mesopotamiya sabhyata ki hi den hai.
  • is sabhyata ke log khagolavidya men bhi nipun the. in logon ne din aur rat ki lambaee ki ganana ki tatha soory aur chandrama ke uday v ast hone ke samay ki ganana ki.
  • yahan ke khagolavidon ne ek din ko 24 ghanton men banta. unhonne akash ko 12 hisson men banta v pratyek ko ek nam diya. inhen rashiyan kaha gaya. chandr kalaindar bhi inake dvara banaya gaya.
  • aitihasik pramanon se yah siddh hota hai ki samudri marg se sumer, bebilon aur sindhu pradesh ke bich gahare vyapari sambandh the. bhootakal men bharat bhi vanijy snbndhi karyon men bahut prasiddhi prapt kar chuka tha.
  • misr, mesopotamiya aur chin ki arnbhik lipiyan mukhyat: bhav-chitratmak thin.
  • lothal ka bndaragah mahattvapoorn upalabdhiyon men se tha. is bandaragah par misr tatha mesopotamiya se jahaz ate jate the. mesopotamiya ki ek utkirn mudra bhi lothal se mili hai. in pramanon se yah prakat hota hai ki samudri marg se bhi sumer-bebilon aur sindhu pradesh ke bich gahare vyapari sambandh the.
  • isamen sandeh nahin ki hadappa samuday ki shahari abadi men jo arthik vishamata thi, vah lagabhag vargabhed jaisi thi.[3] vhilar ki ray hai ki hadappa aur mesopotamiya ke nivasiyon ke bich das vyapar bhi hua karata tha.[4]
  • yah gyat nahin hai ki apane dainik vyavahar men sindhujan kis lekhan-samagri ka istemal karate the. unake samakalin mesopotamiya ke nivasi ek chhoti kil se gili mitti ke phalakon par akshar ukerate the. ve kilakshar lekh padhe ja chuke hain, parantu sindhu lipi abhi bhi agyey bani huee hai.


inhen bhi dekhen: hadappa, mohanajodado, chanhoodadon, hadappa samaj aur snskriti evn sindhu lipi


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

tika tippani aur sndarbh

  1. tigaris
  2. iyufretis
  3. chaild : d most enashient eest, prishth 175.
  4. vhilar : ‘d indas sivilijeshan’, (sapliment valyoom tu kenbrij histri aauf indiya, I), prishth 94.

snbndhit lekh

varnamala kramanusar lekh khoj

a   a    i    ee    u    oo    e    ai    o   au    an    k   kh    g    gh    n    ch    chh    j    jh    n    t    th    d   dh    n    t    th    d    dh    n    p    ph    b    bh    m    y    r    l    v    sh    sh    s    h    ksh    tr    gy    ri    ri    aau    shr   aah