हड़प्पा समाज और संस्कृति  हिन्दी देवनागरी में पढ़ें।

hadapppa snskriti ki vyapakata evn vikas ko dekhane se aisa lagata hai ki yah sabhyata kisi kendriy shakti se snchalit hoti thi. vaise yah prashn abhi vivad ka vishay bana hua hai, phir bhi choonki hadappavasi vanijy ki or adhik akarshit the, isalie aisa mana jata hai ki sambhavatah hadappa sabhyata ka shasan vanik varg ke hath men tha.

  • hnilar ne sindhu pradesh ke logon ke shasan ko 'madhyam vargiy janatnntratmak shasan' kaha aur usamen dharm ki mahatta ko svikar kiya.
  • stuart piggaaut mahoday ne kaha 'mohanajodadon ka shasan rajatantratmak n hokar janatntratmak' tha.
  • maike ke anusar ‘mohanajodado ka shasan ek pratinidhi shasak ke hathon tha.

saindhav-sabhyata ka vinash

saidhav-sabhyata ke patan ke sndarbh men hnilar ka mat poori tarah se amany ho chuka hai. hariyoopiya ka ullekh jo rigved men prapt hai us hnilar ne hadappa man liya aur kile ko pur aur arya ke devata indr ko purndar (kile ko nasht karane vala) manakar yah siddhant pratipadit kar diya ki saindhav nagaron ka patan aryo ke akraman ke karan hua tha. gyatavy hai ki hnilar ka yah siddhant tabhi khndit ho jata hai jab sindhu-sabhyata ko nagariy sabhyata ghoshit kiya jata hai. mohanajodado se prapt nar knkal kisi ek ki samay ke nahin hai jinamen vyapak narasnhar dyotit ho raha hai.

saidhav-sabhyata ke patan ke vishay men itihasakaron ke mat
mat itihasakar
1- prashasanik shithilata ke karan is sabhyata ka vinash hua. jaaun marshal
2- jalavayu men hue parivartan ke karan yah sabhyata nasht huee. aaurel stain
3- sindhu sabhyata badh ke karan nasht huee. arnest maike evn jaaun marshal
4- bhoo tatvik parivartan ke karan sabhyata nasht huee. em.ar.sahani, ar.el.raiks, jaaurj eph.dels, ech.ti.laimbrik
5- mohanajodado ke logon ki ag lagakar hatya kar di gayi. di.di. kosambi
6- saindhav sabhyata videshi akraman v aryon ke akraman se nasht huee. gardan chaild, martimar hvilar, di.ech.gardan, stuard piggt

arthik sthiti

lothal basti aur nagar ka prasiddh jal snsadhan tntr, parikalpit chitr

krishi

sindhu tatha usaki sahayak nadiyon dvara prati varsh layi gayi upajaoo jalodh mitti kushi hetu mahattvapoorn mani jati thi. in upajaoo maidanon men mukhy roop se gehoon aur jau ki kheti ki jati thin, sindhu ghati ki yahi fasal bhi thi. abhi tak 9 fasalen pahachani gayi hain. chaval keval gujarat, lothal men aur snbhavatah rajasthan men bhi, jau ki do kismen , gehoon ki tin kismen, kapas khajoor, tarabooj matar aur ek aisi kism jise ‘brasik junsi‘ ki sngya di gayi hai. isake atirikt matar, sarason, til evn kapas ki bhi kheti hoti thi. lothal men huee khudaee men dhan tatha bajare ki kheti ke avashesh mile hai.

is samay kheti ke karyo men prastar evn kansy dhatu ke bane aujar prayukt hote the. kalibnga men prakh-saindhav avastha ke ek hal se jute hue khet ka sakshy mila hai. banavali men mitti ka bana hua ek khilauna mila hai. aisa pratit hota hai ki hadappa ke log lakadi ke hal ka prayog karate the. sambhavatah hadappa sabhyata ke log hi sarvapratham kapas ugana prarambh kiye. isilie yoonani logon ne is pradesh ko ‘sidon‘ kaha. lothal se ata pisane ki patthar ki chakki ke do pat mile hain. ped-paudhon men pipal, khajoor, nim, niboo evn kela sakshy mile hain.

pashupalan

mukhy palatoo pashuon men diladar evn bina dil vale bail, bhains, gay, bhed-bakari, kutte, gadhe, khachchar aur suar adi hai. hathi aur ghode palane ke sakshy pramanit nahin ho sake hain. lothal evn rngapur se ghodi ki mrinmoortiyon ke avashesh mile hain. soorakotada se saindhav kalin ghode ki asthipnjar ke avashesh mile hain. kuchh pashu-pakshiyon, jaise bandar, kharagosh, hiran, murga, mor, tota, ulloo ke avashesh khilaunon aur moortiyon ke roop men mile hain.

shilp evn udyog dhandhe

is samay tanbe men tin milakar kansa taiyar kiya jata tha. tanba rajasthan ke khetadi se, tin afaganistan se mngaya jata tha. sambhavatah kaseron (kansy shilpiyon) ka samaj men mahattvapoorn sthan tha. kaseron ke atirikt rajagiron evn abhooshan nirmataon ka samuday bhi sakriy tha. saindhav sabhyata men sooti vastr ka ullekh milata hai.

  • mohanajodado se majitha se lal rng rnge huye kapade ke avashesh chandi ke bartan men paye gaye the. tanbe ke do upakaranon men lipata hua sooti kapada evn sooti dhage bhi mohanajodado se prapt huye the.
  • mohanajodado se bane hue sooti kapade ki chhap mili hai.
  • kalibnga se mile mitti ke bartan ke ek tukade par sooti kapade ki chhap mili hai. kalibnga se mile mitti ke bartan lipata hue ek ustara bhi mila hai.
  • lothal se prapt mudrank par sooti vastron chhap mili hai.
  • alamagirapur se prapt mitti ki ek nand par bune hue vastr ke nishan mile hain.
  • mohanajodadon se prapt purohit ki prastar moortiyon tipatiya alnkaran yukt shal odhe hue hain.
sindh men mohanajodado men hadappa snskriti ke avashesh

isase spasht hota hai ki sindhu sabhyata men vastron par kadhaee ka kam bhi hota tha. in sakshyon ke adhar par aisa lagata hai ki is samay sooti vastr evn bunaee udyog kafi vikasit tha. kataee men prayog hone vali takaliyon ke bhi praman mile hain. is samay ke mahattvapoorn shilpon men mudra nirman evn moorti ka nirman sammilit hai. is sabhyata ke logon dvara nav banane ke bhi sakshy mile hain. is samay banane vale sone, chandi ke abhooshanon ke lie sona, chandi sambhavatah afaganistan se evn ratn dakshin bharat se mngaya jata tha. is samay kumhar ke chak se nirmit mridabhand kafi prachalit the, jin par gadhi lal chikani mitti par kale rng jyamitiy evn sisa ka unhen gyan tha. in dhatuon se vibhinn prakar ke abhooshan evn upnkaran banae jate the. khudaee men tanbe-kanse ke upakaran adhik matra men mile hain. chanhoodadon tatha lothal men manake banane ka kary hota tha. chanhudadon men selakhadi muharen tatha chart k batakhare bhi taiyar kiy jate the. balakot tatha lothal men sip udyog apane vikasit avastha men tha.

vyapar evn vanijy

hadappaee log sindhu sabhyata ke kshetr ke bhitar patthar, dhatu shalk adi ka vyapar karate the, lekin ve jo vastuen banate the usake lie apekshit kachcha mal unake nagaron men upalabdh nahin tha. atah unhen bahy deshon se vyaparik sampark sthapit karana padata tha. taiyar mal ki khapat ki avashyakata ne vyaparik snbndho ko pragadh banaya. vyapar men dhatu ke sikkon ka prayog nahin karate the varanh vastu vinimay pranali par hi unake vyapar adharit the. vyaparik vastuo ki ganthon par shilpiyon evn vyapariyon dvara apani muhar ki chhap thi tatha doosari or bheje jane vale ka nishan ankit tha. bat-map evn nap tol ka vyaparik kary men mahattvapoorn yogadan hai. mohanajodado, hadappa, lothal evn kalibnga men prayukt baton ki taul ka anupat 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 160, 200, 320 adi tha. bat dhanakar, vartulakar, belanakar, shnkvakar evn dholakar the. taul ki ikaee snbhavatah 16 anupat men thi. mohanajodadon se sip ka tatha lothal se hanthi dant ka nirmit ek-ek paimana mila hai.

yatayat

saidhav sabhyata ke log yatayat ke roop men do pahiyon evn char pahiyon vali bailagadi athava bhaisagadi ka upayog karate the. unaki bailagadi men prayukt pahiye thos akar ke hote the. mohanajodado se prapt ek muhar par ankit nav ka chitrevn lothal se mitti ki khilauna nav se yah anuman lagaya ja sakata hai ki is sabhyata ke lok antarik evn bahy vyapar men mastool vali navon ka upayog karate the. hadappa sabhyata ke logon ka vyaparik sambandh rajasthan, afaganistan, eeran evn madhy eshiya ke sath tha. hadappavasi lajavard mani ka ayat afaganistan se karate the. udyog dhandhon evn shilp karyo ke lie kachcha mal gujarat, sindhu, rajasthan, dakshini bharat, baloochistan adi kshetron se mngaya jata tha. isake atirikt afaganistan, soviyat turkamaniya tatha mesopatamiya adi se bhi kachcha mal mngaya jata tha. manake banane ke lie 'gomed' gujarat se mngaya jata tha. phlint tatha chart ke prastar-khand pakistan ke sindh kshetr men sthit rodi tatha sukkur ki khadanon se mngaya jata tha. tanba rajasthan ke jhunajhun zile men sthit khetadi (khetri) ki khanon se mngaya jata tha. sona karnatak ke kolar ki khanon se milata tha.

ayat niryat

ayat kiya gaya kachcha mal
kachcha mal kshetr
1- tin afaganistan, eeran
2- tanba khetadi, rajasthan, baloochistan
3- chandi eeran, afaganistan
4- sona afaganistan, faras, dakshini bharat
5- lajavard mesapotamiya
6- selakhadi baloochistan, rajasthan, gujarat
7- nilaratn badakhkshan
8- nilamani maharashtr
9- haritamani dakshin eshiya
10- shnkh evn kaudiyan saurashtr, dakshini bharat
11- sisa eeran, afaganistan, rajasthan
12- shilajit himalay kshetr

lajarvad ev chandi afaganistan se ayat ki jati thi. afaganistan ka vadakkshan kshetr lajarvad ke lie prasidv tha. afaganistan men sthit shortaguee namak sthan tak sindhu sabhyata ka prasar milata hai. isake atirikt anyatha nahin mila hai, isalie shortaguee do madhyavarti vyaparik basti mana ja sakata hai. eeran se sngayashav athava haritasham, firoza, tin tatha chandi ayat ki jati thi. sindhu se mesopotamiya ko niryat ki jane vali vastuon men sooti vastr, imarati lakadi, mashale, hathidant evn pashu-pakshi rahe hogen. ur, kish, lagash, nishpur, tel asmar, tepe, gavara, hama adi mesopotamiya ke nagaron se sindhu sabhyata ki lagabhag ek darjan muharen mili hain. mesopotamiya sabhyata ke nagaron se sindhu sabhyata ki lagabhag ek darjan muharen mili hain. mesepotamiya se sindhu sabhyata ke nagaron dvara ayat ki jane vali vastuon men mohanajodado se prapt haritabh rng ka klorait prastar ka tukada jis par chataee ki tarah dijain bani hai, ullekhaniy hai. mesopatamiya aur sindhu sabhyata ke bich vyaparik sambandhon ke vishay men abhilekhiy sakshyon ke adhar par yah gyat hota hai ki dilamun se sona, chandi, lajavard, maniky ke manake, hathidant, ki knghi, pashu-pakshi, abhooshan adi ayat kiya jata tha. mesopatamiya men prapt sindhu sabhyata se sambandhit abhilekhon evn muharon par ‘meluha‘ ka zikr milata hai. meluha sindh kshetr ka hi prachin bhag hai. dilamun evn makan vyaparik kendr meluha sindh kshetr ka hi prachin bhag hai. mesopotamiya men pravesh hetu ‘ur‘ uk mahattvapoorn bandaragah tha. dilamun ki pahachan pharas ki khadi ke baharin dvip se ki jati hai. dilamun saindhav vyaparik kendron tatha mesopotamiya ke sath vyapar ka madhyasth bndaragah tha. bharat men lothal se pharas ki muharen prapt huee hain. unhonne uttari afaganistan men ek vanijy upanivesh sthapit kiya tha jisake sahare unaka vyapar madhy eshiya ke sath chalata tha.

rajanitik sthiti

hadapppa snskriti ki vyapakata evn vikas ko dekhane se aisa lagata hai ki yah sabhyata kisi kendriy shakti se snchalit hoti thi. vaise yah prashn abhi vivad ka vishay bana hua hai, phir bhi choonki hadappavasi vanijy ki or adhik akarshit the, isalie aisa mana jata hai ki sambhavatah hadappa sabhyata ka shasan vanik varg ke hath men tha.

sindhu ghati sabhyata men sthit ek kuan aur snan ghar
  • hnilar ne sindhu pradesh ke logon ke shasan ko ‘madhyam vargiy janatnntratmak shasan kaha aur usamen dharm ki mahatta ko svikar kiya.
  • stuart piggaaut mahoday ne kaha ‘mohanajodadon ka shasan rajatantratmak n hokar janatntratmak tha.
  • maike ke anusar ‘mohanajodadon ka shasan ek pratinidhi shasak ke hathon tha.

dharmik jivan

hadappa sabhyata ke dharmik jivan ke bare men hamen adhikansh janakari puratatvik sroton - jaise moortiyon, muharen, mridbhannd, patthar tatha any padartho se nirmit ling tatha chakr ki akriti, tamr phalak, qabristan adi se milati hai. hadappa snskriti men kahi se kisi bhi mndir ke avashesh nahin mile hai. mohanajodado evn hadappa se bhari matra men mili mitti ki mrinmoortiyon men se ek stri mrinmoorti ke garbh se ek paudha nikalata hua dikhaya gaya hai, isase yah maloom hota hai ki hadappa sabhyata ke log dharati ko urvarata ki devi man kar isaki pooja kiya karate the. mohanajodado se prapt ek sil par tin mukh vala ek purush dhyan ki mudra men baitha hua hai. usake sir tan sing hain, usake bayi or ek gainda aur bhaisa hai tatha danyi or ek hathi, ek vyaghr evn hiran hai. is chitr se aisa pratit hota hai aj ke bhagavan shiv ki pooja us samay ‘pashupati‘ ke roop men hoti rahi hogi. hadappa ke bhagavan shiv ki pooja us samay ke ‘pashupati‘ ki roop men hoti rahi hogi. hadappa evn mohanajodado se mile patthar ke bane ling aur yoni se unaki pooja ke prachalan men hone ka bhi praman mila hai. vrikshapooja ke praman mohanajodado se prapt ek sil par bane hone ka praman bhi milata hai. vrikshapooja ke praman mohanajodado se prapt ek sil par bane pipal ki dalon ke madhy dalon ke madhy devata se milata hai. pashuon men koobad vala sand is sabhyata ke logon ke lie vishesh poojyaniy tha. adhik matra men mili tabizon se aisa lagata hai ki sindhu sabhyata ke log bhoot-pret evn tntr-mntr men bhi vishvas karate the. nag pooja ke bhi praman mile hain. lothal evn kalibnga se havan kundon evn ygyvediyon ka upalabdh hona agni pooja ke prachalan ka praman prastut karata hai. hadappa ke logon men jo dharmik riti-rivaj prachalit the, unamen se kuchh aj bhi hinduon men pae jate hain. mang men sindoor bharata vivahit hindoo striyon ke lie suhag ka pratik hai. hadappa se prapt ek mitti ki patti par ek mahish ygy ka drishy chitrit hai, jo hamen mahishasur-mardini ki yad dilata hai. chalak lomade aur pyase kauve ki kahaniyan hadappa ke kalashon par chitrit hain.

samajik jivan

stri mrinamoortiyan adhik milane se aisa anuman lagaya jata hai ki saindhav samaj matrisattatmak tha. is sabhyata ke log yuddh priy kam, shantipriy adhik the. bhojan ke roop men sabhyata ke log gehoon, jau, khajoor evn bhed, suar, machhali ke mans khate the. ghar men bartan ke roop men mitti evn dhatu ke bane kalash, thali, katore, tashtari, gilas evn chammach ka prayog karate the. vastr ke roop men sooti evn ooni donon prakar ke vastr ka prayog hone ke sakshy mile hai. purush varg dadhi evn moochhon ka shauqin tha. khudaee ke samay tanbe ke nirmit darpan, knghe evn ustare mile hain.
mohanajodado ke avashesh
abhooshanon men kanthar, bhujabandh, karnaphool, chhalle, choodiyan, (kalibnga se prapt), karaghani, payajeb adi aise abhooshan mile hain, jinhen stri aur purush pahanate the. manornjan ke sadhanon men machhali pakadana, shikar karana, pashu-pakshiyon ko apas men ladana, chaupad, pasa khelana adi shamil the. shavon ki antyeshti snskar men tin prakar ke shavatsarg ke praman mile hain-
  1. poorn samadhikaran men sampoorn shav ko bhoomi men daphana diya jata tha.
  2. anshik samadhikaran men pashu pakshiyon ke khane ke bad bache shesh bhag ko bhoomi men daphana diya jata tha.
  3. dah snskar men shav ko poorn roop se jala kar usaki bhasm ko bhoomi men gada jata tha.

hadappa durg ke dakshin-pashchim men sthit qabristan ko ech0 qabristan ka nam diya jata hai. lothal men prapt ek qabr men shav ka sir poorv evn pakhchim ki or evn shav sharir karavat lie hue litaya gaya hai. yahi se ek qabr men do shav apas mn lipate hue mile hain. surakotada se andakar shav ke avashesh mile hain. roopanagar (ropad) ki ek qabr men malik ke sath kutte ke bhi avashesh mile hain. mohanajodadon ke antim star se prapt kuchh samoohik nar knkalon evn kue ki sidhiyon par pade stri ke bal se martimar vhilar ne yah anuman lagaya hai ki ye naraknkal kisi bahy akraman ke shikar hue logon ke hain, kintu amerika ke prasiddh puravid jaaurj eph.vels isase sahamat nahin hai. unaka kahana hai ki ye naraknkal sindhu sabhyata ke paravarti charan se to sambandhit hain kintu antim charan se sambandhit nahin hai. amerika ke ke.yu.ar. kainedi ne in nar knkalon ka adhyayan karake yah nishkarsh nikala hai ki inamen ek vyakti ki mrityu chot ke karan tatha shesh ki mahamari ke karan huee thi. aisi sthiti men barbar akraman ki bat uchit nahin dikhati ki kisi videshi akraman se is nagar ka patan hua.


panne ki pragati avastha
adhar
prarambhik
madhyamik
poornata
shodh

snbndhit lekh


tika tippani aur sndarbh

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